In this assignment. there is a instance illustration of Solution-focused Practice with grounds based. There are three theories which are function. activity and continuity to back up the pattern. Introduction
Solution-focused Practice is a comparatively new therapy which is merely turning into a well-developed guidance theoretical account within these 20 old ages but at that place do non hold much information about working this therapy with the aged. There are many literatures about SFT working on different services groups like eating upsets individual ( McFarland 1995 ) . long-run psychiatric patients ( Rowan and O’Hanlon 1999 ) . kids ( Selekman 1997 ) . and the twosome relationship ( Hoyt and Berg 1998 ; Hudson and O’Hanlon 1991 ; Quick 1966 ) . Particularly with the aging population. this is one of the efficient and fast guidance methods to assist clients to work out their jobs. In this essay. three chief theories which are function. activity and continuity will utilize for back uping as an evidenced based and assisting to explicate what factors might take to the senior originate some jobs. Then. it will take Mr. Poon as a instance survey to exemplify the whole procedure of SFT which will include intercession accomplishment and oppugning schemes. The moralss issue that may originate from the pattern will. besides. be discussed. Some suggestions is given which assist to foster lucubrate how can SFT be more sagely usage in the aged filed. Case background
Mr. Poon is a 61-year old gentleman who retired for over a twelvemonth. He has a married woman. two kids and two grandchildren. After a twelvemonth subsequently. now. he is found that his retired life is non every bit good as his though when he was still working. He thinks his retired life is deadening and meaningless. Recently. he does non kip good and lose weight. Therefore. he came to happen us to assist with his state of affairs and hoped that he could alter his retirement life. The purpose of Mr. Poon to happen us is to allow us assist with his state of affairs and hoped that he could alter his retirement life. Informed consent
Informed consent is the procedure by which the service supplier discloses appropriate information to a competent client so that the client may do a voluntary pick to accept or decline research ( Appelbaum. 2007 ) . Informed consent should subscribe before a survey began. During the research procedure. we may inquire some in depth inquiries that may necessitate a batch of sensitive subjects that patients may non desire to uncover to others. The determination of interview analysis may print to the populace or establishments. Therefore. participants can make up one’s mind whether they should fall in the research or non after explanting what is the research context and where the analysis is traveling to be publish. To make this. it can give a clear focal point on coming survey and have a psychological readying to the client before it started. Signing an informed consent. it can offer some rights to the participants. First. this implies all the privateness of research topics can hold a legal position to protect and hold the right to action the research workers if the research workers do anything that is excluded from the informed consent to modulate the research procedure. It helps to higher the confidentiality. Second. it provides a right to the participants can be withdrawn out from the survey at any clip if they do non experience right about the research. Third. they have right to take to unwrap their name or non like utilizing an anon. name or existent name. Therefore. it is a must to subscribe informed consent before any research or interview with the participants to protect them. Appraisal
Hoping to assist Mr. Poon to alter his retirement life as possible. it is of import to hold an appraisal that is supported by the grounds base. In this instance. Mr. Poon has stepped into the following phase of his life. and it is named as ‘aging. ’ In this phase. it has brought him into some new experiences like taking attention of grandchildren. holding excess spared clip or going about. etc… Harmonizing to McInnis-Dittrich ( 2005 ) . societal theories of aging can assist to supply descriptions of assorted ways of the societal scientist have observed or speculated that seniors adapt to the societal environment around them. It can. besides. supply a general thought of apprehension of the senior clients before we started to make existent intercessions Role Theory
The most general theory to explicate how seniors adjust to aging as a societal function is function theory ( Cavan. Burges. Havighurst & A ; Goldhammer. 1949 ; Phillips. 1957 ) . Functions are sets of expected behaviors forms defined by an individual’s relationship to another individual or societal establishment ( McInnis-Dittrich. 2005 ) . It assumes that life is defined as different functions. The qualities of elders’ accommodation relied on the ability of traveling their ain functions identified from one phase to another phase while they are aging. Functions that may associate to the in-between age may be parent. worker. partner. and activity community member. For the senior. those functions will be changed to tie in with age related functions. for case grandparent. retired person and widow. During the aging. seniors may lose their functions in in-between age and derive new 1s. A person’s self-pride and societal individuality are combined with one’s societal function. Harmonizing to the function theory. a successful ripening is accomplished to travel from one set of function to those appropriate to their age norms. Dissatisfaction with the aging procedure develops when people are unable to do this displacement or can non place new functions to replace the olds ( Havighurst & A ; Albrecht. 1953 ) . In this Case. Mr. Poon has non completed traveling to his aged functions.
Mr. Poon was a difficult working employee before he retired. He could hold the satisfaction on work and do usage of his endowment on word processing. Now. he does non necessitate to work and remain place. He merely aimlessly walks around to be his ‘work. ’ The loss of this function let him experience that he is non well-functioning as he was. therefore lead to low degree of well-being with function exist ( Thoits. 1992 ) . Besides. his function of grandparent is defined by the relationship to his grandchildren. His grandchildren are still yearlings. He is merely able to see them when his senior boy and daughter-in-law who were required to work on the yearss and take attention of them. without well-formulated relationship with his grndchildren. at he can non carry through his function on gramps and created a dissatisfaction of his life. Inversely. if he can able to hammer his new function with the important others in society predicts. he will accommodate to his old age ( McInnis-Dittrich. 2005 ) . Activity Theory
It is predicts that seniors who maintain active and common relationship with their environment are those most likely to age successfully ( Maddox 1966 ; Spence. 1975 ) . “Elders who travel. work portion clip. or take part in a broad scope of societal activities find old age a rewarding and hearty clip in their lives. If seniors with-drawn from societal activities. they are more likely to go down and disgruntled with old age” ( McInnis-Dittrich. 2005. P. 75 ) . It is same as function theory. the grade of satisfaction of the seniors are relied on themselves. In 2011. there was a new research that extends activity theory by showing that uniting effortful activities with reposeful activities leads to greater felicity among seniors ( Oerlemans et al. 2011 ) . In this survey. there were 438 participants completed a monthly electronic diary study over a 2-yaer period. bring forthing 79. 181 reported activities and fleeting felicity tonss. The consequences show that happiness addition when elder combine attempt societal. physical. cognitive and family activities which is positive related relationship.
Besides. engagement in societal activities mediated the direct relationship between extroversion and felicity. Furthermore. persons who score high on extroversion derive greater felicity from societal activities compared with low extrovert opposite numbers. It is pointed out that the thought of personality is of import in placing which types of activities will better the wellbeing of seniors ( Eysenck. 1981 ) . In this instance. Mr. Poon is non willing to fall in aged centres because he thought they were merely for adult females and there were tonss of chitchat. Besides. he does non desire to remain at the park to chew the fat and play cheat at that place like the others seniors. Then. his married woman invitation on playing mahjong and shopping is refused by him because he though this is blowing his clip. There are many opportunities to allow him to affect in different sort of societal activities but he refused all. He is deficiency of motive to seek new things but he at least has his ain idea on his wants. Continuity Theory
Stated at the continuity theory. seniors and society menu best when seniors continue a consistent degree of activity throughout their lives ( Atchley. 2000 ) . Atchley ( 1989 ) has foremost proposed a theoretical account of retirement that includes six stages. Then. he farther extend to eight stages to explicate which are the preretirement stage. the honeymoon stage. immediate retirement modus operandi. remainder and relaxation. the disenchantment stage. the reorientation stage. the stableness stage. and the terminal stage. This theoretical account can assist to explicate Mr. Poon’s state of affairs. Harmonizing to the theoretical account. the 2nd stage is the honeymoon stage. This stage is occurs when the senior is really retired. One will bask a batch on the free clip. The senior can make whatever they want. such as making horticulture. going. or something wanted to make for old ages. At the beginning. Mr. Poon does bask holding forenoon tea. garnering with old friends. and going around with his married woman which he desired to make before.
But now he is kicking about nil to make in his day-to-day clip which means he is traveling through the disenchantment stage. In this stage. retired person begins to experience down about life and deficiency of things to make ( Meleis. 2010 ) . After the travelling. cleansing and making the things most coveted. seniors may acquire tired and bored. A twelvemonth subsequently he is get downing to experience that he is deficiency of things to make and he does non hold specifics involvements or ain societal web. Intervention end
With the above theories. they assist us to cognize more about the aged on how ageing affected them. Furthermore. they can demo that if the aged continue a consistent degree of activity and actively take part throughout their lives. seniors will easier adapt to their ripening. Although during the first subdivision the SFP Social worker will work together with the client to construct up their solution. initial intercession ends are needed to allow us more focal point on what solutions can assist with the client to work out the job and near to their desire result. With the above theories. it may assist Mr. Poon to work out his job by allowing him to make more activities. Developing at least one involvement may be one of the methods to better his retirement life. The suggested intercession ends may be following: 1. Develop at least one involvement that he and his married woman both like to increase their figure of communicating. A ) Mr. Poon will hold an involvement to use his clip.
B ) Mr. Poon will develop a closer relationship with his married woman by holding common involvement.
Solution-focused Practice is suited for his instance to alter his retirement life. It is embracing basic regulations and premises about alteration. interaction and end scene ( Walter and Peller. 1992 ) . Solution-focused pattern seeks to utilize clients’ ain life experiences and strengths in happening a way towards desired future ( De Jong and Berg. 2008 ) . Social worker will move as an enabler ( Karla 2011 ) to authorise clients in happening solutions. It is assumed that clients have their ain ability to happen solution to work out the job. The client is the experts of their experiences. They can happen the best fit solution to self-determinate. With preliminary information of Mr. Poon. it is noticed that he wants to alter his drilling and meaningless retired life. The solution-focus pattern will be best tantrum for his wants. The curative end is to halt to neglect effort job resolution by believing exterior of the box. De Jong and Berg ( 2008. pp. 17-18 ) have identified five phases in the solution-building procedure which are: 1 ) Describe the job
2 ) Develop good formulated ends
3 ) Explore exclusions
4 ) End-of session feedback
5 ) Evaluate client advancement
It does non hold clip limited in the sense of offering contracts for a fixed Numberss of Sessionss. De Shazer ( 1996 ) studies that. on norm. clients at the Brief Family Therapy Centre where in Milwaukeee who required for three Sessionss for reding. Furthermore Cade and O’ Hanlon ( 1993 ) province that therapy should stop every bit shortly as possible. In add-on. this guideline is merely supplying us a general thought of how we can make on each whole pattern. Land Rules
Before we start with utilizing Mr. Poon instance as an illustration. it is of import to retrieve three land regulations by de Shazer ( 1997 ) . These few general regulations and series premises are to allow societal workers to work with clients to run into their ends. Hoyt ( 1996 P. 28 ) lists the regulations that he learnt from his conversations with de Shazer: 1. If it ain’t broke. don’t hole it.
2. Once you know what works. make more of it.
3. If it doesn’t work. don’t do it once more ; does something different. Based on these three land regulations. the purpose of this therapy is to continuously allow client to make what is working for them and to seek new things alternatively of making something they feel is non working.
In the first stage. allow clients speak with the societal worker about the job that brought them to seek aid but non about the root cause. If the societal worker dressed ores on clients’ job or what they do incorrectly. it will hold the potency of doing an iatrogenic consequence. To get down with the session. I
will inquire Mr. Poon what he would wish to be called. He responds ‘Old Poon ( è€æ½˜ OP ) is all right. that is what all my old friends name me. ’ I so inquire OP what he likes to make during his trim clip. After a few proceedingss of polite conversation. I explain to OP what we are traveling to make in today session which will dwell of speaking for about 45 proceedingss. Then. we will take a short interruption and I will go forth the room for few proceedingss and come back with some suggestions for him. OP agrees to the proposed program of the session.
I begin to inquire OP. ‘What are you trusting to carry through by coming to see me today? ’ ( Stage 1 Describe the job ) OP Responds by stating how is his retirement life and how deadening and meaningless it is. He is remaining at place every twenty-four hours. He goes out to hold forenoon tea with his married woman in the forenoon. Then. he goes back place and watch Television to utilize up the clip for a piece. OP says the problem started when he gets back place. The house is merely four walls to him and nil he can make in the house. Therefore. sometimes he walks aimlessly on the street. He says he truly does non desire to be like other seniors in the Parkss who chatted and played cheat at that place or fall in the aged centres. Both of these are excessively blowing his clip and the aged centres are excessively much chitchat which he does non like. I ask Op if he walks aimlessly on street has worked to alter your retirement life which he replies ‘no’ . Op is late seeking to make some cookery at place but his married woman uses to make all the cookery for him. She would inquire him to maintain off from the kitchen. He realizes that he does non hold much involvement. Questioning Schemes
There are wholly three general types of oppugning schemes which are end inquiries. exclusion inquiries and scaling inquiries. These oppugning schemes will all be illustrated. The end inquiries help the client to travel from really big thoughts about their hereafter to smaller more manageable end. The most common end inquiry is the miracle inquiry. which asks: ‘suppose that one dark there is a miracle and while you are kiping the job that brought you into therapy is solved: How would you cognize? What would be different? ’ ( de Shazer and Berg 1988. P. 5 ) . This is one of the typical types of oppugning schemes of solution focused pattern to assist clients to develop his end. It usually uses in phase 2 ( Development good formulated ends ) I province. ‘I can see that your retirement life is deficiency of exhilaration and that you truly want to alter the manner you are ( contemplation of content ) Now I would wish to inquire you a small spot of a wired inquiry. Suppose that one dark there is a miracle and while you are kiping the job that brought you to see in to me is solved: How would you cognize? What will be different? ’ Then OP replied. ‘I conjecture I will experience happier. have a better appetency. and have more conversation with my married woman while remaining at place. I will travel out more frequently but non aimlessly and repeatedly do the same things every twenty-four hours. ’
I respond. ‘That’s great! State me if your retirement life is really like what you said what would you be making? ’ OP responds. ‘Maybe I find something to make to enrich my life like larning some new material or develop some interests’ . I so inquire OP to depict what this would look like if this was to go on. OP answers: ‘Well. I guess I would non kick about how deadening my retirement life is. I would hold my ain involvements and new friends. I can frequently hang out with my friends who have the same involvement as me. We can work together to pattern our involvement. Besides. possibly happen some involvement that I and my married woman both like. Then. we can hold more conversation at place instead than I merely confronting the four walls [ express joying ] . My married woman likes eating different culinary arts. I am more of an Italian culinary art fan. She did seek to do some Italian nutrient to me but it tasted truly bad. [ Pause ] I think I would wish to hold my ain involvements and a new societal web while my married woman can take part in one of the involvements and have more subjects to portion and talk. ’ In phase 3 ( Explore exclusions ) . the exclusion inquiry will normally utilize. The exclusion inquiries ‘are used by worker to detect a client’s nowadays and past success in relation to the client’s goal’ ( de Jong and Miller. 1995. P. 731-732 ) which may inquire: ‘you mentioned that if your miracle happened. you and your married woman would hold better communicating and that you would be able to speak openly with each other. Are at that place times when this is already go oning? ’
I respond. ‘it sounds like there are a batch of things that would be different. But the biggest thing is that you will hold ain involvements and web and most significantly you can closer your relationship with your married woman? ’ OP confirms. ‘That sound right’ . I so inquire. ‘Are there times now that you two are worked together to make something you both like or something you peculiarly want to cognize more? ’ OP answers ‘Recently. we watched Television together. The Television is playing a cooking show. Each participant can hold HKD $ 300. 000 to open up a eating house within one month. If the participant can gain the much money among the all. the one can hold two old ages free rent as a gift. Then. we merely maintain on speaking if us what we are traveling to make and what we won’t. It is truly happy and gratifying that we have a common idea. ’ To farther research exclusions to the job. I ask. ‘Apart from this. have at that place been other times like that? ’ OP says ‘Um [ intermission ] . Yes [ intermission ] . but I can’t retrieve when it happened. I guess rather a long clip ago [ laugh ] . ’ I so inquire OP. ‘Tell me. during that happy clip. what were you making otherwise? ’ OP paused and so answered. ‘Well. I think I actively talk with my married woman. I asked what her position was and what she thought about the plan. She did the same. We both like feeding and cooking a batch [ laugh ] . ’ I response. ‘you do cognize good about your married woman. is that you want to hold a closer yours relationship by developing an involvement with your married woman which is something related to nutrient by coming to see me? ’
OP answers ‘Yes. I would love to hold a closer relationship with my married woman. Furthermore. scaling inquiries is by and large used to supply a manner for the client and the societal worker to track the client’s advancement towards run intoing her or his ends. Clients are asked to rate some facet of their life from 0 to 10. with 0 stand foring the job or state of affairs at its worst and 10 stand foring the absence of the job. Example: On a graduated table from 0 to 10. where 0 represents the job at its worst and 10 represents the absence of the job. where do you happen yourself today? In order to foster explore OP’s ends. I ask “OK. This sounds like a good end. So on graduated table 0 to 10. where 0 is the end non go oning and 10 is the end perfectly go oning where would you rate how near you and your married woman are? OP response a 5. so I ask what he will make to travel from 5 to 6 on the graduated table. OP answers. ‘I conjecture we should fall in some cookery lesson together. ’ This aid to confirm G place and response. In phase 4 ( End-of subdivision feedback ) . I go out for few proceedingss and so come back with some feedbacks which are: 1 ) Repeat the state of affairs and job
2 ) Suggest him to fall in any type of cooking lesson with his married woman 3 ) Notice the relationship between him and his married woman while they acquiring entirely and describe back following session ( which is a hebdomad subsequently ) In phase 5 ( Evaluate client advancement ) . after a hebdomad. I met OP once more and started the session by inquiring. ‘so what has been different since the last clip we met? ’ OP stated he has found different sort of cooking lesson to his married woman and his married woman agreed to larn Italian culinary art with him. After the lesson. they bought the same ingredients to place and cooked for the whole household. During the procedure. they have communicated more and shared their feel. Once clip. his married woman even suggested larning Tai Chi. I affirm OP’s current place and positive experience by inquiring what do he believe he did to assist do this go on? He thought that it is because of fall ining this cooking lesson. It let his married woman thinks that he is willing to seek new things and his married woman darings to suggest suggestions. Before. they would merely state ‘whatever’ for anything and make non care for anything. Now. they do show themselves more and give out their ain sentiments.
I affirm Op’s achievements by stating he did good and readdress the grading of OP’s end by first staying him he has rate his end at 5 at the last session and inquiring him where he is now on the graduated table. He responded with 7. I met 1 more subdivisions with OP. In this session. he rated himself at 9. OP reported that things are traveling much better. Now he has his involvements on cookery and Tai Chi with his married woman. When they are confronting a job on larning. they ever solve the troubles together. Therefore. they talk a batch more than earlier. They non merely speak about their involvement. but besides things happen in their day-to-day life. They portion everything happened and give out advise to each other. When he gets back place. he is no longer merely confronting with four walls. His noticed that his married woman is ever there for him. before he merely forgot he can pass more clip with his married woman. Most significantly. he recover weight and sleep much better than earlier. Evaluation and decision
In the SFP chiefly use the grading inquiries as an rating. This provides a manner for the client and the societal worker to track the client’s advancement towards run intoing her or his ends during each session. It is the most effectual and easy manner to make in SFP. But there is some restriction on this method. Although clients are the experts of themselves. they may non hold the same grading as the societal workers do. Therefore. the societal workers should work with clients to specify clear what should make to achieve on what graduated table. For case. if OP can speak about his feeling twice a twenty-four hours with his married woman. it is on graduated table 6. A more concrete illustration is needed to guarantee the clients have the same grading with the societal worker to track the effectivity of the pattern. Client Satisfaction Questionnaire. besides. is one of the common methods to utilize as an rating. The intent of CSQ is to find clients’ satisfaction with the societal services he or she has received and to better the societal workers reding accomplishment by the clients’ feedback. Overall of the SFP. it is really successful to work out the job of Mr. Poon. He does non experience his retirement life is deadening and nonmeaningful any more. In add-on. his married woman can attach to with him to do his life more merriment and happy. Furthermore. he regains weight and slumbers good after all the session. Strengths and restrictions of utilizing SFP
There are identified strengths and restrictions to utilizing solution-focused pattern in societal work. The strengths include the undermentioned: •SFP focal points on clients’ strengths ( Greene & A ; Lee 2011 ) . The method seeks to place clients’ strengths or past success at get the better ofing with the presenting job. The end of the work together is to use the clients’ strengths and resources to travel them towards their preferable hereafter. In OP instance. he can turn the illustration of his successful talk with his married woman into his end and alter his coveted hereafter. •Solution-focused pattern techniques and inquiries can be used in combination with other methods. For illustration. the miracle inquiry and exclusion inquiries are frequently found to be used in crisis intercession and scaling inquiries are frequently found to be used in motivational interviewing. SFP can utilize entirely or unite with other attacks. In OP instance. these oppugning schemes can allow me easier to research his idea and the development of end. The restrictions include the followers:
•SFP focuses more on solutions instead than the job ( Walsh. 2010 ) . Critics of SFP argue that by non concentrating on clients’ jobs. societal workers may lose some of import information that may useful to assist clients travel towards their ends. In add-on. some clients expect to speak with societal workers about their jobs. As a consequence. some clients may non do complete or go forth the pattern of a solution-focused societal worker. In fact. it is truth that clients are happening us to work out the job non happening the solution. It. besides. the same as OP intent. Ethical and cultural
Harmonizing to Lee ( 2003 ) solution-focused pattern represents an attack to pattern that respects and awards cultural differences and cultural values. Sometimes societal workers may non hold with the clients solution is the best 1 in their head. It is of import that societal worker must be unfastened to the ends that client set up for themselves and non try to carry or force clients to choose ends that they do non happen to be meaningful. The ends that they want are their preferable hereafters and client defined ends. Therefore. societal workers should stand at the clients’ position to believe alternatively of seting their ain idea to the clients. While other attacks the societal worker being the expert. SFP views clients as the expert and their life experiences as possible solutions. SFP societal workers are in the client’s interested context of a client’s state of affairss as the client describes her or his life in her or his ain linguistic communication. SFP societal workers seek out client’s strengths and resources in assisting clients hunt for solutions. If of import to the client. cultural patterns may utilize in the formation of ends and solutions. Particularly in the Chinese civilization. in Chinese civilization most of the work forces will see seeking aid as a also-ran. A successful adult male should able to work out the job by himself alternatively of inquiring for a manus. Besides. the senior have a higher societal position. They may non accept our suggestions if they are nonvoluntary clients. Recommendation
Although solutions are the focal point and jobs are inferior. societal workers should listen to clients if they want to discourse their jobs. In listening to jobs. societal workers should try to travel clients into looking at solutions versus brooding on failed efforts to work out the job. SFP is one of the fast and effectual attacks to assist clients happen solution by themselves and authorise clients. Confronting the big sum of aging population. it may be one ways to assist more needful clients. Other attacks are more clip consuming. Therefore. SFP should advance more to the populace and allow more clients to acquire benefit from it.