Sociology GCSE mass media notes Essay

New media – anything that uses new engineering that normally involves some procedure of convergence e. g. phones as they can now entree the cyberspace. New media is likely to be digital. synergistic and dispersed ( non controlled by a individual beginning of professionals ) . Democracy – regulation by the people for the people

Consumer society physiques as it is cheaper and quicker for companies to publicize on the cyberspace Exploits WC and MEG’s through intelligence. stereotypes. common people Satans and media ampflication Faster for many maps such as advertisement and research etc Reinforces digital divide as the RC are more likely to posses new media The cyberspace enables us to be democratic as it allows us to see and research information Increases societal isolation as those without new media feel less ‘involved’ . Allows us to hold more cognition and enhances us intellectually Higher hazard of condemnable behavior go oning e. g. fraud. illegal downloads and pedophiles of children’s web sites Widens consumer pick

Lack of ordinance – many things go uncensored and undiscovered

Infotainment – the replacement of intelligence information by amusement

Enhances the power of the powerful. put on the lining democracy as we merely see information from the side of those in power

Theoretical positions
Functionalist – media reinforces societal order through the N & A ; V’s system Marxist – division of labor is kept as WC can non go socially nomadic due to hapless entree to information Feminist – dislike how adult females are portrayed ; adult females that go against portraiture are seen as aberrant Functionalist – socialises us with N & A ; V’s. gender functions etc Marxist – selective as it exploits the WC ; it is ever from the point of position of the RC and those in power Feminist – dislike how adult females are portrayed ; adult females that go against portraiture are seen as aberrant Functionalist – no job with it as it provides information Marxist – disfavor as it benefits the RC and reinforces the digital divide Feminist – disfavor as it present adult females in a derogative manner e. g. erotica

The Press – in private owned media that chiefly communicates the intelligence ; they are profitable administrations Airing – tonss is financed in private: PBS is non profit devising. CSB is private and the BBC brand net income through Television licences with monetary values decided by the authorities.

Media affect on behavior
The hyperdermic syringe theoretical account – The media has power over its audience: it can command and carry people. The audience receives its day-to-day injections of information from the media and this determines behavior. It has an immediate consequence o the audience as the media controls us. Evidence to back up the HSM

Lab experiments were conducted by Bandura Ross and Ross & A ; Liebert and Baron. Bandura: kids who watched force were more likely to hit the doll with a mallet. However. there were no other playthings to play with and the kids were cognizant this was wanted from them. Liebert and Baron: Child that watched force were given the option to assist or ache person when visible radiation came on. bespeaking a kid in another room needed aid with a game.

Many clicked injuries. which sent an electric daze. However. lab experiments do non mensurate long term affects and we can non insulate media as a variable. The utilizations and satisfaction theoretical account is used to reason against the HSM. The utilizations and satisfaction theoretical account – The media does non utilize us ; we use the media. This theory is how the media is used to actively fulfill peoples’ demands based on their ability to exert pick and control. Audiences actively seek media for specific satisfactions and this theory trades with why media is chosen. what purpose media serves. and how media competes with other media beginnings to run into satisfaction. We retain information from the media based on five factors:

Information e. g. wildlife programmes
Personal Identity e. g. spiritual Television
Personal relationships e. g. Jeremy Kyle
Entertainment e. g. Big Brother
Diversion/Escapism e. g. soaps
The decrypting attack – We use the media to back up the values we already have. non give us new 1s. McQuall suggests that the audiences are active decipherers of the content of the media and have different readings in footings of: Selective keeping – retrieving certain information if it has significance to you Selective exposure – merely exposing yourself to what you want or need ; we’ll merely watch things if they support our values Selective perceptual experience – we all understand parts of the media in different ways and utilize it in different ways The media has an immediate consequence on the audience

The media does non hold an immediate consequence on the audience
Marxist – it has a negative immediate consequence on the audience as they control us to hold peculiar behaviors e. g. hierarchy Decoding attack – we expose ourselves to what we chose so merely larn what we wish to larn Hyperdermic syringe theoretical account – the media controls our behavior as we are given day-to-day injections Selective keeping – we merely retrieve the information that means something to us Imitation – we copy what we see

Selective exposure – we merely expose ourselves to the media that involvements us Functionalists believe values are learnt through the media
Selective perceptual experience – we all interpret the media in different ways. so our behavior is non instantly or straight affected in the same manner

Media can besides be to fault for pervert and condemnable behavior: Media affects
Explanation…
Imitation
The audience are influenced by what they see to the extent that they copy the images and messages they are exposed to. Children in peculiar are prone to imitation and frequently prosecute in violent and inappropriate behavior as a consequence. Sensitization

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The audience hears and sees a batch of images in the media that makes them more cognizant of the effects of the behavior. They are less likely to prosecute in the behavior and alternatively are likely to describe to the constabulary or intervene if the behavior is witnessed. For illustration. kid maltreatment studies went up due to coverage in soaps Desensitisation

If an audience is exposed to force in most of the media end product. they begin to believe what they see is normal and are hence no longer shocked by it in existent life Cathartic consequence
Sexual activity and force in the media helps the audience to let go of built-in tensenesss and anxiousnesss. By watching the behavior there is no demand to prosecute in it. Sexual activity wrongdoers are treated with erotica Disinhibition

Violent and sexual images become so common that the audience no longer feels embarrassed or ashamed to act in this manner as they think it is normal

Moral terror – the false concern about people and deviance/crime in society Deviance elaboration theoretical account
1 ) A little group of people commit some act of aberrance
2 ) The media pick up on the interesting narrative: a ‘problem group’ is identified

3 ) The media sensationalise the intelligence to catch the attending of the audience

4 ) Causes of the aberrant behavior are simplified for easy account e. g. bad parenting

5 ) The group is labelled as common people Satans and pigeonholing occurs ; other incidents of this aberrant behavior are made into intelligence and it seems more common than it truly is

6 ) A moral terror develops and the public’s concern is aroused at the existent or fanciful ‘threat’ posed to society ; the media run for action to be taken against the sensed menace

7 ) More societal control – politicians. constabulary and magistrates respond to public demands as shown in the media. and law-and-order runs are begun to stomp down on the perverts

The impact of media on society today
Primary socialization – the first topographic point to larn the norms and values of society ; the household

Secondary socialization – other countries of your life in which the value system is reinforced or. in some instances. contradicted

Functionalists believe the media is good as it reinforces societal order Marxists dislike the media as they reinforce the hierarchy of the RC over the WC and false category consciousness Feminists dislike the media as it reinforces gender functions and patriarchate

What the media reinforces
Through…
Gender functions
Children’s programmes & A ; adverts
Patriarchy
Soaps & A ; music picture
Political socialization
Debates & A ; the intelligence
Glamorization of force
Soaps & A ; picture games
Hegemonic maleness
Competition between work forces & A ; soaps
Stereotypes
Soaps

Global civilization – when the civilization of one community spreads worldwide through media and. globally. people are exposed to this civilization. It is besides known as media imperialism. Mass civilization – the civilization shared by the bulk of society due to a general involvement in certain things the media nowadayss Media dominates household life ; whereas before households were hardworking. hierarchal and communicative around the fireplace. households today have their life suites organised around the Television ( the replacement fireplace ) and other media devices dominate leisure clip.

Identity – who you are as a individual ; this can be influenced by what we see in the media as. presents. people use the media to corroborate and research their individualities. The media shapes our positions on what we should be devouring and what we should be like.

The media’s representation of age. gender & A ; ethnicity
Childs
Rogers argues that kids are presented as either angels or Satans. The impact of this is that kids are non held accountable for their actions if they are angles. However. it they are Satans. they experience negative interaction as they are to fault. These stereotypes lead to labelling Young persons

The intelligence amplifies narratives on young persons to do their oblique and condemnable behavior appear more common. Teens become common people Satans as they are all believed to be delinquent. Cohen says that the immature every bit used as flower stalk caprine animals for society’s ain issues and this can take to a self-fulfilling prognostication. Age

As kids are easy manipulated. gender stereotypes are reinforced through Television programmes. This is known as age patriarchate. Aged
Grumpy – conservative. obstinate and immune to societal alteration Mentally challenged – deteriorating wellness
Dependent – load on the younger coevalss as they are weak

Aged adult females – gray hair. old apparels ; being different is being ‘mutton’ Work forces have higher position as universe leaders. politicians etc
We are an age denying society

Ethnicity

Peoples are free to upload on the cyberspace as they wish so racism can go on on the cyberspace or unsafe cults can get down online YouTube is non moderated so assorted pictures can be uploaded

Impact of media on society
1 ) Socialization
2 ) Mass civilization
3 ) Effects household life
4 ) Reinforces and causes stereotypes on age gender and ethnicity 5 ) Effects behavior and can make force – audience consequence theoretical accounts 6 ) Politically socialises us
Political socialization – your acquisition of political values. beliefs and penchants Whipping system – when an MP is told they need to vote in favor of their party or they will no longer be a portion of it Rebel MP’s – Mp’s that do non vote the manner of their party Political spin ( spin physicians ) – write addresss with ‘sound bites’ that can be used as newspaper headlines Curtis and Mair ( 2008 ) believe that:

The imperativeness has excessively much influence on how people vote
Negative coverage of politicians and political relations has discouraged people from voting If readership of newspapers diminutions so:
Newspaper’s ability to act upon the results of general elections will besides hold declined Fewer people will be exposed to the press’ purportedly negative coverage of political relations and politicians that discourages people from voting at all

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The media promote democracy
The media restrict democracy
Because the media in Britain are non controlled by the province. the hazard of censoring by authoritiess is reduced. and free address is protected. Journalists are free to describe as they wish – within legal bounds The media reflect the conservative positions of their wealthy proprietors. While journalists are frequently critical and expose error. they will often avoid issues which might be them their occupations by upsetting newspaper proprietors or Television station bases The broad assortment of in private owned media means a scope of sentiments are considered and public arguments take topographic point.

By knocking the actions of authoritiess. the mass media can play an of import ‘watch-dog’ function and maintain authoritiess in touch with public sentiment The assortment of sentiment presented is limited. Propertyless political positions – such as work stoppages – are seldom reported. The thoughts and actions of the least powerful groups are the most likely to be excluded. Those who in some manner present a challenge or menace to the bing manner society is organised are presented as irresponsible or unreasonable extremists The media give an indifferent history of intelligence. Television intelligence has to be impartial News values. agenda-setting. norm-setting and other beginnings of prejudice mean merely some issues are covered. and these are non presented in impersonal ways.

The media choose what to describe and how to describe it. and hence supply a colored position of the universe The media accurately reflect public sentiments that already exist in society instead than making new 1s. Peoples wouldn’t read newspapers or position Television and websites unless they were supplying what their audiences wanted The media do non merely reflect public sentiment. but actively signifier and pull strings it. Peoples can merely organize sentiments on the footing of the cognition they have. and the media are chiefly responsible for supplying this cognition.

The proprietors of the mass media hold overpoweringly conservative positions. and their ownership gives them the power to support their place by organizing favorable public sentiment Anyone can set his or her positions onto the cyberspace via web logs. societal networking sites etc Merely the rich have the resources necessary to print and administer a newspaper on a big graduated table. or to put up a telecasting or wireless station. and it is the wealthy that ain and command the chief agencies of electronic communicating. The concentration of ownership of the mass media is a menace to democracy. as a little powerful group of media proprietors can command entree to ideas. information and cognition. Those who wish to set frontward alternate positions to that presented in the mass media may non be allowed entree to the media b their proprietors. and will hence be denied any existent chance to carry public sentiment of their thoughts

Concentration of imperativeness ownership
Functionalists take the pluralist attack and they believe that the media isn’t used by proprietors to command the audience but is available for secondary socialization. Marxists take the struggle attack as they believe that the media is used by its proprietors to command the audience. Pluralist attack

Conflict attack
A scope of involvements exist in society and no individual group dominates Society is based on conflicting involvements between different groups Media represents a scope of different involvements within society e. g. Woman’s Weekly. The Pink Paper and the Financial times Owners of the media are portion of a minority who use their power to act upon sentiments in their ain best involvements Newspapers merely give the audience what they want to have i. e. the Sun does non hold much international intelligence because readers of the Sun do non desire to read it. non because Rupert Murdoch does non desire them to cognize Press proprietors have intervened straight to command content e. g. Harry Evans was hired as editor of the Sunday Times and was so allegedly fired from his station by Rupert Murdoch as a consequence of Evans’ political policy If proprietors of the media tried to give us something we did non desire. consumerism would diminish ; this is known as consumer power and would do a lessening in companies’ net income border

The Big Six – the few companies that own a huge bulk of the imperativeness and universe media. This is debatable as these companies can advance their ain political beliefs and values through everything they own. significance we are exposed to the owners’ ain beliefs and values. They have the power to act upon our positions and beliefs. Consequences of imperativeness ownership

Political socialization – influences us to believe certain things and hence affects the vote form and behaviour Negative portraiture of MEG’s
Support those in power and authorization to reenforce capitalist economy Presentations of different groups within society – age. gender. ethnicity Cultural presentations in the media
Black populations are presented as felons. Cottle ( 1994 ) believes that this representation efficaciously hides racism and. through the hyperdermic syringe theoretical account. they believe they are condemnable and this leads to self-fulfilling prognostication Sociologists argue that people from the groups internalise – from the media – that their lives are restricted and so they live the lives shown to them by the media

Agenda puting – the media can concentrate attending on some issues and disregard
others. They don’t state us what to believe but what to believe approximately. This can impact political positions and voting wonts. Those who decide what makes the intelligence are called gatekeepers as they have the power to act upon what we think about. Norm citing – the media reinforces norms and values so we conform. Those who conform are viewed and shown in a positive visible radiation and those who don’t in a negative visible radiation.

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This causes us to label people. taking to stereotypes. The cameras are ever from the point of position of those in authorization. giving a really selective position on what is go oning. Specifying ‘New Values’ – News doesn’t happen ; journalists make intelligence and have a list of things that ‘make news’ . These are intelligence values and. the more that are satisfied. the better the intelligence is. This affects our apprehension of events. Net income motor – Media is about money ; proprietors and companies get this from advertizers.

The advertizers must be satisfied with what goes on the intelligence and the media listen because they want the money. Laws – there are Torahs in topographic point stating what the media can and can’t portion. so Torahs have a big impact on what goes on the intelligence and how the intelligence is presented. Digital natives – have grown up in the digital universe utilizing new media to pass on ; there is a digital divide between digital indigens and novitiates. Digital novitiates – have been born into a coevals that used old media to pass on and new media has been introduced within their life-time. significance they have to larn how to utilize it and hold non grown up with it.

The mass media and power
Press ownership
In Britain. imperativeness ownership is concentrated in a few custodies ; this could give some persons in the media the ability to act upon aggregate sentiment. Some argue that. in order to maintain democracy. imperativeness ownership should be spread between larger Numberss of persons. The pluralist attack to press ownership

Harmonizing to the pluralist attack. a scope of positions and involvements exists in society and no individual group dominates. This scope of positions is reflected in the broad assortment of newspapers and magazines available. so wholly political point of views are represented within the assorted publications that consumers can take to purchase.

The pluralist attack rejects the thought that imperativeness proprietors control content. Alternatively. it suggests that newspapers merely give people what they want to read as. companies that fail to make so. are improbable to win in competitory market and are more likely to travel belly-up. So. this position states that consumers are the 1s who influence content through their market power. The struggle attack to press ownership

Harmonizing to the struggle attack. imperativeness proprietors are in a strong place to set their ain political positions across. This is because. as proprietors. they are able to command content and they do so in favor of their ain political and economic involvements. Supporters of this attack point to several developments within the media to back up their place. These include the increasing concentration of imperativeness ownership in the custodies of a few companies and persons and the outgrowth of multimedia ( or cross-media ) conglomerates ( such as News Corporation ) that operate on a planetary. instead than national. graduated table. As a consequence of such developments. much of what people read comes from a few transnational media imperiums. The exercising of power within the media

The media have the power to choose which issues are ignored and exploited. In making so. they direct public treatment and hence impact what people think about it. This could give the media influence over people’s political positions and their vote behavior. The intelligence media besides have power in relation to norm citing ; they are able to sketch the acceptable boundaries of behavior. The positions and behavior of some groups and administrations are presented positively. whilst others are presented negatively. Through nor citing. positive images of some groups ad negative images of others are created. and this helps to determine public sentiment. The cyberspace and the distribution of power

Some sociologists argue that digital engineering will take to a decrease in power and influence of media power as it allows everyone to bring forth media content. instead than merely devour it. For this ground. the cyberspace could assist to safeguard democracy by distributing the power to pass on and to exercise influence more widely among different persons and groups. Because anyone can upload information. remark on information given. contact
politicians etc. they can exercise influence.

They can besides happen out about force per unit area groups ( such as Greenpeace ) or issues such as planetary heating. In this manner. the cyberspace could authorise people and supply them with more chances to take part in political relations. Other attacks. nevertheless. inquiry how far the cyberspace has increased political engagement and sceptered people as most people use the cyberspace for things like shopping instead than for political grounds. Critics besides argue that ‘e-democracy’ requires expensive engineering and support to get down up and keep so non everyone can acquire involved.

The imperativeness is free because…
The imperativeness isn’t free because…
Members of the public exercising control through our market power. We can easy exchange newspapers if we are unhappy with what we read. Hence. the market controls content and the consumer is sovereign There has been an increasing concentration of imperativeness ownership in the custodies of a few companies and persons intending smaller companies have been swallowed by media giants Owners can non merely order content but have to give us what we want to purchase Multimedia conglomerates operate on a planetary instead than a national graduated table so a little figure of transnational companies now have involvements in media across the Earth There is freedom to put up new newspapers if bing 1s do non run into market demands Multimedia pudding stones such as News Corporation have emerged as a consequence of other companies unifying together

The media is an ISA used to learn us the norms and values of a capitalist society. The media is commanding us.