Use of technology in achieving social progress

We live in an “ information society ” , where power and wealth progressively depend on information and cognition as cardinal assets. Like other engineerings, the Internet and e-commerce can be used to accomplish societal advancement, and for the most portion, this has occurred. However, the same engineerings can be used to perpetrate offenses, despoil the environment, and endanger cherished societal values. E-commerce has raised so many ethical, societal, and political issues. We will concentrate to one issue of information privateness.

Information privateness includes: ( 1 ) certain information should non be collected at all by authoritiess or concern houses, ( 2 ) persons should command the usage of whatever information that is collected about them. As we know, e-commerce sites routinely collect a assortment of information from or about consumers who visit their site and/or make purchases. There are some sort of information about consumers: name, reference, phone figure, email reference, bank histories, recognition card histories, gender, age, business, instruction, penchant informations, dealing informations, clickstream informations, browser type, etc, … Ad webs and hunt engines besides track the behaviour of consumers across many sites, via cookies, spyware, and other techniques. There are some of the major ways online houses gather information about consumers: cookies, spyware, hunt engine, shopping carts, signifiers, site dealing log, etc, …

In order to protect privateness right of clients the legal protections and engineering protections may be used. In United Stated, in add-on to common jurisprudence and the Constitution, many federal Torahs and province Torahs protect persons against authorities invasions and organisations invasions. There are besides a figure of privacy-enhancing engineerings for protecting user privateness during interaction with web sites. Most of these tools emphasize security – the ability of persons to protect their communications and files from illicit snoopers.

Question II:

Intellectual belongings encompasses all the touchable and intangible merchandises of the human head. As general regulation, the Godhead of rational belongings owns it. But one time rational works become digital, it becomes hard to command entree, usage, distribution, and copying. Digital media differ from of books in footings of easiness of reproduction, transmittal, and change ; concentration ; and trouble in set uping singularity. The major ethical issue related to e-commerce and rational belongings concerns how we should handle belongings that belongs to other.

There are three chief types of rational belongings protection: right of first publication, patent, and hallmark jurisprudence. The end of rational belongings jurisprudence is to equilibrate two viing involvements – the populace and the private. The public involvement is served by creative activity and distribution of any signifiers of rational look. The private involvement is served by honoring people for making these plants. Keeping this balance of involvements is ever challenged by the innovation of new engineerings.

Copyright jurisprudence protects original signifiers of look such as authorship, art, drawing, music, films, … and computing machine plans from being copied by others for a lower limit of 70 old ages. Copyright does non protect thoughts – merely their look in a touchable medium such as paper, cassette tape, or handwritten notes. Copyright protection is distinct: it protects against copying of full plans or their parts. However the philosophy of just usage permits instructors and authors to utilize copyrighted stuffs without permission under certain fortunes ( for illustration: not-for-profit or instruction usage ) .

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Question Three:

Online retail sector is the smallest section of the retail industry. It constitutes merely 3 % of the entire retail market today. However it is go oning to turn at a fast rate ( 14 % one-year ) . Harmonizing to Laudon ( 2009 ) , major tendencies in on-line retail are following: ( 1 ) societal shopping ; ( 2 ) progressively profitable operations through gross ; ( 3 ) purchasing online becomes a normal, mundane experience ; ( 4 ) addition on-line retail of luxury goods ; ( 5 ) mean one-year sum of online purchases continues to increase ; ( 6 ) easiness of pilotage and usage ; ( 7 ) usage of synergistic multimedia selling engineerings and Web 2.0 ; ( 8 ) Retail mediators strengthen in many countries ; ( 9 ) incorporating multiple retailing channels ; ( 10 ) personalise goods ; ( 11 ) more than half of on-line shopping and about a 3rd of on-line purchases occur at work.

Online retail is the most high-profile sector of e-commerce on the Web. Many companies believed that it was easy to come in the retail market. The Internet greatly reduced both hunt costs and dealing costs. Consumers would utilize the Internet to happen the lowest-cost merchandises. The entry cost to the on-line retail market were much less than those needed to set up physical shopfronts. In some industries the market would be disintermediated. For most consumers, the advantages of shopping on the Web overcome the disadvantages. There are some advantages to online retail: ( 1 ) lower supply concatenation costs ; ( 2 ) lower cost of distribution ; ( 3 ) geographical distributed clients ; ( 4 ) Ability to respond rapidly to client gustatory sensations and demand ; ( 5 ) chance of personalization, customization ; ( 6 ) lower dealing costs. However there are some advantages to online retail: security, privateness, hold in bringing of goods, trust in online trade name name.

Question Four:

Media convergence is includes three dimensions ; engineering, content, and industry ‘s construction. In short, for the consumer, convergence agencies being able to acquire any content you want, when you want it, and on whatever platform you want it.

Technological convergence means development of intercrossed devices that can unite the functionality of two or more existing media platforms such as books, newspapers, telecasting, wireless, and two-channel equipment, into a individual device. For illustration, iPhone combines music, picture, Internet, Wi-Fi, exposure, text, and media services.

Contented convergence has three facets: design, production, and distribution. Design aspect means content created in older media engineering migrates to the new engineering mostly integral, with small artistic alteration. Production facet means making content on digital devices so that it can be delivered on multiple digital platforms. On the distribution facet, it is of import that distributers and consumers have the devices needed to have, shop, and see the merchandise. For illustration: Books – & gt ; books on.pdf format – & gt ; synergistic e-books – & gt ; new devices.

Industry convergence refers to the merge of media endeavors into powerful combinations that can administer content on many different platforms and make new plants that use multiple platforms. In the terminal, consumer ‘s demands for content anyplace, anytime, and with any device is forcing all the engineering and content companies towards convergent experiences.

Question Volts:

Auctions are markets in which monetary values are variable and based on the competition among the purchasers of products/services and the Sellerss of products/services. Auctions besides called as dynamic pricing, in which the monetary value of the merchandise varies, depending straight on the demand features of the client and the supply state of affairs of the marketer.

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Internet auctions are really popular because they have many benefits: ( 1 ) liquidness – Sellerss and purchasers can happen each other easy ; ( 2 ) monetary value find – monetary values are easy developed ; ( 3 ) monetary value transparence – everyone can fall in the auctions ; ( 4 ) market efficiency – monetary values are reduced ; ( 5 ) lower dealing costs ; ( 6 ) consumer collection – the big figure of consumers ; ( 7 ) and web effects.

There are four major Internet auction types: English Auction ( for illustration: eBay ) , Dutch-internet ( for illustration: eBay Dutch Auction ) , Group Buying ( for illustration: eSwam ) , and Name Your Own Price ( for illustration: Priceline ) . The features of English Auction are: Public rise monetary value, individual unit, highest bidder wins at a highest monetary value, purchasers can jump command at each monetary value, but return at higher monetary value, marketer prejudice. Dutch Internet Auction means public go uping monetary value, multiple unit auction, concluding monetary value is last successful command, which sets monetary value for all higher bidders, marketer prejudice. Group purchasing: public contrary auction, multiple units, falling monetary values, purchasers bid on monetary value per unit and units, groups of Sellerss bid on monetary value, winning command is last monetary value supplier, purchaser prejudice. Name You Own Monetary value: similar to a rearward auction except the monetary value the consumer is willing to pay is fixed and the monetary value offered is nonpublic, requires a committedness to buy at foremost offered monetary value, purchaser prejudice.

Question Sixs:

Harmonizing to Laudon ( 2009 ) , societal webs involve a group of people shared societal interaction common ties among members and people who portion an country for some period of clip. Online societal web is an country online, where people portion common ties can interact with one another. Early networking sites relied on subscriptions but today societal webs rely on advertisement.

There are different types of on-line societal webs: ( 1 ) General communities ; ( 2 ) Practice webs ; ( 3 ) Interest-based societal webs ; ( 4 ) Affinity communities ; ( 5 ) and Sponsored communities.

General communities are on-line societal topographic point to run into and socialise with friends, portion agendas, content, and involvement. For illustration: Facebook and MySpace.

Practice webs are societal webs of professionals and practicians, Godheads of artefacts such as music or computing machine codification. For illustration: Linkedln ( concern ) and JustPlainFolks ( music ) .

Interest-based societal webs are communities built around a common involvement, such as games, athletics, political relations, finance, and etc… For illustration: SocialPicks ( stock market ) .

Affinity communities offer members focused treatments and interaction with other people who portion the same affinity. Affinity members self-identify with demographic or geographic class, such as adult females, Asiatic Americans. For illustration: BlackPlanet ( African American community ) .

Sponsored communities are created by commercial, non-profit-making, or authorities organisations for a assortment of intents. For illustration: IBM, Nike.

Social webs have develop package applications that allow users to prosecute in a figure of activities. In the hereafter, browsers, portals like Yahoo or Google, and general web site will hold societal networking functionality built in, doing it less necessary that you go to a societal web site, and more likely that societal networking will come to you.

Question Sevens:

The procurance procedure is the manner companies purchase the goods they need to bring forth goods for consumers. Normally, companies purchase goods from a set of providers, and they in bend purchase their inputs from a set of providers. This set of providers with their relationships among them is linked through a series of minutess called supply concatenation.

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The procurance procedure is a drawn-out and complicated series of stairss that involves the Sellerss, purchasers, and transporting companies in a series of affiliated minutess. There are 7 basic stairss in the procurement procedure: Search, Qualify, Negotiate, Purchase order, Invoicing, Shipping, and Remittance payment.

Search: Searching for providers of specific merchandises. The purchasers will utilize catalogs, Internet, Brochures, Telephone and Fax to happen the necessary providers.

Qualify: Qualifying both the marketer and the merchandises they sell. The purchasers should make research marketer ‘s recognition history, cheque with the rivals. They may besides utilize telephone research to measure up marketer and merchandises.

Negotiate: Negotiate monetary values, recognition footings, escrow demands, quality, and programming of bringing. This is really of import measure and purchasers should hold adequate experiences to make it successfully.

Buying order: In this measure, after the dialogue, the purchasers should make full the purchase order ( PO ) and enter into system mail PO.

Invoicing: After having the PO the Sellerss will work with fiscal, production, and warehouse systems for transporting readying.

Transportation: the Sellerss use shipper ‘s system to transport the goods harmonizing to PO. The purchasers may utilize shipper ‘s tracking system to supervise goods tracking.

Remittance Payment: The purchasers receive goods. Check goods utilizing bill, contract, and give paperss to make PO payment.

All these stairss in procurement procedure must recorded in information systems of the Sellerss, purchasers, and shippers in order to recheck subsequently.

Question Eights:

Supply concatenation direction systems refer to a broad assortment of activities that companies and industries use to organize the key participants in their procurance procedure. There are four major developments in supply concatenation direction: supply concatenation simplification, electronic informations interchange, supply concatenation direction systems, and collaborative commercialism.

Supply concatenation simplification has the end to cut down the size of their supply ironss and working more closely with a smaller group of strategic provider companies to cut down both merchandise cost and administrative costs, while bettering quality. Alternatively of unfastened command for orders, big makers have chosen to work with strategic spouse supply houses under long-run contracts that guarantee the provider concern, but besides set up quality, cost, and clocking ends. The tight yoke is common. The tight yoke is a method for guaranting that providers exactly deliver the ordered parts at specific clip and to a peculiar location, to guarantee the production procedure is non interrupted for deficiency of parts.

Collaborative commercialism is a direct extension of supply concatenation simplification. Collaborative commercialism refers to utilizing of digital engineerings to allow organisations to collaboratively plan, construct, and manage merchandises through their life rhythms. Collaborative commercialism involve a unequivocal move from a dealing focal point to a relationship focal point among the supply chin participants.

A collaborative commercialism application includes a cardinal information depository where employees at several different houses can hive away technology drawings and other paperss. A workflow engine determines who can see this information and what regulations will use for exposing the information on single workstations. A spectator can be a browser runing on a workstation.