Social Work as a Profession
* What is a profession
* No clear definition of the term profession
* Describing its properties
* By most standards and definitions. societal work meets the demands * Greenwood’s trait-attributes ( 1957 )
1. Systematic theory
* Worked difficult to develop this property
* Continuing – complexness of humanity and other factors * Process of cognition development ( process theoretical account )
2. Authority & A ; 3. Community countenance
* Power/control theoretical account becomes utile
* Merely one of several professions ( such as instruction. nursing ) concerned with societal working * before licensing Torahs. it was non possible to place who is the societal worker ( unqualified individuals ) * designation strongly tied with Bachelors or Masters grades * therefore authorization. community countenance and acknowledgment of an country of expertness * Social Work Regulation Bill ( June. 2004 ) statute law in Malta 4. Ethical Codes & A ; 5. Culture
* Provided through associations of Social Workers
* Social work is a underdeveloped profession
Development of Social Work as a Profession
* 5 constructs are of import in the development of Social Work knowledge 1. Appraisal
2. Person in environment
Pre – 1920
* The beginning of professional societal work was a response to the societal surroundings of the early twentieth century when new immigrants were of concern to the larger society. * First efforts were made to get down to set up societal work theory. First major statement made by Mary Richmond in “Social Diagnosis” ( 1917 ) . * She developed the original model for the assessment theoretical account – but used the term ‘diagnosis’ from the medical theoretical account
* It was a period when the societal scientific disciplines. peculiarly sociology. were extremely influential on societal work theory and pattern. * In Social Diagnosis. accent was on a wide survey of those factors which could be of import. It was assumed that a cause-effect relationship existed. * The bosom of societal work was a procedure of careful. thorough. systematic probe of the grounds environing those in demand of service. and so seting that grounds together so that the worker gained an accurate image of the state of affairs. * Premises:
1. Gathering of information leads to apprehension of cause of job ;
2. If cause is known. therefore redress is simple.
* Heritage: accent on diagnosing ( assessment – v. elf. in modern-day s. w. pattern )
1921 – 1930
* alterations in apprehension of ‘diagnosis’ ;
* acceptance of Freudian psychoanalytic position of the human individual ; * development of the construct of ‘intervention’ . termed ‘treatment’ which was aimed at assisting the client to ‘adjust’ and assumed aberrance from normal societal criterions. * 3 cardinal procedures of import to be used by societal workers: 1. usage of resources ;
2. aid the client understand him/her ego ;
3. aid the clients to develop the ability to ‘work out their ain societal program’ * the focal point of attending changed from concentrating on the societal state of affairs to concentrating on the single * beginnings of info. were no longer so varied: primary beginning: the person ; * appraisal was better organised
* considerable accent was placed on the relationship between client and worker ; displacement from ‘doing to’ or ‘for’ to ‘working with’ the client ; * it was a period when the development of a cognition base was emphasised and attending was given to instruction and theory development ; * group work method: accent more on individuals than on conditions ; * heritage: the motion from making to or for. to working with the client.
1931 – 1945
* A clip when 2 diagnostic attacks to s. w. pattern developed: 1. The Diagnostic Approach: Gordon Hamilton: he clarified the term ‘diagnosis’ ; * this position led to the development of the construct ‘person in situation’ ; appraisal was more an rating of the resources available to the client ; he saw that jobs are both single and societal * he saw the assisting procedure as one of ‘study. diagnosing. and treatment’ .
2. The Functional Approach:
* saw client as individual bespeaking a specific service and non as ill or aberrant ; * this attack understood diagnosing as an effort by the worker and the client to detect whether there was a common land for working together. * Another of import development of this epoch was the acknowledgment of societal group work and community organisation work as methods of societal work ( but merely in preliminary phases ) .
* Heritage: the impression that the person must be seen in a state of affairs ( a context or an environment ) and that appraisal must include this dimension
* 2 of import people published their plants in 1957:
Felix Biestek and Helen Harris Perlman.
* Biestek: focused on the casework relationship and identified 7 rules of that relationship. * Near terminal of this epoch. with publication of her book. ‘Social Casework: A problem-solving process’ . Helen Harris Perlman emphasised diagnosing as dynamic – an on-going procedure – the thought in the problem-solving procedure ; – * she saw casework as a procedure – a problem-solving procedure. Saw caseworker-client relationship as indispensable ( purposeful. supportive. accepting. and fostering ) . * Underliing her work is the premise of human competency with a end of developing this competency ; jobs seen as portion of life. The social-functioning focal point of societal work began to emerge. * Another tendency of this epoch: outgrowth of literature that began to place and stipulate the theory base implicit in pattern ; * Majority of clients non hapless but middle-class people who had accommodation jobs. A strong belief was developing that poorness was being eliminated.
* Heritage: – a major concern for the client-worker relationship ; and. – the impression that there is a procedure facet to s. w. pattern
1961 – 1975
* Era rich in theory development and in new service possibilities ; concern for new job countries and new client groups ; and the usage of old methods in new ways. * During this epoch it became possible to get down to place the theoretical commonalties of all types of societal work pattern ( casework. group. and community organisation ) . * Motion from the usage of the medical footings ‘diagnosis’ and ‘treatment’ to ‘assessment’ and ‘intervention’ . * The construct of the problem-solving procedure began to be used in all the 3 traditional methods of s. w. : case-work. group work and community work. * The constructs of individual in state of affairs and client-worker relationship were expanded by the usage of societal systems theory. * The construct of relationship besides expanded: non merely was relationship seen as of import for work with the client. but the importance of many other relationships was noted in group work and community organisation literature. * In 1970. 2 early efforts to gestate s. w. from an integrative point of position were published: * ‘Social work pattern: A response to the urban crisis’ by Carol Meyer ; * ‘The common base of societal work practice’ by Harriet Bartlett. * Both books reflected the development of the 5 constructs mentioned earlier. * These 2 books marked a turning point in theory development whose intent now became a incorporate societal work profession and a response to particular jobs and demands. * During this clip an attempt was made to develop ‘generalist practice’ : a combination of methods to react to complex jobs and state of affairss presented by clients.
* Another tendency of this epoch was the development of many new attacks to pattern. most of which focused on specific demands. Some of these were crisis intercession. task-centred casework and social-behavioural societal work.
* While being different. the assorted attacks all contained a agency of appraisal. concern about relationship. a procedure. and a focal point on the client or clients in a state of affairs ; and all were a agencies to act upon alteration ( intercession ) .
* Heritage: The kernel of Renaissance man pattern began to look at this clip.
* This epoch saw a disillusion with the societal public assistance system. * Issues within the s. w. profession included:
* the differential functions of workers with different makings ; * the development of specialisation at the Masters degree ; * the conceptualisation of generalist pattern ; and.
* the designation of the foundation that underlies all societal work pattern.
* The 5 constructs continued to develop:
1. Appraisal: understood as the on-going procedure that develops the apprehension of the individual in the state of affairs and the footing for the action to be taken. 2. Person in the state of affairs now referred to as individual in the environment: this construct developed rather a spot due to the ecological attack to pattern. The designation and usage of personal support webs became of import. Both individuals and societal systems were seen as important in job resolution. 3. Relationship: Relationships with clients and with important societal systems and with individuals influential in those systems became of import. 4. Procedure: assorted phases of the work were specified in the order in which they were the primary focal point of pattern. 5. Intervention: besides conceptualized otherwise: there was a turning inclination non to accept any one intercession or attack to pattern as appropriate for all state of affairss.
* The ecological attack became of import in s. w. pattern through: * bettering societal supports through assorted signifiers of environmental assisting ; and. * bettering personal competences through the instruction of life accomplishments.
1991 – Present
* Practice theory in the US was influenced by many policy alterations during the 1990s. One of the chief influences was the decrease of support for assorted societal public assistance programmes. * A turning accent on authorization as a end or scheme of pattern supports the ecological paradigm- individual and environment. * The feminist position became of import in s. w. pattern with its accent on: * the reconceptualization of power ( a broad distribution of power ) ; * the valuing of procedure every bit with merchandise ( attending to how ends are implemented ) ; * the cogency of purging prejudiced linguistic communication ; and.
* the personal is political ( acknowledgment that personal jobs are frequently the consequence of political unfairness and require that the focal point of intercession be on alteration of larger systems ) .
Social Work in the twenty-first Century
* Although societal work is ever altering. strong accent on appraisal. intercession ( where we work with instead than making to or for a client ) . individual in environment. the importance of relationship. and the concern for the procedure of pattern all remain at the bosom of societal work pattern today. * Johnson and Yanca ( 2007 ) pull attending to major demographic alterations that are taking topographic point in the USA and which are altering the face of the state. The two key alterations are: * the addition in the figure of aged people and
* alterations in the cultural and racial composing of the state. Projections suggest that by 2050/2060. black people will excel Whites in the population. This means that societal workers must be prepared to work with people who are aged or black. Diversity-competent pattern has become an of import dimension of professional pattern and will go more so in the hereafter. * As societal work becomes more professionalized and builds its cognition and pattern base. the construct of best patterns has developed. This refers to pattern that is based on research and that is intended to increase successful outcomes. This construct can besides be used to back up ethical pattern and is of import for professional societal work pattern.