Sea Dogs-roving English ships that plundered Spanish hoarded wealth ships ( 1560s ) St. Augustine–fort Spain created in Florida 1565 to protect the path of its hoarded wealth fleet against English ships. Gallic colonists. hostile Indians ( 1st permanent Euro. colony in US ) Comprehensive Orders for New Discoveries-new policy Spanish leaders introduced after military reverses to lenify Indians by Christianizing missionaries non conquistadores ( 1573 ) Ecomenderos-privelaged Spanish landholders in NM. who were allowed by the Franciscans to use the goods and forced labour of Indians and their land PopÃ©-an Indian priest-doctor. who killed and drove off Spaniards ( destructing Spanish churches etc ) with his followings in 1680 Samuel de Champlain-founder of the fur-trading station Quebec ( 1608 ) . first lasting Gallic settlement ) . Colony did severely until 1662 when it was turned to royal settlement Robert de La Salle-fur bargainer who in 1681 traveled down the Mississippi River to the Gulf of Mexico to establish Louisiana ( and finally New Orleans ) .
Traveled so far from Great Lakes/New France part to acquire rive by taking advantage of of distant Indians who did non cognize value of their pelts Henry Hudson-An English seaman sent by Dutch merchandisers in 1609 to happen a navigable path to East Indies/riches. Explored rivers of the NE ( clairvoyance. Hudson River ) and found plentiful pelts Fort Orange-Dutch merchandisers founded this fur-trading station ( now Albany ) in 1614 after following H. Hudson’s geographic expedition to merchandise for pelts with the Iroquois West India Company-chartered by Dutch authorities in 1621 and put up New Netherland settlement and New Amsterdam ( Manhattan ) as capital. brining in farmers/artisans to do sustainable. Subsequently acted independently. disregarding New Netherland to gain in other settlements Governor Peter Stuyvesant-governor of New Amsterdam who ruled in autocratic manner by estranging colony’s diverse occupants and disregarding representation demands.
Anglo-Dutch War-series of wars fought between the Dutch and the English in the 1600s and 1700s over control of the seas and trade paths. Early wars confirmed the Dutch Republic’s place as the taking nautical state and its domination of universe trade until the early 1700s. Virginia Company-London company of investors granted all land by King James I of England from NC to NY ( 1606 ) . Directors named land Virginia and in 1607 group of male bargainers ( no farming experience ) settled country of Jamestown with purpose of obtaining gold ( there was no gold ) . More than half of first colonists died from ocean trip. disease. dearth. Subsequently encouraged migration by allowing free colonists land. Powhatan-chief of local folks who treated the English bargainers as possible ( trade ) Alliess. and basically saved them from entire dearth when he gave them maize ( in exchange got metal tools/guns ) . Saved life of Captain John Smith from his brother Opechancanough. John Rolfe-an English settler that married Powhatan’s girl Pocahontas under his agreement ( diplomatic attempt by Powhatan ) .
Rolfe imported baccy seed from West Indies. bring forthing a profitable and in-demand harvest in Europe––spurred migration of 1000s of English colonists set uping plantations. and accordingly occupying Indian land. House of Burgesses-system of representative authorities in VA issued as a charter from the Virginia Company ( 1619 ) . Could do Torahs and levy revenue enhancements. but governor/company council in England could blackball its Acts of the Apostless. Opechancanough-Powhatan’s brother and replacement who attacked the early English encroachers ( captured Capt. John Smith ) . Stayed distant from English and refused all pacts while Powhatan head. Became main 1621. wanted to pass over out all of Englishmen ( land-hungry and transition minded ) . Started Indian War of 1622 when killed 1/3 of white English in surprise onslaught. who so viciously punished Indians and declared ageless war that lasted 10 old ages.
Privy Council-a commission of political advisors to King James I. who made it a demand that all statute law passed by the new VA governor and his consultative council of the House of Burgesses ( formed in 1624 when King James I revoked VA Company’s charter and made VA a royal settlement b/c of Indian rebellion ) had to be ratified by them. Toleration Act of 1649-Lord Baltimore persuaded the assembly ( of MD ) to go through this act––which protected his fellow Catholics ( who had become a minority to the billowing Protestants in Marlyand ) and granted all Christians the right to follow their beliefs and hold church services. Maryland was no a settlement of Christian spiritual freedom. Freeholds-Small family-farmed ( baccy ) plantations that were the chief beginning of baccy in the Chesapeake part in the early portion of the baccy roar ( 1620s ) . Indentured Servant-poor Whites in England who were impoverished and abused in Englands’ metropolis poorhouses who there were displaced to the metropoliss after the authorities enclosed their lands in the countryside.
They wanted to settle in the settlements to obtain land and economic chance ( societal mobility ) . so to pay for their transition over they signed indentations from merchandisers ( who would sell them to plantation owners ) that said they would work as a retainer on a plantation for 4-5 old ages and so were free. Many died en path or were abused to decease on plantations. and merely 25 % really acquired land and success afterwards. Black Codes-laws enforced by Chesapeake plantation owners to restrict the freedom and badly restrict rights of African workers in the settlements ( like having guns. going ) . These codifications made slavery legal. and encouraged racialist thoughts to distinguish hapless Whites from inkinesss. promoting them and do slaves inferior existences ( all because slave importing skyrocketed when baccy roar crashed ) .
Navigation Acts-passed by English Parliament in early 1660s as the chief device of mercantilist policy in England ( wanted to entirely capitalise on their American colonies’ natural stuffs and market for manufactured goods ) . they prevented settlers from selling baccy to all states besides the English ( lost money from Dutch ) . and all baccy went to England where there were higher import responsibilities. Consequently tobacco monetary values fell and plantation owners were forced to utilize the cheaper labour of black slaves. and political jobs resulted in the Chesapeake settlements. Governor William Berkeley-royal Governor of Virginia ( Jamestown ) who was instructed to run the settlement merely for the benefit of England ( 1642-1652 ) .
He was portion of. and favored the planter-merchant elite. Corrupt: to win support in House of Burgesses bribed functionaries with land grants and took vote away from landless freewomans ( 50 % of white dad. ) . Increased the already turning disparities in wealth and position among VA population. Nathaniel Bacon-a affluent husbandman ( was on governor’s council ) . he was a leader of colonial backwoodsmans in western deep Virginia ( west ) . Like other poorer farming backwoodsmans. was angered over Gov. Berkeley’s inability to protect western VA frontier land ( like his ain ) from Indian onslaughts ; besides angry at the rights and corruptness of VA’s affluent interior circle. Bacon’s Rebellion-1676. Nathaniel Bacon led other fellow hapless backwoodsmans on Indian foraies because they were being attacked by Indians.
The hapless backwoodsmans were all angry at the baccy monopoly that the elect eastern plantation owners had. that they lost their vote rights. and that they were overtaxed. Gained popularity with his Indian foraies. Seen as a Martyr when he was arrested by Berkeley and was freed by beefeaters. He and forces burned Jamestown. but when he died Berkeley violently crushed rebellion with British military assistance. Made settlements turn off from indentured servant labour and toward slave labour. Manifesto and Declaration of the Peoples
William Bradford-Puritan who led Puritans and migrators from England ( 102 ) to America in 1620 aboard the Mayflower and settled in Plymouth. in SE MA. While en path. he said they lacked a royal charter from England. and issued the Mayflower Compact. Mayflower Compact-issued by William Bradford on board Mayflower to migrants/Puritans which coalesced the migrators ( merely desiring to travel to VA for economic chance ) with the Puritans ( desiring to be independent and free of Protestant VA ) by declaring they would populate in a “civil organic structure politick” utilizing the Puritans’ autonomous fold to determine their political construction. John Winthrop-Well-educated Puritan state squire who led the hegira of Puritans from England in 1630 ( they were being persecuted against by “Catholic” King Charles I ) . to put up regulate the Massachusetts Bay Colony ( Boston ) . He declared to his people “we shall be as a City upon a Hill. “
He meant that God had chosen them to be a shining illustration and hope for all ( Christian ) faiths. like those in what he considered to be a morally corrupt England. wanted to animate spiritual reform throughout the Christian universe. Massachusetts Bay-Colony established and governed by John Winthrop 1630. who led hegira of Puritans from a morally corrupt England where his people were being persecuted. sought to make a “New” England that was a Reformed Christian society. Colony was a representative political organic structure with an assembly. and made Puritanism the exclusive province faith ( no other faiths allowed ) . merely church members could vote/hold office. Used Bible as legal usher. and embraced simple Christian principles––churches were controlled by the people ( Congregationalist ) with no hierarchy and were conventicles. These Puritans believed in predestination ( John Calvin ) . a philosophy that God chose merely a choice few persons for redemption before they were born.
Many sought a “born again” experience. Because they thought they were “chosen” as a metropolis upon a hill. they felt the right to prehend Indian lands. Roger Williams-Roger Williams was a Puritan curate who opposed Congregationalism. praised the separation of church and province. advocated spiritual tolerance ( the authorities didn’t have authorization over religious lives ) . and didn’t believe in Puritan’s ictus of Indian land. These were all opposite positions than the position quo of Mass. Bay. In 1636. he was banished so he led his followings to settle the town of Providence ( Rhode Island ) the land he bought from Indians. Get a charter from Parliament in 1644 to set up the settlement of Rhode Island ( complete spiritual freedom ) . Anne Hutchinson-A Mass. Bay married woman who held hebdomadal supplication meetings for adult females. she preached controversial and differing positions: she believed redemption could non be achieved through good workss. people merely bestowed by God through “the compact of grace. “
She said that God spoke his Godhead truth straight to persons. non through the church. As a adult female with considerable influence. she was banished in 1637. for her dissident positions and as a menace to the high quality of work forces in the Puritan church. Joined Roger Williams in RI. Thomas Hooker-Puritan curate who brought some Puritans to the Connecticut River Valley in 1636 and established the town of Hartford ( left NE because of differing positions and hunt for better farming area ) . Connecticut became royal settlement in 1660 with charter from King Charles II. Had a lawfully established church but granted voting rights to all land-owning work forces. Cotton Mather-A popular Puritan theologist who believed in supernatural forces. that unusual events were the power displayed by God or Satan. Lead to the Salem Witch Trials.
Spectral Evidence-The grounds allowed by Judgess at the accused witches’ tests ( in the Salem Witch Trials ) . which was visions of evil existences and Markss seen merely by the misss ( who suffered “supernatural” ictuss ) . Praying Towns-Indian small towns that Puritan curates like John Eliot turned into intensely Christian communities by 1670 in attempts to change over Indians. The 1000 Indian occupants lost their independency and civilization. and new native signifier of Christianity were made by traditional religious beliefs incorporated into churches.
Metacom-Chief of the Wampanoags who with two other folks staged a rebellion in 1675-1676. assailing white colonies all over New England in hopes to eventually throw out the Europeans. He knew coexistence was improbable and was angry that NE settlers restricted their trade and accused them of many misdemeanors. Had they non run out of gunpowder. the rebellion might hold been a success. The NE colonies’ losingss were important. as some topographic points lost 5 % of their population ; but Indians lost 25 % of their population and the three folks ( Wampanoags. Narragansetts. and Nipmucks ) displaced/retreated west to the backcountry.