This assignment will be looking at the forms of wellness and unwellness amongst the societal groups of gender. age. ethnicity. location and societal category. in order to place if there are links between societal groups and a population’s province of health/ill wellness.
Womans are more likely to develop a cognitive wellness upset compared to work forces. Harmonizing to The Guardian ( 2013 ) . ‘women are about 75 % more likely than work forces to describe late holding suffered from depression. and around 60 % more likely to describe an anxiousness upset. ’ Arguably. this may be because adult females perform a ‘triple shift’- traveling to work in the twenty-four hours and coming place to execute domestic work & A ; emotional work ; listening to their spouse talk about their twenty-four hours & A ; offering them emotional support.
This in bend can take them to going down. as they have to take on the jobs of their spouses. every bit good as their ain jobs. and experiencing like there is no-one else to speak to. Additionally. these figures may be this high. due to adult females being more likely to travel to the physician when there is something incorrect with their wellness. whereas work forces will set off traveling to the physicians. The graph below. taken from The Daily Mail. shows ‘The Percentage of Population Using Mental Health Medication’ in America. which supports the statement that adult females are more likely to develop a mental wellness upset compared to work forces.
Those who are in a higher societal position or societal category. be given to populate longer than those who are in the on the job category. or lower category. Harmonizing to Equality Human Rights ( 2014 ) . chapter 6 provinces that ‘Men in the highest socio-economic category can anticipate to populate around 7 old ages longer than work forces in the lower groups. For adult females. the spread is the same. ’ An statement for this set of statistics may be that those in a high societal category can afford private health care. therefore holding entree to exceed medical intervention. whereas those who are in the lower societal groups rely on the NHS. whose infirmaries are confronting staff deficits. higher mortality rates and longer waiting lists. Another explanation/argument for this could be that those in the lower societal categories can’t afford fresh fruit/vegetables and aren’t educated on how to populate a healthier life style. therefore going susceptible to things such as malignant neoplastic disease. bosom disease. high blood pressure/high cholesterin etc. These findings are supported by a graph produced by the Office for National Statistics. shown below.
Furthermore. life span and disease differ between different cultural groups. Equality Human Rights Chapter 6 ( 2014 ) states that ‘Black people are more likely to be homicide victims than are members of other cultural groups. A disproportional figure of people who die following contact with the constabulary are besides Black. Infant mortality is higher than mean among Black Caribbean and Pakistani groups. although. by contrast. it is lower than norm among Bangladeshi groups. ’ One statement for this. set frontward by Genetics Home Reference ( 2015 ) . provinces that ‘Some familial upsets are more likely to happen among people who trace their lineage to a peculiar geographic country. Peoples in an cultural group frequently portion certain versions of their cistrons. which have been passed down from common ascendants. If one of these shared cistrons contains a disease-causing mutant. a peculiar familial upset may be more often seen in the group. ’ Therefore. it is familial factors that determine which cultural groups are more susceptible to diseases or earlier mortality. compared to others.
This graph. taken from UK National Statistics ( 2010 ) . supports the thought that some cultural groups are more likely to be exposed to illness and disease than others. as it shows that around 15 % of those of Pakistani heritage reported sick wellness. whereas merely 6 % of the Chinese population within the UK reported being ‘ill’ . As a state. the aged in the UK are populating longer. due to progresss in medical intervention and equipment. However. the aged are still more susceptible to developing certain diseases and unwellnesss compared to younger coevalss.
Harmonizing to the Alzheimer’s Organisation web site ( 2015 ) . their statistics show that by 2015. there will be 850. 000 people populating with dementedness in the UK. and that 40. 000 of those people are younger people. Harmonizing to the NHS ( 2013 ) . Alzheimer’s or Dementia is caused by harm to the encephalon. taking to encephalon cells deceasing and non being replaced or re-created. Although we could state that this is a direct nexus to biological stagnancy due to age. our statistic shows that even younger coevalss can develop dementedness. Causes of this may be depression ( possibly from non being employed. or being employed and holding a batch of measures to pay. falling into debt etc. ) . encephalon tumors and long-run intoxicant maltreatment can besides lend to people to develop dementedness. ( NHS. 2013 ) .
This graph. seen online on Hub Pages. ( 2013 ) shows the turning instances in people who are developing dementedness. Although it has been discussed that younger people can develop dementedness. this graph shows that the highest proportion of people who have dementia are between the ages of 65 and 85. hence demoing that aged people are more susceptible to developing dementedness. compared to younger people.
In decision. this assignment shows that there is a clear correlativity between different societal groups and how susceptible they are to developing unwellnesss compared to others.
Additionally. location can impact on wellness. unwellness and lifetime. Some states may hold a higher or lower lifetime for their population compared to other topographic points. For illustration. Equality Human Rights. Chapter 6 ( 2014 ) . ‘There are differences in life anticipation between different parts of Britain. Life anticipation in Scotland scopes from 3 old ages lower than in England and 2 old ages lower than Wales. Overall. more people die early in Scotland than in any other western European state. ’ Harmonizing to The Daily Mail ( 2012 ) . the ground for this is that Scotland has low employment rates. and research workers province that ‘decades of bad political decisions’ are besides to fault for Scotland’s high mortality rate. Furthermore. the article farther argues that there isn’t a individual cause for the high mortality rate ; there are multiple causes. These causes include: ’ migration. genetic sciences. single values. substance maltreatment. clime. maltreatment. deindustrialisation and political onslaught. ’
This graph. taken from Poverty Org. ( 2015 ) shows that premature deceases in both sexes are unusually higher in Scotland compares to elsewhere in the UL. hence endorsing up the point made earlier.
In decision. this assignment shows that there is a clear correlativity between different societal groups and how susceptible they are to developing unwellnesss compared to others.
This assignment aims to associate sociological positions to statistics gathered about each societal group seen in P3. and seeing whether positions support or make non back up these facts and figures.
Statisticss produced from The Guardian ( 2013 ) shows that ‘women are about 75 % more likely than work forces to describe late holding suffered from depression. and around 60 % more likely to describe an anxiousness upset. ’ Feminists argue that society is patriarchal- it is run by work forces for work forces. which leads to the subjugation of adult females. in the place and in employment. There are three ‘subtypes’ to Feminism: 1. The first is Marxist Feminism. which argues that working category adult females are oppressed by the middle class. every bit good as work forces. 2. The 2nd type is Extremist Feminism. who claim that work forces command all facets of a woman’s life. as society and the household construction is patriarchal and hence forces adult females into going homemakers and female parents. Extremist Feminists are more likely to contend subjugation by come ining cheery relationships and implementing ‘baby bans’ until there is equality. 3. The 3rd is Broad Feminism. who acknowledge that there has been a positive alteration in making equality. due to Acts of the Apostless such as The Equal Pay Act ( 1975 ) . The Sexual Discrimination Act ( 1970 ) and being given Voting Rights in the 1920’s.
Therefore. Feminism would back up this statistic. as adult females would go down if they had no control over their fundss. finishing her responsibilities as an employee. married woman. female parent. cook. cleaner etc. every twenty-four hours. compared to her hubby who would entirely execute his ‘breadwinner’ function. This shows that adult females have a batch of duties placed on them. chiefly through the patriarchal social construction and gender functions. accordingly demoing they are oppressed by work forces. ( Class notes 2015 and AS Sociology notes. 2013 ) .
Marxism is a whole argues that labors ( the working category ) are oppressed by the middle class ( upper category ) because they have a lower economic position and the middle class have the Government on their side. as they control the work forces. Consequently. Marxists would non back up this statement. as adult females produce healthy workers by cooking for them. who are so exploited by the middle class. Therefore. they would reason that because labor work forces are exploited by the middle class and don’t have their wants met ( such as an addition in pay ) . they would be more likely to endure from depression & A ; emphasis. compared to adult females who merely perform domestic and caring functions. ( AS Sociology notes. 2013 ) .
Statisticss put frontward by Equality Human Rights ( 2014 ) . provinces that ‘Men in the highest socio-economic category can anticipate to populate around 7 old ages longer than work forces in the lower groups. For adult females. the spread is the same. ’ The New Right Theory. used by politicians to propose how society should be run. argues that persons should take and accept duty to maintain themselves healthy and that we should pay for ourselves. They further argue that private health care is better. as it ensures people receive high quality intervention. and that benefits merely produces dependance on the Government to screen out people’s issues. such as health care. when it has nil to make with the province. However. they do admit that persons who are in poorness through no mistake of their ain are meriting of health care. ’
Therefore. it can be argued that New Right theoreticians would back up the statement. as those who don’t rely on Government outgo and are non in poorness can afford higher quality intervention for health care. which ensures that they live a longer and healthier life. compared to person who is on benefits and who rely on the NHS. Collectivism. another political position. argues that we should portion the duty of wellness and that we should be responsible for supplying health care to all. through shared duties and values. e. g. revenue enhancements that go towards the NHS to supply proper health care. Therefore. they wouldn’t back up this statement. as they would reason that everyone should be given just and good intervention. regardless of whether they are in poorness. in employment etc. ( Class notes. 2015 ) .
In decision. this assignment looks at the attack sociological positions take towards facts. figures and statistics put frontward by the Office for National Statistics and gives different point of views and sentiments.
This assignment will look at The Black Report of 1980 and its 4 accounts in relation to sociological accounts on wellness and unwellness. Harmonizing to Sociology in Nursing and Healthcare. written by Hannah Cooke and Susan Philpin. the Black Report of 1980 concluded that the working/lower category experienced a lower criterion of wellness throughout their lives. even with the debut of wellness and public assistance reforms. The US National Library of Medicine ( 2015 ) further argues that wellness inequalities faced by those in a lower societal position was widened by the debut of NHS. instead than diminished. The Black Report nevertheless. contradicts itself here. as the US National Library of Medicine ( 2015 ) argued that the study identified that these inequalities were non all attributable to the NHS weaknesss. but instead were attributed to hapless lodging. poorness. instruction. lodging. diet & A ; conditions of work. Therefore. this study aimed to set steps in topographic point in order to battle these inequalities. for illustration free instruction. National Minimum Wage etc.
The study consists of four accounts ; the artefact account. the societal choice account. the behavioral account and the mercenary account. Harmonizing to the Sociology of Health and Illness ( 2008 ) . the artefact account looks at how societal category and wellness are measured as variables and concludes that the relationship between these variables tells us nil about the causes of disease. In general. this account argues that mistakes can be made. Sociology of Health and Illness ( 2008 ) goes onto define natural/selection as wellness act uponing an individual’s opportunities of doing their manner up on the societal graduated table and holding societal mobility. This account identifies that there is a connexion between societal category and wellness. with societal category being the dependant variable. The cultural/behavioural account contrasts with the natural choice account. harmonizing to Sociology of Health and Illness ( 2008 ) . as it acknowledges that there is a relationship between societal category and wellness. but wellness is the dependent variable.
The article from Sociology of Health and Illness so goes onto province that this account argued that gradients in wellness are the consequences of differences in societal category behavior. e. g. ingestion of harmful trade goods such as fast nutrient. coffin nails. intoxicant etc. deficiency of exercising and the differences in health care interventions. Therefore as a whole. this account argues that lifestyle influences an individual’s wellness position. The 4th and concluding account listed under the Black Report of 1980 is the mercenary account. The article taken from the Sociology of Health and Illness ( 2008 ) describes this attack as being similar to the cultural/behavioural account. as they both acknowledge the relationship between societal category and wellness with wellness being the dependant variable. but this last attack is concerned with how societal constructions impact on wellness. and how differences predetermined by production and ingestion is the chief ground for wellness inequalities between societal categories.
We can use these accounts to statistics. in order to see which would hold or back up the statistic. and which would differ or non back up the statistic.
For illustration. if we use the statistic that states that ‘women are about 75 % more likely than work forces to describe late holding suffered from depression. and around 60 % more likely to describe an anxiousness disorder’ . we are able to use these four accounts. The artefact account would differ with the statistic. as it would reason that mistakes can be made whilst garnering the research to roll up the statistics. This can be done if the research worker asks a larger proportion of adult females than work forces about their mental wellness position. or if the sample population consisted of more adult females than work forces. However. the artefact account could besides be in favor of the statistic. as work forces could lie about the province of their mental wellness. as there is stigma still attached to mental unwellness and jobs. When it comes to the natural/social choice attack. it can be argued that it is an unjust attack to utilize when analyzing this statistic. as mental wellness issues and unwellness can develop through traumatic experiences. or even simpler things such as the seasons and daytime. ( Teens Health Organisation 2014 ) .
If we take the 3rd attack. the behavioral attack. it would hold with the statistic on the footing that lifestyle can impact mental wellness. as unexpected life events such as mourning. alcohol/drug dependence. going unemployed etc. can all lend towards an single development depression. However. this attack would non to the full agree with the statistic. as it is based on life style and societal category impacting an individual’s wellness. instead than their sex finding who is more likely to develop an anxiousness upset or depression. Finally. the mercenary attack would back up the statistic. as there might non be as many resources available to adult females to assist get the better of depression and anxiousness as there is for work forces. However. this attack could besides reason that there aren’t a batch of resources for work forces to experience comfy with speaking about mental upsets.
Harmonizing to Medical News ( 2011 ) . adult females are 3 times more likely to travel to the physicians on a regular footing than work forces. Therefore. this can connote that work forces don’t feel comfy speaking to physicians about wellness issues and may experience embarrassed if they do. potentially doing them to avoid speaking about their mental wellness jobs. which accordingly would impact any statistics collected. Another statistic we can use these accounts to relates to societal class- ‘Men in the highest socio-economic category can anticipate to populate around 7 old ages longer than work forces in the lower groups. For adult females. the spread is the same. ’ The artefact account would be unjust to utilize to analyze this statistic. as it argues that the relationship between the variables of societal category and wellness do non state anything about how unwellness is developed ( Sociology of Health and Illness. 2008 ) and does non take life span into consideration. hence doing it unsuitable to back up this statistic.
The natural/social choice attack would back up this statistic. as it argues that wellness influences societal mobility- therefore if person is born into poorness and are more open to disease. they can non travel up the societal graduated table and are non unfastened to better health care chances and interventions. taking to premature decease. Whereas if person who was born into a affluent household high on the societal graduated table and can afford private medical intervention. they are more likely to populate longer. The behavioral attack would besides back up this statement. as those who are in poorness and unemployment will choose for cheaper nutrients ( e. g. processed/frozen nutrients ) . may fall into depression and are more open to things such as alcohol addiction. coffin nails. drugs etc. all of which lead to unwellnesss that can shorten life span. whereas those who are in a higher societal category can afford to populate healthily. can pay on a regular basis to utilize resources such as gyms/swimming pools/dance categories etc. to maintain tantrum and hence extend their lifetime.
Finally. the mercenary account would non back up this statistic. as it would reason there are resources put into topographic point to assist battle issues faced by those of a lower societal category. such as the NHS. nutrient Bankss. benefits. rehabilitation schemes etc. which in bend can be used to assist persons who are portion of the lower category to get the better of the things that can shorten their lifetime and purpose towards widening it. In decision. these attacks vary on how supportive they are sing the nature of each statistic brought frontward. although they all come from The Black Report of 1980. These accounts allow the steps put frontward by the study to be analysed from 4 different point of views and can assist researches to find the truth of statistics.