Sociological Imagination Essay Sample

1. A manner of looking at the universe
2. Relies on the scientific method – research
3. Encourages people to oppugn why society is set up the manner it is 4. Emphasizes societal diverseness
What are the benefits of utilizing the sociological position? Helps us assess the truth of “commonsense”
Helps us assess chances and restraints in our ain lives and the lives of others Empowers us to efficaciously take part in society
Helps us live in a diverse universe
Ecological Fallacy: Sociologists talk about forms in collectives or groups. Because an person is a member of a peculiar group. that individual does non needfully exhibit all traits that characterize the group as a whole Socialization: Life-long procedure through which we learn our civilization. develop a sense of ego. and go functioning members of a society Social Conflict: Dominant group determines what constitutes mainstream civilization Disadvantaged/oppressed groups buy into dominant civilization. Ex. Individualism Social Learning Theory: Contrasts with psychoanalytic theories by concentrating on discernible behaviours Social Institutions: A predictable. established manner to supply for one or more of society’s basic demands. Ex-husband: Education. wellness attention. political. economic. household 4 Social Changes:

The Industrial Revolution
The Growth of Cities
Political Change
Rapid Expansion of Colonialism
2 different ways of explicating societal relationships:
Theological – Using faith to explicate societal construction and group differences Science – Scientific Torahs can explicate human behaviour and societal construction Interdependence: Everything is related. so a alteration in one facet of society needfully changes everything else in that society Manifest Functions: Intended map of some facet of society. Example: Prisons. instruction Latent Functions: Unintended map of some facet of society. Example: Prisons. childcare The 5 Sociological Paradigms

1. Structural Functional Approach: In a stable society. alteration would non happen often. Positions change as a mark that things are non working decently. Causes of alteration are frequently viewed as disfunctions because they prevent stableness. Macro-social attack

Focuss on big groups. whole societies
Emphasizes stableness. solidarity
Organic Analogy – Society is like a organic structure

2. Conflict Theory: Macro-social attack. The philosophers have merely interpreted the universe in assorted ways ; the point. nevertheless. is to alter it. Explicitly focuses on inequality and differences in power. Argues that all people are equal. Differences exist because of unequal chances. Conflict is inevitable – there will ever be clangs over limited resources. Change is inevitable – predicted revolution.

3. Symbolic Interaction Theory: Micro-social attack. Focuss on little group interactions Symbolic Interaction Approach:
Social Construction
We create our universe through interactions
There is no 1 aim world when it comes to how a society should work Thus. alteration is rather possible

4. The Feminist Perspective:
Developed out of the review that sociological research was androcentric Like struggle theory. emphasizes power. inequality and the demand for alteration Not merely concerned about gender prejudices
Explicitly stress how race. category. gender. and sexuality impact behaviour and life experience Besides seek to give voice to underprivileged groups
Chapter 3- Culture:
androcentric: Broad generalisations about all of society would be made based on research conducted merely on white males civilization: Consists of beliefs. values. behaviours and material objects that together organize a people’s manner of life What is the difference between stuff and non-material civilization? Material civilization in touchable. Non-material civilization consists of thoughts. 5 constituents of civilization:

Symbols: Anything that carries a peculiar significance for members of a certain civilization Language: A system of symbols that allow for communicating between persons within a society. Sometimes used to find how many distinguishable civilizations there are in the universe – by this step. there are 1000s Valuess: Culturally defined criterions by which we judge what is good/bad. moral/immoral. desirable/undesirable Beliefs: Beliefs are specific statements about what we believe to be true and are based on our values Norms: Rules of behavior that guide people’s behaviour in specific state of affairss. Norms are an look of civilization

Moress: Norms that are widely observed and have high moral significance. Example: Monogamy Taboo: refers to a norm so strongly engrained that even the idea of its misdemeanor is greeted with repugnance Folkways: Norms that are more insouciant. Example: No suit jacket to a wedding Sanctions: Punishments for go againsting norms. wagess for conforming to norms cultural transmittal: We pass down civilization from one coevals to the following Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis: Language shapes how we understand and behave in the universe. Example 1: Eskimo words for snow. Example 2: Orwell’s Newspeak and freedom Pierre Bourdieu and Cultural Capital: certain “cultural wonts and…dispositions” inherited from household are basically of import to school success Hunting and Gathering Societies: Characterized by usage of simple tools to run animate beings and gather flora for nutrient Everyone’s endurance depends on the procedure of garnering nutrient. therefore everyone who is capable participates in this activity There are surpluss. there’s nil to roll up. These societies tend to be really classless. Gardening and Pastoralism: Use of simple manus tools and domesticated animate beings Allows for more lasting colonies

Now use carnal labour in the Fieldss
Permanent colonies
Allowed for great population growing
Used money. alternatively of bartering system

Industrialization: Production of goods was now complete utilizing complex machinery Changed cultural values of the household
Raised life criterions. increased life span
Decreases in inequality. expanded personal freedom
Post-Industrialism: Rely on information engineering. Rather than making things. we create and portion thoughts and information Subculture: Section of the civilization that portions features that distinguishes it from the broader civilization. Examples: Surfers. college pupils. adolescents. cultural groups Counterculture: are far more utmost. Actively oppose cultural norms widely accepted in larger society

How does multiculturalism reference reviews of the subculture attack? Embraces the cultural diverseness within the U. S. Possibly alternatively of runing pot. we should take to be a large salad Ethnocentrism: We tend to see our ain civilization as ‘natural’ . We besides tend to see our ain civilization as superior to other civilizations. the pattern of judging another civilization by the criterions of one’s ain civilization Cultural Relativism: All civilizations are valuable

Each civilization must be evaluated and understood harmonizing to its ain criterions Practical considerations
Ethical considerations
Robert Edgerton “Sick Societies” ( 1992 ) : Judge by their people’s felicity. wellness. survival… elements of development Value Cluster: Valuess are non independent units ; alternatively some come together to organize a larger whole or value bunch Major Bunchs:

– Leisure
– Self-fulfillment
– Physical Fitness
– Youth
– Concern for the Environment
John Porter ( Americanization of Canadian Values? ( 1965 ) ) : Canadians. unlike the U. S. . do non hold a consolidative political orientation Structural Functionalism: Every society has to happen a manner to run into basic demands Aspects of civilization map as a means towards run intoing those demands. Example: Sacred cattles in India Symbolic Interactionism: Remember. functionalism highlights how all cultural imposts work to let society to work swimmingly Symbolic interaction high spots dysfunctional patterns and focal points on subjective significance. Example: Tanning Three causes of cultural alteration:

Invention – the procedure of making new cultural elements
Discovery – acknowledging and understanding more to the full something already in being Diffusion – the spread of cultural traits from society to another Cultural slowdown ( William Ogburn ) : the fact that some cultural elements change more rapidly than others. interrupting a cultural system Cultural Universal: We have biological universals but do non hold a societal universals in the universe Cultural integrating: the close relationships among assorted elements of a cultural system Cultural relativism: the pattern of judging a civilization by its ain criterions Cultural Leveling: cultural diffusion. groups are eager. for illustration. to follow superior arms and tools High civilization – available merely to the elites

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Popular civilization – available to mean people
Nature vs. Raising: Nature – natural human fight Nurture – behaviour is non natural. but learned ( behaviourism ) Chapter 4: Society
Epigenetics: refers to a 3rd factor that may work as a span between the environment and cistrons or may “operate on its ain to determine who we are” Biological Determinism: The belief much of our behavior reflects in-built biological traits such as the demand to reproduce and the demand to last Asylums ( 1961 ) : got pupils to acquire sent to asylum and so carry on research Reference Groups: groups we use as criterions to measure ourselves Xenophobia: the fright of aliens

Reginald Bibby: approximately 1/3rd of Canadians continue to value spiritual religion and integrate it in their lives Goffman and the “Presentation of the Self” : Emphasized symbolic significances – even in footings of how we dress. base and gesture – was important to fleshing out how we “play” our peculiar books and how we learn specific ways to incarnate them Habitus ( Pierre Bourdieu ) : a socialised propensity to believe. act. and experience in a peculiar mode that becomes embodies in the single Cultural Capital ( Pierre Bourdieu ) : refer to the thoughts. gustatory sensations. penchants and symbols that may be acquired through socialisation and that may be deployed in societal action to set up one’s societal place Marlene Mackey and Gender Roles: 3 phases: imitation. drama. game Mead and Role-Taking: drama is a critical component in the development of a “self” Cooley and the “Looking-Glass Self” : the alone facet of “humanness” called the “self” is socially created ; that is. our ego of self develops from interaction with others

Chapter 5: Socialization

Freud: Psychological Position: Like animate beings. worlds have powerful thrusts or inherent aptitudes. Unlike animate beings. we merely have two thrusts

Freud personality theoretical account. Personalities are composed of three distinguishable parts: 1. Gem state: Unconscious. biological thrusts. Selfish. irrational. pleasure-driven. Represents persons at their most egoistic 2. Ego: Mediates the struggle between the Idaho and the superego. Conscious and reality-based. Provides programs for the person to acquire what he/she wants in a manner that is acceptable to society 3. Superego: Social norms. values. and ethical motives learned by the person. Demands of society. Represented by the individuals’ scruples

Erikson’s eight phases of development:
a ) Infancy – the challenge of trust ( versus misgiving )
B ) Toddlerhood – the challenge of liberty ( versus uncertainty and shame ) degree Celsius ) Preschool – the challenge of enterprise ( versus guilt )
vitamin D ) Preadolescence – the challenge of diligence ( versus lower status ) vitamin E ) Adolescence – the challenge of deriving individuality ( versus confusion ) degree Fahrenheit ) Young Adulthood – the challenge of familiarity ( versus isolation ) g ) Middle maturity
– the challenge of doing a difference ( versus self-absorption ) H ) Old age – the challenge of unity ( versus desperation )

Real – what really occurs in mundane life
Ideal – how we should act
societal interaction: the procedure by which people act and respond in relationship to others Thomas theorem: the world people construct in their interaction has existent effects for the future ethno-methodological research: a scheme to uncover the premises people have about their societal universe dramaturgical analysis: explores the societal interaction in footings of theatrical public presentation The 4 ways which gender influences personal public presentations: ( 1 ) Demeanor – with greater societal power. work forces have more freedom in how they act ( 2 ) Use of infinite – work forces command more infinite than adult females

( 3 ) Staring and touching – done by work forces to adult females
( 4 ) Smiling – a manner to delight another. normally done by adult females Piaget’s four phases of cognitive development:
a ) Sensorimotor Stage – persons experience the universe merely through their senses B ) Preoperational Stage – persons foremost use linguistic communication and other senses c ) Concrete Operational Stage – persons foremost see insouciant connexions in their milieus vitamin D ) Formal Operational Stage – persons think abstractly and critically Kohlberg’s three phases of childhood moral development:

a ) Pre-conventional – hurting and pleasance
B ) Conventional – separate right and incorrect from parents and civilization degree Celsius ) Post-conventional – traveling beyond society norms to see abstract and ethical moral development as researched by Gilligan: I ) Boys – justness position: formal regulations to specify right and incorrect two ) Girls – attention and duty position: judging a state of affairs with an oculus on personal relationships and truenesss

The development of ego:
I ) The ego is non at that place at birth. it develops
two ) The ego develops merely with societal experience
three ) Social experience is an exchange of symbols
four ) Seeking intending leads people to conceive of other people’s purposes v ) Understanding purpose requires conceive ofing the state of affairs from the other’s point of position six ) By taking the function of another. we become self-conscious ( the I and the me Chapter 6- Social Interactions in Everyday Life

Social construction:
Stable forms of societal relationships
Provides the model for all societal interaction
Social construction connects us as persons to the wider society. integrates us to the group itself

Social construction consists of four things:
1 Social establishments:
Set of organized believes and regulations that determines how a society fulfills its basic needs A standardised manner of making something
2 Groups:
Peoples who interact. portion an individuality. and are mutualist 3 Status:
A socially defined place with rights. responsibilities. and outlooks Two types: Ascribed and Achieved
Ascribed position: something your born with. societal place a individual receives at birth. or is given subsequently in life. Achieved position: something that you achieve. something you do to gain a position. societal place a individual takes on voluntarily that reflects personal ability and attempt 4 Functions:

Behaviors that are associated with a position
function set: a figure of functions attached to a individual position
function strain: tenseness among the functions attached to a individual position function struggle: struggle among the functions connected to two or more positions ( holding a occupation and being a pupil ) The ill function ( Talcott Parsonss. 1951 )

1 The ill individual is exempt from “normal ; ” societal functions
2 The ill individual is non responsible for his or her status
1 The ill individual should seek to acquire good
2 The ill individual should seek technically competent aid

Review of the “sick role”
Social construction may “function” to the advantage of those with power It ( rhenium ) produces inequalities in power
Peoples of certain statuses/roles are treated otherwise than others Merely these people experience “role conflict”

Micro degree Analysis of Social Structure
Ethnomethodology ( Garfunkel )
The survey of commonsense cognition
Uses “Breaching experiments”
Dramaturgic analysis ( Goffman )
“All the world’s a stage”
“We all perform a “role”
a Impression direction ( pull off the feeling we give off ) b Face-saving behaviour ( the ways we act to seek and avoid possible embarrassment )

Social Structure and Social Problems:
The remainder of the class we will analyze how external societal constructions limit and impact single lives These constructions are beyond any persons control
Structural account do non merely “blame society”
Social jobs can non be reduced to the person
They are macro degree signifiers of inequality that require societal solutions

The mission school syndrome:
Use the 4 constituents of societal construction to understand how residential schools impacted first state society and created societal jobs Chapter 7- Organizations and Groups:
Primary Group: a group characterized by intimate face-to-face association and co-operation Secondary Group: Ones that are larger. more anon. and impermanent. and more formal and impersonal. such as a workplace or university category In-group: groups we feel loyal towards

Out-groups: groups we feel counter towards
Cliques: closely knit bunchs of persons or cabals within groups that tend to put themselves off from the remainder of the group Chapter 8- Sexuality and Society:
Sexual activity: Biological differences between work forces and adult females. Sexual activity refers to how we reproduce ( the existent action ) Sexual activity: Biological Sexual activity and the organic structure:
Primary sex features: heathens. variety meats used for reproduction Secondary sex features: organic structure development apart from heathens that distinguish mature males from females ex: adult females mature have wider hips for giving birth **sex is non the same thing as gender. Gender is based on the personal traits and forms of behavior Gender: The cultural beliefs. patterns. and premises associated with each sex ( masculine. feminine ) Merely two sexes?

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Western societies merely “recognize” two sexes
Intersexual people: person who is born with both female and male parts. so we surgically delegate them a biological sex. ( besides referred to as a intersex ) . About 1-2 % of the population is inter-sexed

Transsexuals: Feel they are one sex even though they are biologically the other. Can acquire gender reassignment. ( rehabilitative surgery ) .

Sexual activity as a continuum instead than a duality?
Dichotomy: either or. nil in between ( male or female )
Continuum: spectrum between the two
“Corrections” to inter-sexed are socially motivated instead than medically necessary Canadian wellness attention financess ‘corrective procedures’ since the are viewed as medically necessary

Questions about “correcting’ inter-sexed childs
1 ) Do inter-sexed kids have a right to find their ain individuality?
Many kids are non told when this process is done to them
Many find their organic structures become “medicalized”
2 ) “Historical amnesia” about sexual surgery
Castrato: a male vocalist. castrated before pubescence
Most come from really hapless households
Like sex. western societies merely recognize two genders: masculine and feminine Other civilizations recognized a 3rd:
1 ) Berdaches: mixture of male and female
Seen as sacred. mystical. and possessing particular powers
To hold berdaches as a household member was seen as good luck
Sexual orientation is non the key standards
2 ) Hijra: a biological male or intersex individual who is considered a member of “the 3rd gender/sex”
In both Hindus and Muslims saw that Hijra as possessing particular powers and keeping particular spiritual favor/justification
Neither Hijra nor work forces who have sex with them are considered “gay”

Western Examples of Gender Crossing
A member of one sex dressing as the “opposite” gender
Huge bulk of transvestites are heterosexual
Womans can “cross-dress” without disapproval but work forces are non afforded the same lenience Why is male cross-dressing so forbidden in our society. yet it was absolutely acceptable in First Nation’s societies?

Culture Variation: sexual pattern differs from civilization to civilization. Ex-husband: the common place to hold sex varies. or demoing fondness for one another.

Incest Taboo:
a cosmopolitan understanding
out matrimony or sexual relation with a relation.
But around the universe what counts as a “relative” varies ex: merely first cousin is off bounds but 2nd. 3rd etc is all right. Sexual Revolution ( started in the rowing 20’s ) : people moved from their little towns to the metropolis and wanted to research different sexual relationships. It truly started to establish in 1960’ when “sex. drugs and rockin roll” started to take topographic point and seem acceptable and the thought that sex was all right whether you were married or non. lead to the planetary usage of birth control Sexual counter-revolution: returning back to “family values” for moral grounds of sexual transmission diseases. Prenuptial sex: sex before matrimony. common amoung the immature now of yearss Extramaterial sex: sex outside the matrimony ( rip offing )

Sexual Orientation: A individuals romantic and emotional attractive force for person. Could be seen in many ways: Heterosexuality: attractive force for the opposite sex
Homosexual: attractive force for the same sex
Androgyny: Attraction for both
Asexuality: deficiency of attractive force for either
***Sexual behavior does NOT equal sexual attractive force
Sexual Orientation can be divieded into two ideas:
A merchandise of society: What behaviours civilizations see as gay differs A merchandise of biological science: you are born gay merely like you are born left or right handed Sexual issues and Controversies:
Adolescent gestation
Sexual Violence:
Rape: used to ache or command person. Promoted by power.
Date colza

Power and GENDER/SEX
Gender pay spread
Women earn 70 cents to the male dollar
A spread still exists in the same profession with the same educational certificates Patriarchy: a hierarchical set of societal and cultural systems that benefit and favor work forces

How do we larn gender?
Gender functions:
The attitudes. behaviour. and activities that are deemed appropriate for each sex and learned through socialisation How much of our ain individuality has been “assigned” ?
A sex/gender panoptican
We learn to supervise and alter our ain behaviour
Numerous societal establishments socialize us into gender functions Family/parents:
dainty babe male childs and misss otherwise
Peer groups: re-enforce gender norms particularly male childs

Media Images of Gender and Beauty
Media images of gender greatly impact the manner we understand ourselves and others Womans are reduced to their expressions. depicted as submissive and docile. seen as “objects” instead than believing human existences ( topics )

Losing weight and beauty
The organic structure type in most ads is physically unachievable for 95-99 % of adult females 40-50 % of female tobacco users smoke to command their weight
Survey consequences: a bulk of adult females picked losing weight above any other end Is this beauty standard even existent or accomplishable for those deemed beautiful Postmodernism: blurring of image and world

Effectss of Unreal Images
Eating upsets are the 3rd most common unwellness among adolescent American females About half of misss 12-17 twelvemonth old misss have already dieted 4 and 5 twelvemonth old kids use organic structure size to judge person else as “nice” or “mean”

Engagement in our ain subjugation
We are non merely inactive “victims” of sex/gender systems Beauty and gender are signifiers of societal control that we internalize and actively take part in Durkehim: societal facts can non merely be “willed away”

They are external and existent
Although “real” . gender and beauty criterions alteration
Need to construct new societal facts. non merely knock bing 1s Dove’s new “real beauty” run: a new apprehension of beauty?

Chapter 9- Crime and Deviance:
Aberrance: any behaviour. belief. or status that violates a group’s cultural norms Socialization: the procedure of societal interaction that integrates us into a composite of societal and cultural systems ( we learn the norms through socialisation ) School

Cooley came up with the “looking glass self” wanted to see how our behaviour is shaped through interactions with others ( what do I look like to other people. how do they justice ) we act ways that we think others want us to move. Michel Foucault: Discipline and Punish

Examines how power. cognition and societal control all intertwine Argues that many societal establishments are panoptic
Observe and normalise our behaviour
Workers know that the foreman is watching and know that they need to act

Jeremy Bentham: Panoptical ( 1787 )
A gaol that allows changeless surveillance
Why he thinks its so of import: the captives know that they can be observed at anytime. because the captive knows that he can be under surveillance. he keeps himself in line and Acts of the Apostless consequently Prisoners learn to self-monitor their behaviour

The captives “become normal”

Theoretical Positions on Crime and Deviance:
Functionalist positions:
Robert Merton:
Functional societies have limited aberrance
Aberrance occurs when people are “blocked” from accomplishing ends Strain theory: people use illicit agencies to make ends Functionalists understand aberrance as a structural job
Crime is a consequence of societal dislocation and disfunction

First Nations Cigarette Smuggling
Militias lack economic chances
Most destitute group in Canada
Substandard instruction
Education is cardinal to societal mobility

Political establishments:
Could non vote until 1960’s
Weak political voice to consequence societal alteration

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Strength of functional analysis:
Shows that faulting the person is excessively simplistic
Milgram experiments: societal fortunes drastically consequence one’s behaviour ( will make aberrant Acts of the Apostless )

Control and societal bond theory:
Aberrance additions when societal ties are weak and societal disorganisation is high Must repair structural causes of offense instead than merely punish felons

Problems with Merton:
Is aberrance “limited” in a functional society?

Durkheim: the map of deviance/crime

Punishment/crime has a societal map: reinforces solidarity Crime provides an chance for people to garner together to demo their resistance Second map of aberrance: fostering societal alteration

Those who challenge norms affect societal alteration
Durkheim argues that aberrance is “normal” . necessary. and functional

Symbolic integrationist positions
Differential association theory:
Likelihood of aberrance additions if you associate with pervert groups

Labeling theory
Peoples internalize the pervert ‘label’ and act consequently. ( secondary aberrance )

Howard Becker: Moral Crusades
A motion to “label” peculiar behaviours aberrant and alteration Torahs Deviance: any behaviour labeled aberrant by people in places of power ( rise. gender. are able to label what is aberrant and what isn’t ) E. g Becker: The criminalisation of marihuana in the USA ( if you smoke. you go brainsick. you kill people. travel insane ) all kinds of bulk people targeted. instrumentalists. Emily potato. says that marihuana makes you go insane and wrote it in her book and following twelvemonth it was on the Canadian drug act

Media Reports on Crime: Myth V World
Myth 1: Crime is out of control in Canada ( homicide went down 30 % . and cbc coverage went up 300 % on homicide ) Leads Canadian to overrate offense rates
Myth 2- Violent Crime is really common
Most common offense is belongings offense
News as a trade good ( it is really inexpensive to describe on offense )
Social effects on media deceits:
( I ) Calls for ‘tougher’ steps against offense despite small empirical support for such steps ( constructing more gaol even though offense rate is traveling up )
( two ) Unfounded fright of victimization ( adult females most likely to acquire in danger in ain place )
( three ) Support for moral campaigns against offense ( political support ) ( why is it the jurisprudence and media tend to look at the offense )

Conflict Theory and Crime/Deviance
– Marx- the superstructure of society maintains the capitalist’s place

Political orientation: ( Ideas. Common sense )

Superstructure: ( Law. legal establishments )

Base: ( Economics/production )

-Law maintains the Capitalists dominant place
1. White collar/ corporate offenses non policed every bit much as street offense
2. High position felons non labeled condemnable
3. Weak labour Torahs

Conflict Theory: Race and Crime
Popular myths: racial minorities commit more offense than Whites ( White persons in Canada enjoy more power/work in there favour ) Minorities ( excepting First Nations ) have lower rates of captivity than Whites Immigrants have lower rates of offense than other Canadians

Why are First Nations so over-represented in gaol? Means that member is forestalling that we would foretell that they are represented and split up. Poverty: Inability to pay mulcts ( miss the financess to pay mulcts which mean goes to imprison ) twice every bit high than any group in Canada. Over half were at that place for none payment for mulcts. Problems with Structuralism

Laws and processs that accidentally discriminate against certain group

Chapter 10- Social Stratification:
The Davis Moore Thesis
Inequality is functional
Brands people strive for wagess
Society needs people to execute of import undertakings
Functionalists argue societal stratification is based on a meritocracy Meritocracy: a hierarchy of places and wagess based on people abilities and certificates Critique of Meritocracy and “functional” inequality

1 The hapless are non lazy
20 % of the Canadian population is the “working poor”
56 % of household caputs and 55 % of individual hapless grownups work full or portion clip
2 The hapless privation to work and are motivated to work
3 The hapless have neither earned nor merit their place
1. 3 million Canadian childs in poorness
Is poorness based on kids’ ain virtue?

Social mobility: motion from one degree of stratification to another The category you are born into is the forecaster of the category you will decease in

Zeppo: political orientation and category:
The manner we perceive the universe justifies economic inequality Social plans perceived as “handouts”
Yet queerly. manus outs to multi-billion dollar corporations are seen as “good for the economy” Alienation: a feeling of impotence and alienation from one’s ego and the universe The universe seems “alien” to us

The universe seems beyond our control/incapable of alteration

Objective measurings of category:
The research worker groups people together harmonizing to quantitative variables: wealth. income. prestigiousness etc. Subjective measuring of category:
What category to people self identify with
If people subjectively associate with the incorrect category. why would they jointly act as a group? Critiques of Marx:
Definition of category is excessively simple
Class = the ownership or non-ownership of the forces of production Class involvements are straight related to this differentiation
Weber and others have developed more complex apprehensions of category Socioeconomic Status ( SES ) :
Considers income. wealth. prestigiousness. power. instead than merely ownership if the FOP The Upper Class ( Capitalist Class ) :
1. 1 % of the population
Wealth is greater than the lowest 90 % of the population
Massive power: single determinations have immense societal impact Upper Middle Class:
Education is cardinal for this category
Don’t outright have forces of production. but do command it Chapter 11:
Social Class in the U. S.

Chapter 12-Global Stratification:

Chapter 18- Families:
Affinity: a societal bond based on common lineage. matrimony. or adoption Marriage: a legal relationship. normally affecting economic cooperation. sexual activity. and childbearing Family: a societal establishment found in all societies that unites people in concerted groups to care for one another. including any kids Nuclear: a household composed of one or two parents and their kids ( conjugal ) Extended: a household dwelling of parents and kids. every bit good as other kin ( consanguine ) Endogamy: matrimony between people of the same societal class Exogamy: matrimony between people of different societal classs Monogamous: matrimony that unites two spouses

Polygamous: matrimony that unites a individual with two or more partners Family: societal exchange – household: matrimony and wooing is a signifier of dialogue social-conflict – household ( 3 ) : I. Property and heritage – work forces to manus down belongings to their boies ii. Patriarchy – work forces must command the gender of adult females

three. Race and ethnicity – endogamic matrimony supports racial and cultural hierarchies societal maps of the household ( 4 ) : i. Socialization – parents help kids go integrated. lending members of society two. Regulation of sexual activity – Incest tabu

three. Social arrangement – parents maintain societal organisation by go throughing their ain societal individuality four. Material and emotional individuality – households provide physical protection. emotional support. and fiscal aid the four phases of household life:

a. Courtship
B. Settling in
c. Child raising
d. The household in ulterior life
Identify causes for the high U. S. divorce rate ( 6 ) :
a. Individualism is on the rise
B. Romantic love slices
c. Women are less dependent on work forces
d. Many of today’s matrimonies are nerve-racking
e. Divorce has become socially acceptable
f. Legally. a divorce is easier to acquire
Identify hazard factors for divorce ( 4 ) :
a. Young partners who lack money and emotional adulthood
B. Marriage due to unexpected gestation
c. Children of divorced parents
d. Previous divorce
alternate household signifiers:
a. One-parent households
b. Cohabitation
c. Gay and sapphic twosomes
d. Singlehood
contention of new generative engineerings:
a. Who is the female parent
B. In a divorce. who can make up one’s mind to destruct the embryo
c. Is familial testing ethical?