Reconstruction began to take topographic point as the Civil War was coming to an terminal. The promise of peace after the war ended was non traveling to go on for rather some clip. Now there was a new issue to be hashed out ; how does the state begin Reconstruction and who is responsible for supervising it? Now the conflict was on between the shacking presidents of the clip and Congress and each had different sentiments on Reconstruction policies.
Reconstruction began with Lincoln who believed steadfastly that the affair was an executive duty. His end for Reconstruction was the Restoration of national integrity through indulgent political rapprochement. Lincoln’s thoughts were clear when he delivered his 2nd inaugural address stating “with maliciousness towards none ; with charity for all” . In his Announcement of Amnesty Lincoln promised amnesty to all Southerners that renounced sezession and agreed to the abolition of bondage. His offer was non extended Confederates such as high-level civilian and military officers. Forgivenesss restored all belongings. except for slaves. and gave back full political rights to those who agreed to Lincoln’s footings. The program would name for no mass arrests. no tests for lese majesty. and no executings. Lincoln alternatively set a program to let them to form a new province authorities every bit shortly as 10 per centum of work forces who had been qualified electors in 1860 took an curse of commitment. But Lincoln did non widen a program for what to make with the freed slaves.
There was no plan of federal aid to assist the freshly freedwomans nor were they guaranteed any societal or political rights. Lincoln sought Restoration for his broken state. but there was no program for much needed reforms. When Johnson took over the presidential office after Lincoln’s blackwash. his Reconstruction programs were similar to Lincoln’s. but he besides added a few of his ain. Again. amnesty would non be given to high-level functionaries. Unlike Lincoln though. Johnson excluded work forces that had belongings valued at more than 20. 000 dollars from the offer of amnesty. Johnson had no understanding for inkinesss and wanted to rush up the procedure of normalising the southern provinces. This led him to order the armed forces and authorities functionaries to return to excuse ex-confederates all confiscated and abandoned land. even if it was now in usage by freedwomans. Again. the executive determinations for Reconstruction left the freshly freedwomans with no chances to last on their ain.
Congress had wholly different positions on how Reconstruction should happen. Congress felt that Lincoln’s proposition did non protect the freed slaves adequate. and was excessively slack and excessively speedy with its penalty of the Rebels. In 1864 Congress passed the Wade-Davis Bill. It stated that a province want to rejoin the Union would hold to hold the bulk of its citizens take the pledge of trueness. It banned ex-confederates from take parting in the drafting of a new province fundamental law. Additionally. the measure guaranteed the equality of freedwomans. Lincoln did non subscribe the measure and allow it decease. Congress believed that Lincoln was stepping beyond his executive responsibilities and that the political organisation should be left to them. When Congress pushed the Civil Rights Act which nullified the black codifications and allowed inkinesss full and equal benefit of all Torahs and proceedings for the security of individual and belongings as is enjoyed by white citizens” . Johnson vetoed the measure. Again. he felt that it was non in the federal government’s authorization and that it was non within their power to protect the civil rights of inkinesss. But congress overrode this veto and for the first clip in American history. Congress had overridden a presidential veto of major statute law.
In 1866 Congress approved the Fourteenth Amendment to the Constitution. This amendment defined citizenship and included African-Americans. It besides dealt with voting rights. It gave white Southerners the pick of either leting their former slaves to vote or non let them but have their representation in Washington highly depleted. Johnson did everything he could to undermine every jurisprudence that Congress enacted. and tried his best to advance white opposition to any of the determinations Congress made. Johnson’s unwillingness to make full his constitutional duties and his maltreatment of power finally led to a test for impeachment. Johnson survived impeachment. but after the test he called a armistice and for the remainder of his term. Reconstruction was non hindered by presidential influence.
Presidential and congressional sentiments on Reconstruction differed greatly. Who was responsible for doing the determinations of how to reunite the state? Although the war was over. it was barely a peaceable clip in America and with the Civil War approaching the terminal. the conflict over Reconstruction began.