The Common Approaches For Data Modelling Information Technology Essay


As we know databases are being used more than of all time before to hive away and to entree information. Due to the easiness of care and outstanding public presentation of databases, the growing of database engineerings has been increasing quickly. Furthermore DBMS had thrived over World Wide Web. Different web-applications are recovering the stored informations and the replies are displayed in a formatted signifier utilizing web linguistic communications like XML. This essay negotiations about the different Data Models for databases, and discusses their comparative strengths and failings.

I will show the most common attacks for informations patterning that are used by DBMSs ( RDBMS, OODBMS, ORDBMS and XML ) giving a speedy debut to each of them we will compares and contrasts the attack handling them relatively.


“ Database Model can be categorized harmonizing to the information constructions and operators they present to the user ” . ( Bloor, 2003 )

( 1 ) E-R Model

( 2 ) Hierarchical Data Model

( 3 ) Network Data Mode

( 4 ) Semi Structured Data Model

( 5 ) Relational Data Model ( RDBMS )

( 6 ) Object Oriented Data Model ( OODBMS )

( 7 ) Object Relational Data Model ( ORDBMS )

( 8 ) Semi-structured information ( XML )

Among all informations theoretical accounts mentioned below, relational theoretical account followed by object oriented and object relational theoretical accounts enjoyed most popularity, we are traveling to specify one by one and at the same clip we are traveling to demo their advantages and disadvantages.


In RDBMS, all the information is in the signifier of simple columns and rows in a tabular array. Each tabular array is an single and independent entity and we need non to utilize any physical arrows or physical links to link the entities like what we used to hold in web and hierarchal theoretical accounts. All information is maintained in the signifier of tabular arraies dwelling of rows and columns. Datas in two tabular arraies is related through common columns. Operators are provided for operating on rows in tabular arraies. Because of this, questioning becomes really easily. This was one of the chief grounds for the relational theoretical account to go more popular with coders.

The RDBMS structures informations into dealingss ( tabular arraies ) which form a planar representation of the information into rows and columns. A relation contains tuples ( rows ) and each tuple represents a distinguishable record in the tabular array. A tuple consists of a set of unorganised properties ( columns ) supplying item for the record. Rows are assigned a alone identifier, besides known as a primary key, by which the record can be accessed, manipulated, and referenced by other tabular arraies or applications. Columns store the properties of a record, more normally known as Fieldss, and each property is assigned a information type.

Structured Query Language ( SQL ) is identified and accepted as the standard question linguistic communication and dealing mechanism for RDBMS. SQL questions can be used to entree and return informations from tabular arraies, define records and their properties, and to see informations from multiple tabular arraies through operations such as a articulation. ( Dolk, 1998 )

Two of the most popular illustrations of RDBMS presently on the market are Oracle and Microsoft Access.

Advantages of RDBMS

In RDBMS system, the tabular arraies are simple, informations is easier to understand and pass on with others.

RDBMS is flexible, users do non hold to utilize predefined keys to input information.

Automatic optimisation of seeking is possible in RDBMS

Structure Query linguistic communication ( SQL ) is easier to larn and implement.

It supports big and really big databases.

RDBMS are more productive because SQL is easier to larn. This allows users to pass more clip inputting alternatively of larning.

Disadvantages RDBMS

Not much efficient and effectual incorporate support.

Do non hold adequate storage country to manage informations such as images, digital and audio/video.

Relational tabular arraies are level and do non supply good support for nested constructions, such as sets and arrays. And besides certain sorts of relationships, such as sub-typing between database objects are difficult to stand for in this theoretical account.

RDBMS engineering did non take advantage of Object oriented programming construct, which is really popular because of its attack.

All the informations must be in the signifier of tabular arraies where relationships between entities are defined by values.


As you are cognizant, web and Internet use is quickly increasing presents. To run into the challenge of the web and to get the better of the restrictions of RDBMS, OODBMS was developed. OODBMS stands for Object oriented database direction system, which we can specify as ; it is a combination of Object Oriented Programming and Relational Database Management System. ( Fong, 1997 )

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Inheritances, informations encapsulation, object individuality, and polymorphism are the chief features of object-oriented scheduling. By specifying new objects, we can develop solutions to complex jobs in heritage. Objects are related and shared within a web and have an independent individuality. The object individuality ( OID ) works behind the scenes to guarantee the singularity of the tuples, which is unseeable to the users. Furthermore, no restrictions are required on the values. If we take the same thing in RDBMS, so we have to worry about unambiguously placing tuples by their values and doing certain that no two tuples have the same primary key values.

On the other manus, polymorphism and dynamic binding are utile to make objects to supply solutions to the complex 1s and to avoid coding for every object. These objects may be transeunt or relentless. By relentless object we mean the lasting object stored inside the database to last the executing of informations procedure and in order to finally recycle it in another procedure. OODB trades with these objects in a unvarying mode.

To make, update, cancel or to recover the persistent informations, informations definition linguistic communication and informations use linguistic communications are of import in OODBMS. These linguistic communications are besides utile to specify a database, including making, changing and dropping tabular arraies and to guarantee the unity restraints in tabular arraies. Object Query Language ( OQL ) is the standard question linguistic communication for OODBMS. OQL uses syntax similar to SQL and is seldom used since the basic functionality of questions in intrinsic to object-oriented scheduling linguistic communications. ( Chaterjee, 2005 )

Advantages of OODBMS

More semantic information

Support for complex objects

Extensibility of informations types

May better public presentation with efficient hoarding



Inheritance velocities development and application

Potential to incorporate DBMSs into individual environment

Disadvantages OODBMS

Strong resistance from the established RDBMSs

Lack of theoretical foundation

Atavist to old arrow systems

Lack of standard ad hoc question linguistic communication

Lack of concern informations design and direction tools

Steep acquisition curve

Low market presence

Lack of compatibility between different OODBMSs


Object Relational Database Management System ( ORDBMS ) is an drawn-out development of bing relational database system. To get the better of the certain restrictions and to increase the public presentation degree, and to accomplish the benefits of relational theoretical account and object theoretical account, ORDBMS engineering evolved by uniting the relational databases and object oriented constructs.

We can integrate our usage informations types, maps, operators and methods with the database and we can hive away images, geographical information and multimedia objects such as audio and picture, it allows us to raise the degree of abstraction at which we want to see the job sphere. In ORDBMS limited support of object oriented characteristics, largely to new informations types. Furthermore, it supports abstract informations types ( ADTs ) and complex relationships.

ORDBMSs have the same question centric attack to data direction as we have in RDBMS. Through declaratory SQL statements, we can manage the informations entree and there is no procedural or object-at-a-time, navigational interface. ORDBMS allows us to go on utilizing our bing systems, without holding to do major alterations. In simple words, we can state that ORDBMSs synthesise the characteristics of RDBMSs with the best thoughts of OODBMSs. ( Cigler, 1999 )

Advantages of ORDBMS

Ability to question complex applications and ability to manage big and complex applications

Reduced Network Trafficaˆ¦queries and complex instructions can be executed on the waiter ( as opposed to clients )

Application and Query Performanceaˆ¦ … Parallel server engineering can be employed Software Maintenanceaˆ¦data and methods are stored on the waiter and makes care easier

Integrated Data and Transaction Managementaˆ¦.The database engine handles all dealing unity, backup, etc. , issues

Disadvantages of ORDBMS

Modeling and treating support of complex objects and their versions, big objects, semantic-rich relationships, etc. is merely fundamental or even losing in current ORDBMSs

ORDBMSs have to be complemented by equal client-side informations direction and long-running design minutess encapsulating the client processing theoretical account, in order to supply satisfactory support for proficient applications

Low public presentation in web applications

2.4 XML

To understand XML is of import to understand its roots as a markup linguistic communication paperss. The term hallmark is any component in a papers that it is non intended to be portion of the printed output.. In an electronic papers treating a markup linguistic communication is a formal description of what is contained in the papers, which portion is trade name and what the trade name stands for.

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Equally good as database systems evolved from the physical processing of files to supply a logical isolation, the markup linguistic communication specification developed from the instructions bespeaking how to publish parts of the papers for the contents.. Such functional trade name allows the papers to hold different formats in different state of affairss. It besides helps different parts of a long papers, or different pages in a big Web site, have a unvarying format. The trade name works besides helps automatic extraction of cardinal parts of the paperss. For the household of markup linguistic communications in which includes XML makes the signifier of tickets enclosed in angle brackets & lt ; & gt ; . Labels are used in braces, and specifying the beginning and terminal of the part of papers to which the label refers.

Compared to hive awaying informations in a database, the XML representation may look inefficient, since ticket names are repeated throughout the papers. However, despite this disadvantage, an XML representation has important advantages when used for informations exchange, for illustration, portion of a message.

aˆ? First, the presence of tickets makes the message is self documenting,

aˆ? Second, the papers format is non stiff. The ability to acknowledge and disregard the unexpected labels allows the format of the informations evolve over clip without annuling bing applications.

aˆ? Finally, since the XML format is widely accepted there are a assortment of tools available to assistance processing, including hunt package and database tools. As is the dominant linguistic communication SQL to question relational informations in XML is going the dominant format for informations exchange.

Where Object Databases have Object Query Language ( OQL ) , XML Databases have XQuery which is a W3C criterion. XQuery covers the major functionality from former linguistic communication proposals like XML-QL, XQL, OQL and the SQL criterion. ( Dodds, 2010 )

Advantages of XML

Heterogeneity: A Where each “ record ” can incorporate different informations Fieldss.

Extensibility: A Where new types of informations can be added at will and make n’t necessitate to be determined in progress.

Flexibility: A Where information Fieldss can change in size and constellation from case to case.

It frequently requires no or small work during XML Schema development.

Disadvantages of XML

Maping your XML format to a relational scheme leads to a big figure of tabular arraies.

Your XML Schema is extremely variable or tends to alter over clip.

Annotating an XML Schema can be complex, if the scheme itself is complex.

Using XML as your database will work all right every bit long as your datasets stay comparatively little. Once your informations grows to the point where it will non all tantrum in memory, you will likely get down seeing serious public presentation debasement.



aˆ? Relational databases have as their aim to guarantee informations independency. Normalized informations are separated from processing and the processing matching to fulfilling informational demands need non be wholly pre-defined, therefore accepting ad-hoc demands excessively.

aˆ? Object oriented databases have as their chief nonsubjective encapsulation, being stored together with the informations and the methods. They are inseparable. It is said that we have to make with an independency of categories and non with an independency of informations.

aˆ? An OODBMS and non an RDBMS is needed when in the mention applications we have to make with complex informations.

aˆ? The object oriented database markets will go on to develop, but they will still ( represent ) merely a fraction of the traditional databases.

aˆ? It is appreciated that RDMSs keep the largest portion of the largest portion of the data-bases. But the chance is that they will still co-exist for a long clip hereafter with the OODBS


aˆ? An ORDBMS is a relational DBMS with SQL3 extensions.

aˆ? SQL3 extensions include: row types, user-defined types and user-defined modus operandis, polymorphism, heritage, mention types and object individuality, aggregation types ( ARRAYs ) , new linguistic communication constructs that make SQL computationally complete, triggers and support for linguistic communication objects.

aˆ? A RDBMS is characterized by simpleness and increased stableness as compared to an ORDBMS, and this fact confers it the quality of being easy used.

aˆ? A mechanism to stop up in any user – defined index construction provides the highest degree of flexibleness.

aˆ? Both DBMSs are characterized by simpleness of development owing to the fact that it provides independency of informations from applications good for simple relationships.

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aˆ? RDBMS is a mature package merchandise while ORDBMS is an immature merchandise ( extensions are new, thy are still being de-fined and are comparatively unproved.


aˆ? OODBMSs and ORDBMSs both support user-defined ADTs, structured types, object individuality and mention types, and in-heritance ;

aˆ? They both support a question linguistic communication for pull stringsing aggregation types ;

aˆ? ORDBMSs support an drawn-out signifier of SQL, and OODBMSs support ODL/OQL ;

aˆ? ORDBMSs consciously seek to add OODBMS characteristics to an RDBMS, and OODBMS in their bend have developed question linguistic communications based on relational question linguistic communications ;

aˆ? Both OODBMSs and ORDBMSs provide DBMS functionality such as concurrence control and recovery ;

aˆ? OODBMSs attempt to add DBMS functionality to a scheduling linguistic communication, whereas ORDBMSs attempt to add richer informations types to a relational Database management system


XML information does non necessitate to be instantiated as objects in OO codification in order to be processed and presented to users. Alternatively, XML informations can be decorated and enriched with tickets, and these tickets can be processed and understood

XML Schema may look really OO-like at the first glimpse, but in fact it is losing some of import OO-like capablenesss. For case, there is no element-level polymorphism.

OO scheduling is intended to optimise the coder, non the value or utility of the information. XML, on the other manus, is intended to optimise the information. If you use XQuery with XML for all informations representations, and ne’er compose any OO codification, you optimize the information ‘s utility and handiness, because informations in XML can be accessed and processed by about any package on the market. Data in an object database ca n’t.


Many developers in the hunt for greater flexibleness think their options are limited to the relational theoretical account.

Some think that shop everything in XML format, cut downing the difference between object-oriented applications and relational databases.

The relational theoretical account is limited, bounds are needed to run into the informations unity. In XML, the information construction is more relaxed but it exists.

XML schemes are really volatile concern, but really stable in other state of affairss. Not being able to happen a construction that adapts to a job of a company, does non intend that this construction does non be.

XML theoretical account should be used if the informations are scarce, this is to hold many terra incognitas, or columns ( Fieldss ) do non use to all rows ( records ) . The solution to this job is to present subtypes or implement an unfastened strategy in the relational theoretical account. Introducing subtypes can take to many new tabular arraies, with an unfastened scheme solution in the relational theoretical account can take to dynamic and complex SQL statements. An XML-based solution might be best.


From my point of position the hereafter of Internet-based concern applications is dependent on their ability to interchange information between different informations shops or database systems. Every twenty-four hours more informations such as images, digital and audio/video informations types need to be transported from one application to another one through the Net. Because relational databases store informations as planar tabular arraies, they are non ideally suited for informations use, since informations itself may be expressed in the signifier of complex constructions, object-oriented linguistic communications appears to be much more efficient, showing informations as objects with rich characteristics including heritage, polymorphism and encapsulation – for keeping relationships between objects..

However, big sums of informations across the universe are still typically stored in RDBMS ; when the information from an object-oriented universe is persisted in a planar table format ; hierarchal relationships between objects are n’t preserved, doing continuity and recovery of informations a complex undertaking. The add-on of an OODBMS in the RDBMS environment may necessitate alterations in the bing databases in order to enable communicating and informations entree among them. Furthermore, the retrieval and hunt in many instances would n’t be efficient as we expect.

As we have seen in my papers XML ‘s express intent is to supply a mechanism for the look of informations constructions so it might be a large chance to unite the engineering supplying the span between these two sorts of continuity systems and makes it unneeded for illustration object and relational databases solutions of direct transition between one another. Here we realise that despite the differences, the RDBMS and OODBMS could populate in understanding shred XML and offer their advantages for today ‘s e-business solutions.