Several menaces affect the endurance of little. independent retail companies. Adoption and usage of Point-of-Sale ( POS ) systems may offer of import benefits to counter these menaces. POS systems are non widely used by these retail merchants. nevertheless. This research investigates the determiners of the acceptance of POS systems utilizing a conceptual theoretical account based on bing acceptance theories. Based on this. a study has been held among 37 Dutch little. independent retail merchants. to reply the inquiry what the most of import determiners for POS system acceptance are. This survey furthers theory on IT acceptance. specifically for little organisations. The practical relevancy is that its findings may assist in bettering POS system acceptance. .
The Dutch retail sector consists for 94 % of little retail organisations ( â‰¤10 employees ) . wholly using about 250. 000 individuals. The retail sector is perceptibly present in the trade-driven Dutch economic system and acts as an intermediary between industry and consumer. The sector is an of import and relevant topic of survey from an economical. societal and cultural position. In this paper we focus on in-store retailing. The environment of this type of retail trade is under force per unit area. Several interacting menaces. like globalisation. demanding consumers. increasing administrative load and an economic recession force the retail merchants into action. Information and communicating engineering ( ICT ) is a double-edged blade in this context ( californium. Turban. King. Viehland and Lee. 2004 ) . On the one manus. it can be a menace to smaller retail merchants for its disintermediation effects and competition through e-tailing ( californium. Chircu and Kauffman. 1999 ) . and by its supply concatenation direction implementation of the larger ( franchise ) organisations ( californium. David. 2008 ) .
On the other manus. ICT likewise provides chances to smaller retail merchants. like opening up new gross revenues channels. cut downing administrative undertakings and/or enabling strategic direction of their endeavor ( Turban et al. . 2004 ) . A specific type of retail ICT that can be employed to accomplish effectual shop direction is a ‘Point-of-Sale’ ( POS ) system. POS systems are defined in many different ways. On Wikipedia. a retail POS system is defined as “a computing machine. proctor. hard currency drawer. reception pressman. client show and a barcode scanner” . Webopedia. com defines a POS system as “the capturing of informations and client payment information at a physical location when goods or services are bought and sold” . YourDictionary. com defines it as: “A comprehensive computerized check-out procedure system that includes a bar-code scanner. reception pressman. hard currency drawer. recognition and debit card scanner. proctor. and inventory direction package.
A point-of-sale system paths gross revenues and identifies stock list degrees in existent time” . There are many different types and trade names of POS systems available. eBay. com and BuyerZone. com provide a web-based ‘Point of Sale System Buying Guide’ . incorporating over 4. 000 different POS equipments for retail merchants. and 91 different types of POS package. The POS system market in The Netherlands contains no less than 150 sellers. each offering their ain ‘unique’ package bundle. POS systems enable retail merchants to confer with more elaborate direction information compared to traditional hard currency registries and Electronic Cash Registers ( ECRs ) .
As this direction information is based on gross revenues figures. retail merchants can better their concern by keeping a better merchandise scheme and prosecuting a more efficient refilling procedure fiting client demand. relieving what is frequently referred to as the ‘bullwhip effect’ ( Lee. Padmanabhan and Whang. 1997 ) . This enables inventory optimisation. minimising storage infinite and ‘sold-out’ state of affairss. Furthermore. hard currency faux pass can be stored electronically and the consequences can be brought up in the POS system instantly. both cut downing clip spent on administrative undertakings. This is specifically relevant for The Netherlands. where the administrative load for SMEs has increased through ordinances
LITERATURE REVIEW: Adoption MODELS
In this subdivision we review eight different surveies on the acceptance of information systems. which were found through literature survey. The meta literature hunt focused on theories and theoretical accounts refering IS/IT acceptance. more specifically of little concerns. retail and/or POS systems. Below. as a consequence. we foremost describe two generic acceptance theoretical accounts with respect to IS/IT acceptance. Following. we discuss six theoretical accounts that address acceptance within the retail or little concern sphere.
Generic theoretical accounts
The first generic acceptance theoretical account we refer to here is that of Rogers ( 2003 ) . His Diffusion of Innovations ( DOI ) theory describes the acceptance of inventions over clip. He ascribes the kineticss of acceptance behavior in footings of different groups of people. like pioneers and dawdlers. His theory besides indicates how an person or administration ( i. e. any decision-making unit ) decides to follow ( or non ) an invention. This acceptance procedure consists of five different phases: cognition acquisition. persuasion. acceptance. execution and verification.
Rogers specifies three groups of determiners that influence this procedure: features of the decision-making unit. features of the invention and information channels. Based on DOI theory. factors refering the decision-making unit that positively influence acceptance are e. g. high societal position. low age and fiscal flexibleness. Harmonizing to DOI. of import features of an invention include: comparative advantage. compatibility. complexness. trialability ( the grade to which it can be experimented with ) . and observability ( the visibleness of its consequences ) . Information channels ( personal and aggregate communicating channels ) are required to distribute cognition of an invention.
The 2nd generic acceptance theoretical account is based on Venkatesh. Morris. Davis and Davis ( 2003 ) . who reviewed engineering credence theoretical accounts. among which the Technology Acceptance Model ( Davis. 1986 ) and the Theory of Planned Behaviour ( Ajzen. 1985 ) . They used elements of each theoretical account for a new incorporate theoretical account. called the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology ( UTAUT ) theoretical account. Contrary to Rogers’ theoretical account. UTAUT concentrates on the acceptance behavior of persons. In this theoretical account. four concepts are defined as determiners of a user’s credence and behavior. Performance anticipation relates to the grade to which the engineering is expected to better occupation public presentation.
Effort anticipation concerns the easiness of usage associated with the engineering. Social influence is defined as “ [ T ] he degree to which an person perceives that of import others believe he or she should utilize the new system” ( Venkatesh et al. . 2003 ) . Finally. the concept facilitating conditions trades with the grade to which a support substructure for the engineering is believed to be. In add-on. these four concepts are modelled to be influenced by four alleged moderators. i. e. gender. age. experience and voluntariness. Retail and SME-specific theoretical accounts
We will discourse six chief surveies and their acceptance theoretical accounts below. First. the survey by Julien and Raymond ( 1994 ) can be mentioned. Their engineering acceptance theoretical account for the retail sector proposes eight organisational facets as determiners of engineering acceptance: centralisation. complexness. size. position ( i. e. independent/affiliated ) . sector. and assertiveness. reason. and interaction of the organisational scheme. These determiners were identified in earlier research on engineering acceptance in little organisations. Technology acceptance in this instance concerned the usage of hardware ( concern calculating. POS systems and telecomputing ) and package. In the survey 79 houses in nutrient. hardware and vesture were assessed through questionnaires and semi-structured interviews. Clothing houses and big houses were less disposed to utilize POS systems. while houses that had a longer organisational planning skyline used POS systems more frequently.
Second. Chau ( 1995 ) researched which factors are of import for little concerns in package choice. His research focused on packaged package. as little organisations normally do non purchase usage developed package. due to their limited resources. Chau argues that owners/managers of little organisations are less focussed on budgeting techniques like ‘net present value’ or ‘internal rate of return’ to do determinations on package investings. Alternatively. they focus more on standards aimed at the functionalities and popularity of the package. Besides. sentiments of sellers. employees. advisers or familiarities are believed to act upon determination devising. Based on empirical research among 122 little concerns. he found that the importance of choice standards varied between proprietors and directors.
In general. proprietors seem to concentrate more on proficient facets. while directors focus more on non-technical facets. Third. Thong and Yap ( 1995 ) developed a theoretical account based on the impression that the acceptance procedure of little concerns differs from that of big houses. CEOs play a major function in little houses as they are the primary determinations shapers. In their research. the writers developed a causal theoretical account. which assumes that the undermentioned factors are positively correlated with the likelihood of IT acceptance for little houses: concern size. fight of the concern environment. information strength. innovativeness. and attitude towards acceptance of IT and IT knowledge.
Synthesis: CONCEPTUAL MODEL AND HYPOTHESES
In the old subdivision. a sum of eight theoretical accounts for acceptance have been discussed. Most theoretical accounts view the ( retail ) organisation and/or its proprietor as the decision-making unit. In little organisations. the owner-manager/CEO about by definition determines IT investings and the IT scheme. Thong and Yap ( 1995 ) . Ekanem ( 2005 ) and Chau ( 1995 ) all point out this phenomenon. Therefore. we consider personal variables of the proprietor ( like age and gender ) as cardinal determiners of POS acceptance by retail merchants. In add-on. organisational features ( like size and competition ) can be considered as extra. contextual determiners of the IT acceptance determination.