The construct of individuality is described in legion different ways such as the I, Me, personality, ego and kernel. These offer a starting point for us to try to understand and explicate who and what we are internally and within the external universe.There are assorted theories that have been developed to assist us do sense of what contributes to our individuality. These theories examine the factors that can construct, form and alter our individuality, covering facets such as the construction of society, our interactions with others and past experiences.
Identity could be defined as being straight relevant to associated features of an person ‘s character or of a group. Identity can be viewed as a both inactive and active signifier, it can be used to assist others specify us which is normally non governable by that single it can besides be relevant to how we as persons view ourselves. ( Macionis and plummer,2008 ) . There are assorted signifiers of the ego and individuality the three chief groups most persons are able to put themselves within.These are the corporate ego, the single ego and the relational ego. The construct of individuality in modern western society has shifted as a consequence of alterations in political orientation and society. These alterations have included industrialization where subjects act as workers who move about for work and have a individuality that is flexible and non rigid within societal construction and enlightenment where topics are able to alter their individualities and make new picks and taking new value systems ( Michael.A, 2008 )
The relationship of individuality in the structural sense and the existent power an person has over their individuality has been critically analysed by theoreticians such as Goffman ( 1999 ) and Garfinkel ( 1984 ) have placed accent on the manner persons can develop and model individuality utilizing language.Mead depict a similar signifier of interaction where personality, interaction and societal construction provide a model that can so be used for an apprehension of individuality ( Choudry,2010, p11 ) . To analyze the assorted theories that contributes to the survey of individuality in respects to look intoing societies understanding of older people. This will be looked at utilizing the undermentioned construction, foremost looking at ways in which ‘age ‘ signifiers an individuality will be considered. Second, the influence of theoreticians on trying to understand the procedure by which this individuality is created will be examined. Third, the construct of stigma and its reverberations will be discussed. Finally, the function and individuality both personal and professional of the Social Worker as an agent between structural facets and the impact of this function on the service user.
How old an person is and how this influences individuality varies and can be interpreted otherwise from different personal positions and civilizations. From an nonsubjective sense age is merely the apogee of a procedure that is begun at birth and one that is given certain societal indexs ( Taylor and field, 2007, p.113 ) . Older people or old age in many societies worldwide is non clearly defined but normally a term used when mentioning to person a few old ages older than the single being referred to ( Miller,2008 ) . Assorted cultural positions can bring forth force per unit area on who is considered immature or as an older individual within society. This can change harmonizing to cultural context ( Stephens and Leach, 1998, p.475 ) .
The deductions of being identified as an older individual can do tenseness between the possible struggle of the persons position of their individuality and the structural position. In traditional society, the individuality of the aged is frequently a prescribed component, that presupposes norms of vesture and behavior ( Taylor and field, 2007 ) .Other members that belong to that peculiar traditional society are projected with ideals of how to act in a mode suited to people of an older age a mode that would alter for another individual of similar age ( Stepehns and Leach, 1998, p. 476 ) . These premises have the ability to cut down the sum of power a older individual has as they are defined and categorised based on seeable features instead than as a whole individual ( Miller,2008 ) . Therefore societal workers reading of an older individual should to the full see the relationship between individuality, older people and structural factors.An older individual may non see themselves as merely suiting in to a peculiar class such as ‘older individual ‘ even if society is able to make so.
There are many different sociological theories that can help in understanding modern-day societies attitude to individuality when mentioning to older people ( Giddens,2000, p.521 ) .Within societal work admiting and using the right of self determinism is an of import portion of the model created when supplying support and aid to older people ( Miller, 008, P4 ) . When placing a individual in need the function of the societal worker could include supplying a scope of suited options to take from. However the societal worker would supply the older individual with the tools to do an independent determination. This can be explained by the attachment to designation in footings of the bureau exerted by the older individual ( Franzese,2009, p.71 ) .It is of import that the societal worker choruss from categorizing the aged originating from the position of an ‘older individual ‘ but sing as an independent person in demand ( Franeze,2009 ) .To presume without cogent evidence about the deficiency of ability of an older individual must be avoided. This can make a inclination to do opinions and disempowered the service user, taking to miss of understanding in respects to the attention and support required. Particularly in respects the older individual ‘s ability to do independent informed picks based on a apprehension of their life and being the ‘expert within their ain state of affairss ‘ . Although there are types of unwellnesss such as mental wellness issues that tend to happen more in the aged than in the younger coevals the societal worker demands to presume the service user is capable -so regardless of how the service user is by and large showing him o herself unless presented with cogent evidence that suggests otherwise. Using this method in societal work and underscoring the individual centred attack can be explained through understanding the right to self determinism and authorization ( Kim, 1991 ) . To pattern efficaciously the societal work must actively avoid going complacent with the attitudes towards older people projected through dominate discourse in modern-day society. This discourse undertakings individuality on to persons utilizing age as manner of categorizing the societal work demand to supply the person with the right to self-government.
This is a hard position to keep when the construction of society promotes and accepts the thought of specifying persons in respects to age ( Giddens,2000 ) .This is besides hard to keep when surrounded with many resources that are provided to those in demand by societal services that are allocated based on age and hence making limitations if an person does non fall into that age bracket. Therefore proposing it is hard to wholly avoid catergosring older people as this is the system used in the society they exist in. This can be examined by looking at psychosocial individuality, although Giddens suggests that we are automatic agents we may hold a smaller bureau than what is suggested ( Newman and Newman,2008 ) .This suggests the rationale theoretical account of determination devising for an person is limited in its utilizations ; the picks we make are normally created for us to some extent as they are normally made when demand or want ansd the really outcome merely clear after the pick has been made. ( Newman and Newman, 2008 ) . Consequently an older individual may see the restriction of doing a rational pick in respects to their individuality as these picks may be made from a peculiar demand. The older individuals rational picks possibly affected by anxiousnesss and frights environing their individuality. As a consequence the function of the agent is rather limited in respects to the manner interaction occurs between agent and construction. Therefore the person has less pick than what may be assumed.
Another of import component for understanding individuality in relation to modern-day societal work is the topic of stigmatism. Stigma can be explained as a loss of single societal individuality and position that occurs when an person is merely looked upon as a member of a group with shared features ( Giles et al. , 1990 ) .The construct of being an older individual could be looked upon as a creative activity of society instead than something that has of course developed through positive association. This is relevant to older people as stigma can bring forth jobs as it relates a figure of conditioned to older people, pigeonholing them ( Giddens, 2000 ) .Bringing in ethical pattern a better manner to avoid projecting individuality on to an older individual it would be more effectual to avoid puting stigma upon the older person.With messages provided by the media in assorted signifiers such as telecasting advertizements that depict older people as enduring from unwellness and being in demand. When merely provided with these images of older people non stigmatizing within societal work would look to be debatable. Structural facets such as bureaucracy and globalization make community ego determinism and professional independency really hard if non impossible ( Bowles et al,2006 ) .There is an construct that older people after being classified as ‘older ‘ alteration from being active to inactive members of society with limited engagement and are limited in their self-determinism. Goffman proposed a definition of stigma that emphasisies the differences between the practical ego in societal individuality and the existent societal individuality. ( Goffman, 1969 )
Tension that has been identified by Sociological theory therefore is concerned mostly with the interaction between the bureau of an person against the stigma that may be imposed upon the construct of the aged, and their ain right to self-identity ( Newman and Newman, 2008, p.388 ) . To an extent, as is represented by the psycho-social theoretical point of view, it is hard to reason from the position of interactionism the ways in which the person has a important bureau in order to battle this position ( Macionis and Plummer, 2008, p.76 ) . Garfunkel ( 1967 ) argues that linguistic communication is used as an active agencies by which persons shape the individuality around them. Rather than accepting a societal individuality that is imposed by the societal construction in which they find themselves, persons are active participants in the creative activity of such classs ( Stephens and Leach, 1998, p.24 ) . Of class, given that much of the societal stigma associated with ageing roots from the ways in which the aged are portrayed as mentally unstable, inactive victims with mobility issues, all of which can be supported with a certain grade of statistical grounds, the ways in which persons can inveigh against the stigma is debatable ( Newman and Newman, 2008, p.289 ) . However, the stigma is better understood as a cover type definition applied to all persons within a certain class disregarding the extent to which they fall into such classs. Identity theories, peculiarly from an interactionist position, are rather limited in their attack to depict how each person holds their ability to actively specify themselves in resistance to such stigma.
The usage of individuality theories are non merely important for the ways in which Social Workers treat the aged but can be seen as utile understanding the agencies by which the person appreciates their ain impact upon the context ( Giddens, 2000, p.522 ) . In peculiar, an apprehension of the interaction between bureau and construction can assist the single reflect on the extent to which certain functions are about predefined by the context in which they find themselves ( Haslam, 2003, p.99 ) . First, the Social Worker ‘s function can be interpreted in the manner in which they can be seen as portion of the societal construction. The fact that the proviso of services can be interpreted in a negative manner as the infliction of construction allows the person to measure their ain function and place within this context. Furthermore, the person must appreciate their ain potency for bureau within the construction in the efforts provided for the turning away of oppressive pattern ( Newman and Newman, 2008, p.388 ) . An of import component of this procedure is in the usage of reflective pattern which allows the Social Worker to measure their ain single attacks and their emotions to the servo vitamin E proviso. The extent to which they view the aged with a stigma, or do premises sing their ability to supply their ain active attack to their ain individuality can be self-assessed. In many instances, it is possible for the Social Worker to follow the Goffman thought of a distanced function, where they play a function in the service proviso that fits assorted impressions of the ideal manner that such services can be provided without stigma ( Goffman, 1963, p.54 ) . This will affect obstructing their true feelings or feelings of an person, and the brooding pattern allows them to measure and understand their attack to the topic ( Goffman, 1999, p.16 ) . The impression of the importance of bureau within this context is hence a cardinal manner in which Sociological Theories have affected Social Work pattern.
A scope of effects have a important consequence on the manner in which persons are influenced in their individuality ( Giddens, 2000, p.522 ) . In many such instances it is about impossible for the aged to exercise their ain degree of bureau in order to defy the classification and the attach toing stigma that frequently applies. In many instances, this can happen as the consequence of active influences on the portion of the single themselves, even if it is a distanced societal function as suggested by Goffman ( 1999 ) . The of import influence of such theories upon the apprehension of individuality, nevertheless, autumn into the country where the Social Worker can be seen as portion of an active component of the structuration procedure ( Zastrow, 2009, p.59 ) . This is a hard function to avoid on history of the fact that despite the ways in which bureau is emphasised for the person for whom attention is provided, the proviso of services is frequently defined by age instead than merely by demand. From the position that to avoid stigma as a whole, it could be expected that the assorted demands of the aged may come under different remits, such as mobility issues coming under the handicapped remit ; and in many instances this does go on ( Zastrow, 2009, p.61 ) . However, the fact that certain benefits are available to the aged on the footing of age entirely means that the Social Worker remains an agent, albeit an active one, of the impression that age defines a societal individuality. This societal individuality hence means that there is a subgroup of services that would be provided, and this possibly undermines the active efforts to avoid enforcing stigma on the construct of the the aged and let the persons to enforce their ain bureau.
The most utile signifiers of individuality theory would look to finally stem from Lemert and Mead, that emphasise the place of an interaction between construction and bureau ( Franzese, 2009, p.71 ) . As has been described in the old treatment, elements that emphasise the procedure of either bureau or the function of construction tend to lose the point of the manner in which aged people interact with the definitions that are applied to an individuality. For the Social Worker there are legion advantages that can be gained from an apprehension of such theoretical parts and the influence of different theories can assist understand the demand to avoid stigma and the accent that is made in Social Work to the procedure of individualization, despite the built-in contradictions that can be in the manner in which services are provided. Social Work is basically a portion of society and represents and reflects the procedures within it ; as such, Sociological theories will ever be of usage in explicating and depicting the ways in which different procedures form a portion of pattern ( Franzese, 2009, p.71 ) .