Soccer is the most popular athletics worldwide. The Federation Internationale de Football Association represents 203 states including more than 200 million accredited participants. ( 9 ) The Union des Associations Europeennes de Football represents 49 European states with about 20 million participants. and the German Soccer Association listed 6. 25 million participants in 2000. ( 6. 28 ) These statistics do non include participants who play association football on an unorganised footing.
No other distinct motion in football is every bit dramatic as the gesture known as the bike boot: when a participant kicks the ball in mid-air backwards and over his ain caput. Many participants have tried it ; some of them have succeeded but few have performed a perfect 1. A perfect bike boot is a rare event. even in the World Cup it is non guaranteed that one will witness a bike boot for it encompasses motion of the full organic structure. necessitating the perfect synchronism of major musculuss and articulations necessitating strength. legerity and flexibleness.
1. Identify and depict the major musculuss. articulations and actions of the articulations used to execute this motion accomplishment and how they influence the manner the organic structure moves.
In order to accomplish a thorough analysis of all the major musculuss. articulations and actions of the articulations used to execute the bike boot. the motion is divided into its three stages and the single motions performed in order to convey about each stage of the accomplishment.
THE JUMP- In which the kicking leg is left on the land while the non-kicking leg is used to impel organic structure upwards.
I. The Jump off the land achieved through the Dorsiflexion of the mortise joint and tarsal articulations originated by the Tibia and powered by Tibalis Anterior as the agonist and Soleus as the adversary.
II. Straightening of the articulatio genus of the non- kicking leg done through extension of articulatio genus originated at the Iliac Crest palpitated through the Quadriceps.
III. Upward lift of thigh followed through by the lower leg. Firstly it is the extension of the thigh by the agonist Hamstrings and antagonist Quadriceps at the hip articulation and originated at the Ishium and femur. As the extension of the thigh continues. it is besides powered by the Gluteus Maximus inserted at the thighbone. pivoted by the hip articulation.
Formation OF LEGS INTO SCISSORS IN THE AIR- Achieved through the immediate and good timed follow through of the kicking leg to the non- kicking. The motion of the legs will look of if bicycling a bike backwards or a scissor action. The motions described below are all performed at the same time and in speedy gesture in order for the motion to be successful.
Formation of legs is initiated by the joust of organic structure backwards. This extension of the erector spinae ( sacrospinalis ) which is inserted at the sacrum and performed by the spinal cord.
Head is kept up in order to watch the association football ball for purpose and timing to kick. This lift of the shoulders and caput by the Trapezius inserted into the cervix cord at the shoulder blade and collarbone.
Bringing the kicking leg towards the thorax while about horizontal in the air. Extension of the thigh by the agonist Hamstrings and antagonist Quadriceps at the hip articulation. originated at the Ishium and femur. As the extension of the thigh continues. it is besides powered by the Gluteus Maximus inserted at the thighbone. pivoted by the hip articulation.
The non-kicking leg is brought down while the kicking leg is traveling up. The flexure of the hip by the Quadriceps as the agonist and the Gluteus Maximus as the adversary. There is flexure at the articulatio genus by the Gastrocnemius inserted at the posterior heel bone.
THE KICK- The follow-through of kicking the ball in the air during the bike move.
I. At precise timing to the incoming ball ( able to be monitored due to the tilted caput ) the calf of the kicking leg is extended. This extension of the lower leg by the Quadriceps at the hip articulation. inserted at the proximal terminal of the shinbone and kneecap.
II. To do contact with the ball. the toes are pulled back to the mortise joint to do a right angle. The dorsiflexion of the mortise joint by the Tibialis front tooth is inserted at the mortise joint. tarsal and metatarsal.
2. Describe the wellness and accomplishment related constituents of physical fittingness that are relevant to the public presentation of this accomplishment.
Physical fittingness is multifaceted and involves both skill-related and health-related constituents. The skill-related constituents of fittingness ( velocity. power. legerity. balance. reaction clip. and coordination ) are chiefly of import in accomplishing success in sports and are non as important for the development of better wellness.
Soccer participants need a combination of aerophilic and anaerobiotic fittingness due to the nature of the game and the fact that there is uninterrupted motion with tonss of short explosions of more intense activity. Some places require higher degrees of anaerobic fittingness than others. some require more aerophilic fittingness. A midfield participant is required to cover a batch of land during a game and needs a good aerobic engine. A striker on the other manus requires short explosions of repeated activity and requires more velocity and anaerobiotic fittingness.
In order to execute the bike boot. there is a figure of wellness and accomplishment related constituents of physical fittingness that are relevant to its success. From Health related constituents. about all the constituents are relevant to the public presentation of the bike boot. nevertheless cardinal constituents are
MUSCULAR STRENGTH -Muscular strength is the sum of force a musculus can bring forth with a individual upper limit attempt and this is indispensable in the public presentation of the bike boot for it is with muscular strength that the organic structure is able to be launched into the air in order to execute the accomplishment. Once in the air the boot requires more strength than a normal boot from the land due to gravitation and the fact the association football participant is in the air.
FLEXIBILITY- is critical to the public presentation of the bike boot for the bike motion in the air and the footing of this full accomplishment is based on the flexibleness of the association football participant. This move is similar to a forward somersault in gymnastic exercises and the association football participant must be able to steer the legs in the right formation above him in the air. Without flexibleness. hurts can easy happen in the public presentation of this accomplishment.
BODY COMPOSITION-Due to high grade of trouble of this accomplishment. it is indispensable for the organic structure composing of the association football participant to be in peak status. Without the needed musculuss for strength it is impossible for the organic structure to accomplish this move.
Some accomplishment related constituents of the bike boot are:
Agility- The ability to command the body’s motions and to alter the body’s way and place rapidly is critical in the achievement of the boot for it is highly hard to steer the legs to the scissor place necessary to kick the ball while in the air.
Coordination- The ability to utilize two or more organic structure parts together good or to utilize the senses along with organic structure parts. This constituent is besides highly of import in the accomplishment of the motion as in takes great coordination to set together the moves while in gesture within the air. Besides. it is indispensable the participant keeps his attending on the nearing ball every bit good as organizing the organic structure to the places or else it is really easy to lose and the full effort would be in vain.
Chemical reaction Time The rate of motion once a individual realizes the demand to travel. This is indispensable in judging when to execute the accomplishment and every bit good as the timing to do contact with the ball.
Power The ability to utilize force with great velocity. This is one of the most important constituents to the accomplishment since without this accomplishment it would be impossible to steer the organic structure to the necessary tallness in order to execute the accomplishment. Besides power is required when doing contact with the ball.
STRENGTH AND POWER TESTS- should be done to find strength degrees and to supervise strength alterations in concurrence with preparation plans. The perpendicular leap trial can be performed to mensurate leg power which is indispensable in the bike boot.
Vertical Jump Test ( Sargeant Jump )
Description / process: the athlete bases side on to a wall and reaches up with the manus closest to the wall. Keeping the pess level on the land. the point of the fingertips is marked or recorded. The athlete so stands off from the wall. and jumps vertically every bit high as possible utilizing both weaponries and legs to help in projecting the organic structure upwards. Attempt to touch the wall at the highest point of the leap. The difference in distance between the range tallness and the leap tallness is the mark. The best of three efforts is recorded.
Alterations: Jump tallness can besides be measured utilizing a timing mat which measures the clip the pess are off the mat. From the clip. leap tallness can be calculated. To be accurate. you must guarantee the pess land back on the mat with legs about to the full extended. Other trial alterations are to execute the trial with no arm motion ( one manus on hip. the other raised above the caput ) to insulate the leg musculuss and cut down the consequence of fluctuations in coordination of the arm motions. The trial can besides be performed off one leg. with a measure into the leap. or with a runup. depending on the relevancy to the athletics involved.
Scoring: The leap tallness Jump is normally recorded as the mark in distance. The tabular array below provides a superior graduated table for grownup jocks based on my observations. and will give a general thought of what is a good mark.
evaluation males ( centimeter ) females ( centimeter )
first-class & gt ; 70 & gt ; 60
really good 61-70 51-60
above mean 51-60 41-50
mean 41-50 31-40
below mean 31-40 21-30
hapless 21-30 11-20
really hapless & lt ; 21 & lt ; 11
FLEXIBILITY TEST- Good hamstring flexibleness is import for football participants in the ball kicking accomplishment. It is particularly of import in the public presentation of the bike boot for the quadriceps and hamstrings are the most normally used musculuss and in most danger of hurts. The sit and make trial can be done for lower dorsum and hamstring flexibleness.
Sit and Reach Test
Description / process: This trial involves sitting on the floor with legs out directly in front. Feet ( places off ) are placed level against the box. Both articulatio genuss are held level against the floor by the examiner. The athlete tilts frontward easy every bit far as possible and holds the greatest stretch for two seconds. Make certain there is no jerked meat motions and that the fingertips remain flat and the legs flat.
Scoring: The mark is recorded as the distance before ( negative ) or beyond ( positive ) the toes. Repeat twice and enter the best mark. The tabular array below gives you a usher for expected tonss ( in centimeter ) for grownups
work forces adult females
super & gt ; +27 & gt ; +30
first-class +17 to +27 +21 to +30
good +6 to +16 +11 to +20
mean 0 to +5 +1 to +10
just -8 to -1 -7 to 0
hapless -19 to -9 -14 to -8
really hapless & lt ; -20 & lt ; -15
3. Analyze the accomplishment in order to find the biomechanical rules that may impact on the efficiency of motion in the public presentation of this accomplishment.
The picture infusion viewed in order to find the biomechanical rules of this accomplishment is of the Brazilian association football legend Edson Arantes do Nascimento or otherwise known as PelÃ© . the discoverer of this extremely complicated association football move.
The entire motion clip is estimated about 0. 8 seconds: he takes 0. 3 s to impulse his organic structure and corsets in the air for approximately 0. 5 s. The motion stages of this bike boot are:
PHASE ONE- THE JUMP
As PelÃ© places himself back to the intended way of the kicked ball and to leap. his Centre of gravitation ( CG ) . ( defined as a point where the end point of all the weight forces can be considered moving upon ) . undertakings a small buttocks of his impulse pes. This allows him to derive rotational impulse when he applies force on the land that passes within a certain distance from the CG to leap like in a back somerset.
The merchandise between the applied force and the distance from this force to the point of rotary motion is called torsion or minute of a force. The leg that is traveling to kick the ball is the leg used to impel the organic structure and is the last one to lose contact with the land. The other leg goes up revolving around the hip while the kicking leg is still in contact with the land. At motion induction. his CG is at a tallness of 0. 92 m and it reaches 1. 39 m. a perpendicular supplanting of 0. 47 m.
PHASE TWO- THE SCISSORS
Once wholly in the air. PelÃ© . in complete synchronism with the ball flight. elevates the leg that is traveling to hit the ball and moves the other leg in the opposite way ; like the motion of a scissors. While the motion is performed. the caput is kept in a really stable position because he must stare at the ball.
To ease the rotational motion of the kicking leg at the beginning. he bends the articulatio genus of this leg. come closing his limbs to the hip. and to the full extends this leg merely before the boot to hit the ball every bit high as possible. like the frogmans do to revolve faster during a honkytonk. The physical belongings being altered is called the rotational inactiveness. the belongings of a organic structure to defy alteration in its province of angular motion. The rotational inactiveness is calculated as the merchandise between the organic structure mass and the squared distance from the organic structure to the Centre of rotary motion.
Decreasing the distances of each section to the hip articulation decreases the entire rotational inactiveness of the lower limb. In the air. the weaponries stabilize the organic structure place: the weaponries are kept off from the bole in the frontal plane to deliberately increase the body’s rotational inactiveness in the longitudinal way to decrease any rotational disturbance in this way. like a circus acrobat walking on a rope with a equilibrating beam in the custodies
PHASE THREE- STRIKING THE BALL
The leg. at high velocity. stop the ball above the tallness of a standing individual. and changes its motion. Then. for a minute it seems as if his organic structure stops in the air and merely the legs rotate around the hip. This phenomenon is due to the motion of other sections of the organic structure that move faster than the bole: although the full organic structure CG is in a parabolic flight. as predicted by the classical Torahs of gesture. the trunk perpendicular flight ( trunk CG ) really slows down in its vertex. this semblance consequence is good known by the concert dance terpsichoreans and can be observed in motions such as expansive jetÃ© . PelÃ© hits the ball at a tallness of about 2. 2 m and the velocity of the ball after the boot is about 8. 9 m/s or 32 kilometers per hours ; although non a power shooting. the boot is faster than if the participant would hold hit the ball with his caput.
During any human motion in the air. although one can alter the rotational inactiveness and angular speed of each section every bit good as of the full organic structure. the merchandise of these two physical measures. known as measure of angular motion or angular impulse. does non alter for the full organic structure due to a cardinal preservation jurisprudence in mechanics: the angular impulse of a system is changeless if the amount of the external torsions moving on the system is zero. PelÃ© seems to go against this jurisprudence in his bike: at the beginning. merely after he looses contact with the land. it seems his organic structure is non revolving and merely before the ball contact. his kicking leg presents a batch of angular motion. This evident misdemeanor can be explained if we remember that what is unchanged is the merchandise between angular speed and rotational inactiveness and one must look at the angular impulse of all sections to visualise what is go oning with the angular impulse of the full organic structure.
Although the kicking leg has a greater rotational velocity. the other leg. revolving in the opposite way with a lower velocity. surprisingly mirrors the angular impulse of the kicking leg such that the amount of the two impulses remains changeless during the motion. This happens because the kicking leg is traveling closer to the whole organic structure CG than the other leg ( intending a lower rotational inactiveness for the kicking leg ) . The critical constituent needed is the existent scissors in the bike boot: the perfect symmetric angular impulse profiles of the legs. The net consequence during the full motion in the air is the same: the entire angular impulse is changeless. with the exclusion when portion of the impulse is transferred to the ball as indicated.
Apart from taking into consideration all of the biomechanical rules involved in order to execute the accomplishment decently. but one most besides take into consideration the external constituents. In the executing of the bike kick the land would be the most of import external constituent to see. Chiefly. this accomplishment would be executed on the association football playing field composed of grass. Since the full execution of the accomplishment begins with the backwards bike gesture off the land into the air. it is critical that the performing artist has a powerful launch of the land and hence. it is highly of import to see the province of the land. Should the grass be wet or muddy from rain it would add a great trade more trouble as this would do the land slippery.
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