Chapter 2 Review Literature The chapter states the different literature and studies that were conducted for the research to gain familiarity that are relevant and similar to the present study. In Executive Order No. 264, initiative in ICT was defined as the totality of electronics means of collecting, storing, processing and presenting information to end-users in support of their activities. It consists, among other computer systems, office systems and consumer electronics including the telephone system, the internet, fax machine and computers.
Republic Act No. 8792, know and known as the “Electronic Commerce Act of 2001” provided for the Computerization of all government services by the year 2002. The state recognized the vital role of information and communication technology (ICT) in nation-building, the need to create an information-friendly environment which support and ensures the availability, diversity and affordability of ICT products and services, and a labor force skilled in the use of ICT and population capable of operating and utilizing electronic appliances and computers.
Its obligation is to facilitate the transfer and promotion of technology, to ensure network security, connectivity and neutrality of technology for the national benefit. In addition, the Information and Electronic Commerce Council (ITECC) was created July 12, 2000 through Executive Order No. 264 through the merging of the Nation Information Technology Council (NITC) and the Electronic Commerce Promotion Council (ECPC).
This aims to ensure a streamlined and focused formulation and Implementation of ICT and e-commerce policies, to enable the country to move faster and keep pace with rapid developments in Technology and complete in the global digital economy. Computerization world is more efficient one, which is the processing the big quantities of data. By the use of computers, computerization is a control system that manages the processes in a workplace. It reduces the human error and processing time, thus it provides a high quality of product to produce.
This can result a well-integrated processes that can be perform faster and accurate than the manual system. The rapid spread of computer and telecommunication technologies throughout white-collar work has forced social scientists to consider the impact of these technologies on the people who use them directly and on the work force and economy as a whole. Computerization helps to support (1) Working towards making the system paperless or minimizing the paper work and to provide, (2) Give pace to the Business, (3) To create the data base for analysis (4) Fast Reporting & Queries.
The use of computer are continue to grow, the need for a more timely information and data processing comes on demand keeping the records of any manual operations need the application of computer because handling it manually will only be conflicting. (Alcaria,2004) The reason for using computers varies from person to person. Some of the computers in business are to perform accuracy, to be as productivity, to decrease bottle necks or hassles to alter cash flows or to simples elevate your status. Lewis (2002). The computerization responded to the call the office or any workplace to help their daily operation. Tinn,2001) Computers are an intelligence amplifier that can free human to use their time effectively. Because a computer is a fast and accurate electronic symbol or data manipulating system that design automatically accept and store input data process and procedure output results under the direction of the stored program or instruction. (Sander,2002) (Towsand,2005) stated that database is structured collection of data. The data may be about people, product events in short, any type of information is to manage the collection of data for reporting and making decision.
Some advantages of database processing first economy of scale getting more information from some amount of data, sharing data balancing conflicting requirement, enforcement of standard, controlled redundancy consisting integrity security ,flexibility and responsiveness ,increase programmers productivity, improve program maintenance and data independence. (Adamski,2007) (Ahitud et. al,2007) Mentioned that information system are more collection of hardware, software and people. They should be constructed to fit the organization’s strategy and structure so that it could easily be adapted to the information they needed. Asumbra,2002) Access to information is the best way to. In line with technology access to information within fingertips is the easier way to be equipped in the future. The information system is a set of people, procedures and resources that collects, transforms and disseminates information in an organization to do’s ends rely on many types of information system (IS). They might include simple manual information system and informal system and also computer based information system that uses hardware, software telecommunication and other forms of information technology (IT). Bryan,2006) (Janes,2001) stated that computers are extremely reliable device and very powerful calculators with some great accessories applications like word processing problem for all of business activities, regardless of size, computers have three advantages over other type of office equipment that process information because computer are faster, more accurate more economical. Student Information System Educational Institutions nowadays are focusing their mission and vision in the quality of education. To do this, they are equipped with numbers of professionals who will be the best asset in the course of education, the Faculty.
Facilities also play a big part in good education environment. Administration is last but not the least to complete the essential parts of an Educational Institution. Administering the whole institution is a big responsibility. There should be a proper segregation of duties, from staff to department. It involves not just the filing but the whole organization itself. That is why computer generated system is introduced to lessen the burden of everyone and to get every job done in the most convenient and fastest way.
One of the best methods of student administration is the Student Records System. Student records system is professional and academic discipline concerned with the strategic, managerial and operational activities involved in the gathering, processing, storing, distributing and use of information, and its associated technologies, in society and organizations. Specifically, this computer-based record system is complementary networks of hardware/software that people or organization use to collect, filters, and process, create and distribute data.
Records systems are implemented within an organization for the purpose of improving the effectiveness and efficiency of that organization. Capabilities of the information system and characteristics of the organization, its work systems, its people, and its development and implementation methodologies together determine the extent to which that purpose is achieved. Notably, student information system or SIS incurs such application software designed for educational establishments to manage student data. Student information systems provide capabilities for entering student test and other ssessment scores, building student schedules, tracking student attendance as well as managing many other student-related data needs within the institution university. Thus, many of these systems applied in the Philippines can be scaled to different levels of activity and can be configured by their home institutions to meet local needs. Moreover, before universities have created their own bespoke student record systems, but with growing complexity in the business of educational establishments, organizations now choose to buy customizable within the shelf software.
It can be that, modern student information systems are usually server-based, with the application residing on central computer server and are being accessed by client applications at various places within and even outside the school. During the year 1990s, student information systems have been changing and are fast adopted through the presence of a web medium as a channel for accessing SIS without any hassle upon viewing student details and information.
Ideally, educational institutions are under constant pressure to demonstrate both willingness and capacity to incorporate the latest developments in student information systems along with communications technology supporting various teaching ways. As (Liao et al. , 2007) asserts that SIS process within such technological sophistication does create precise knowledge edge, that such SIS application can be appealing to students and to the academic faculty as well as the parents.
Thus, believing that technology is the repository of the bulk of the information that underpins society’s major enterprises and concerns and the medium of communication through which SIS interact with one another. Furthermore, SIS is transforming educational tactics understandings and school practices in relation to system information and to be able to assist better communication ground through SIS execution, as found within the heart of learning mechanisms (Liao et al. 2007). SIS as of today is changing what people is learning upon such as with the burgeoning of the Internet, the control exercised in the past by the Philippines from various departments of education and by individual teachers over pedagogical content may have diminished significantly. Through this new informative medium, resources of varying quality and provenance on virtually diverse subject matter are now available to the students. (Valina et. l, 2009) entitled “Network-based student Permanent Record keeping and Enrollment System of Balian National High School”. This System was made to lessen the time and effort exerted by both student and school employees. It is also made to give accurate reports and keep records of every students every students and for easy and fast way of enrollment. (Velasco, 2002) Study entitled “Maulawin National High School Student Information System” cited that maintaining students, records manually is a very difficult task and time consuming.
In that case, computerization system that can help and handle this data needed to speed up the process of student’s record keeping and to promote and reliability. (Torres et. al. ,2002) conducted a study that resolves around the importance computerization of student information. This study was conducted with the hope that it would help minimize time and effort in processing student’s information in Maulawin National High School. The basic feature of this study is after the storage and access of retrieving and updating the data. Solomon,2002) developed Enrollment and Record keeping System, to know how to read sign the data that is used to be kept the record files of students and also that, it could be mange more efficiently in computer with his project. (Cabang et. al. ,2003) developed the ‘computerized Students Record Monitoring System of Siniloan National High School”, Computerized Student data will be exceedingly helped to the user through continuous management of the School. It could help the registrar for a less effort services in the institutions especially in updating, printing and deleting student’s record.