There is no uncertainty that information system analyst is playing an progressively of import function in most of the successful system undertaking development. To accomplish this, information system analyst must possess a broad scope of qualities which involves appropriate accomplishments and abilities every bit good as sufficient cognition in the implementing system of users supports and operation of concern. It has to be considered that information system analyst carries duties to analyze and understands the complex demands of human resources, people accomplishments, proficient apprehension and procedure facilitation and it is fundamentally applied from the first twenty-four hours of the system undertaking ‘s being. It is important for every information system analyst to hold dynamic undertaking squads which are non inactive and unchanging as to guarantee that they are able to joint the demands that are associated with the key job to be solved or chance to be realized. There are besides several barriers exist in assemblage and interpretation of system development that needs to be concerned by information system analyst as this will impact the consequences of the system and the effectivity of system development. This paper is critically emphasized on the accomplishments and cognition of an information system analysts and how these accomplishments and cognition have impacted in the successful in system undertaking development. The construction of the paper will get down with the debut, nomenclatures subdivision, cognition required by system analyst, most of import accomplishments and competences for a system analyst every bit good as a decision as the summarisation of the whole subject.
Keywords: system analyst, system analysis, cognition, analytical accomplishments, proficient accomplishments, interpersonal accomplishment, managerial accomplishments, communicating accomplishments
Initially, information system analyst is extremely necessary to run a system undertaking. Without an information system cognition and appropriate accomplishment set, it is barely to accomplish undertaking ‘s ends. There are assorted formal and informal functions that system analyst drama in making successful. In short, every system analyst in a undertaking has their ain duties that carry both formal and informal undertaking and sometimes they are besides assigned to run in a large or little undertaking at the same time based on the undertaking demands to accomplish undertaking prosperity. Basically, a system analyst plays an of import function in the procedure of system development life rhythm undertakings which involved undertaking planning, analysis, design, execution and support procedure. Each procedure requires a system analyst to execute a different undertaking and they must possess a broad scope of accomplishments with sufficient cognition. This is of import as system development is a really hard activity that needs really careful planning, control and executing.
With the outgrowth of information engineering, system has become progressively function in most of the organisation. In fact, a good system becomes the entirely sustainable advantage for organisations to derive a victorious place in today ‘s extremely competitory universe. Parallel with that, the undertaking of a system analyst becomes more hard because they have to cover with a different organisation with different demands. Harmonizing to Misic and Graf ( 2004 ) , systems analyst perform their occupation is characterized by a changeless alterations where the alteration of the environment and uncertainness topographic points forces the system analyst to on a regular basis and systematically updates their undertaking and activities. Meaning here, the system analyst should be able to accommodate to the environmental alterations. For that, a system analyst has to larn the civilization or environment for every organisation that they assigned to develop a system in order for them to efficaciously execute their occupation and run into the undertaking ‘s ends. In add-on, they besides need to hold full apprehension of system development and attempt to use it within the organisation with the support of cognition and accomplishments as it is really of import and necessary to guarantee the organisation addition value and outperform challengers.
Numerous articles have been written about system analyst accomplishments and cognition by many writers. Assorted writers have expressed different sentiments on the accomplishments that should be possessed by a system analyst such as analytical, proficient, managerial and interpersonal or communicating accomplishments. There are two cardinal accomplishments that are needed to execute system analysis undertakings, fact-finding for the probe of system demands and modeling of a concern procedure based on the system demands ( Satzinger, Jackson and Burd, 2009 ) . Therefore, the intent of this article is to supply thorough information on the facets of undertakings, cognition and of import accomplishments of today ‘s system analyst every bit good as to place the impact of these facets towards the effectivity of system development.
2.0 DEFINITION OF KEY TERMS: SYSTEM ANALYST, KNOWLEDGE AND SKILLS
There are several of definition of a system analyst have been identified by many professionals. The significance of the footings may change from assorted writers depending to concern procedure, work flow and subject where it is used ; nevertheless, the construct of a system analyst remains the same. Harmonizing to Dennis and Wixom ( 2003 ) , system analyst can be defined as the persons who generate thoughts and suggestions for how information engineering can better concern procedures, specify new procedures with the aid of a concern analyst, plan a new information system and guarantee that all the standard information systems maintained. In contrast, Whitten and Bentley ( 2007 ) have defined system analyst as a specializer who is responsible in placing and analyze the organisation jobs and demands as to find how people, informations, procedures and information engineering can lend to the concern developments.
Some people get confused the significance between system analyst and computing machine coder. Basically, a system analyst is non a computing machine coder ; he or she is persons that decided what signifier of information engineering to be used in the development of a system, whereas a computing machine coder is persons which are responsible in seting appropriate instructions with specific codification into a computing machine system. However, both Information System professionals have similar accomplishments needed in system development, which is emphasized on proficient accomplishments ( Lee, 2002 ) . Systems analyst and computing machine coder are related in some manner or another, but they are non precisely the same. Systems analyst requires different accomplishments. Alternatively, computing machine coder is focused on a peculiar accent of the survey. Systems analyst and computing machine programmer like other professions were forced to hold a sense of moralss. As viewed by Kagan and Sobolo ( 1987 ) , systems analyst occupation involves analysis of the job or needs information on the organisation and decide the job through the design of an efficient form of information flow from the beginning informations into the computing machine. In different point of positions by Green ( 1989 ) , system analysts are service suppliers who are work closely with users as to specify, develop and implement computing machine based system in order to run into concern and other demands. The engagement of users is required to assist the system analyst to make analysis and synthesis undertakings on a peculiar system. Almost similar with Misic and Graf ( 2002 ) positions, system analyst acts as job convergent thinker where they work closely with users and direction in roll uping and analysing information on current and/or hereafter computer-based system.
Information system cognition and appropriate accomplishments for effectual undertakings and responsibilities is needed to be an first-class system analyst. Several writers reviewed cognition as an actionable or relevant information available in the right format at the right clip and at the right topographic point for determination devising. In other words, people seek cognition because it assists them to better public presentation and win in their work. Knowledge besides is the most cherished therapy for complexness and uncertainness. Further, the procedure of system development depends to a great extent on cognition so that, by holding right cognition, organisation can bring forth a good determination doing with bring forthing good merchandise and services to guarantee run into the concern demands. In the instance of information systems, cognition can be referred to as content or proficient information needed to make an equal occupation and is normally acquired through formal instruction, on occupation preparation and information media such as the manuals ( Cheney, Hale and Kasper, 1990 ) .
Meanwhile, accomplishments are referred to the specific psychomotor processes necessary to run into the current demands of occupation a specific occupation. Skills besides include installations to take from between the repertory of action that may be most appropriate for their specific actions ( Cheney, Hale and Kasper, 1990 ) . Environmental undertakings may differ from an organisation to organisation and undertaking to project, nevertheless, some accomplishments will assist in about any environmental undertaking. These accomplishments include understanding the alterations and understand how the organisation works within the societal, political and physical. Important to recognize, understanding the importance of system analyst activities and the related accomplishments and cognition may be critical in successful of system development.
3.0 KNOWLEDGE REQUIRED BY SYSTEM ANALYST
Before get downing to analyse and plan a system, it is really of import for a systems analyst to hold sufficient cognition about the assorted Fieldss of cognition depends chiefly on the responsibilities and degree of development of the system. Based on Vitalari ( 1985 ) , there are six cardinal constructs of the cognition base have emerge, viz. , nucleus system analysis sphere cognition, high-rated sphere cognition, application sphere cognition, functional sphere cognition, organisation specific cognition and cognition of methods and techniques.
Vitari ( 1985 ) said that nucleus system analysis sphere cognition is indispensable constituents of system analyst ‘s cognition to accomplish satisfactory degrees of public presentation. It is really of import to run into the demands of the user to guarantee the end product of the system development will bring forth high satisfaction to the users. Important to recognize that, systems analysts need to cognize what committednesss are expected from the user and the user besides knows what is expected of the systems analyst. In add-on, by holding this cognition it help the system analyst to avoid perpetrating errors and detaining the undertaking to be completed. Whereas high rated domain cognition is referred to the cognition that distinguishes high rated analysts from low rated analysts. Application sphere cognition is a cognition related to several information system applications such as expert system, determination support system, dealing processing system and stop user computer science.
4.0 MOST IMPORTANT SKILLS AND COMPETENCIES FOR SYSTEM ANALYST
The system analyst needs certain accomplishments to carry on system development. They need the accomplishments to make systems analysis and design, where they have to understand what stakeholders ( users, clients and proficient staffs ) need as to analyse the flow of informations or enter informations in a systematic, procedure or transform informations, shop informations, and end product information in the specific context of the concern ( Kendell and Kendell, 2010 ) . Systems analysts aim to better and develop information systems and information engineering to acquire the best benefits for concern particularly in work outing the concern jobs. Basically, occupation accomplishments support the nucleus information system capablenesss to find the effectual development of engineering invention for IT organisations ( Lerogue, Newton and Blanton, 2005 ) . There are figure of sentiments that describe the accomplishments that system analyst should be possessed to be successful. Following is the most of import accomplishments and competences for a system analyst as pointed by assorted writers.
Harmonizing to Misic and Graf ( 2002 ) in their article entitled “ System analyst and accomplishments in the millenary ” , analytical accomplishments were considered the most of import accomplishments in the system development. Analytic accomplishments can be defined as the ability to analyze things critically and/or circumstantially, to divide the clear image into its single constituents ( Misic and Graf, 2002 ) . As indicated by Misic and Graf ( 2002 ) , these accomplishments provide the primary footing for an person to accommodate to alterations in engineering and by concentrating on the development of their current employees and / or enrolling new employees that strong analytical accomplishments of concentrating chiefly on a proficient background, direction information system will organize a squad development to be successful today and besides in the face of the following moving ridge of inevitable alteration and emphasis in their technological processs. They besides indicated that, this accomplishment is applied in specifying and analysing demands and sing the tantrum within the organisations information system environment. In other custodies, analytical accomplishments were involved in the analysis procedure where it is the undertaking to understand the whole of something by interrupting it down into of import constituents. By understanding its constituents and how they fit together in a larger whole, it leads to understand the whole better.
Analytical accomplishment requires a system analyst to exactly in specifying the jobs. It is a fact that, cognizing how to specify a job is a tough portion. They have to happen a manner to interrupt things into elements and use those elements to understand the existent state of affairss. The system analyst undertakings might affect visualizing, jointing, and work outing complex jobs and constructs, and doing reasonable determinations based on information available. Analytical accomplishments assist the system analyst to calculate out the demands of the organisations and so seek to fulfill those demands with a new system development.
The turning usage of engineering has become a major portion of the organisation around the universe. This led to the doing the undertaking of properly defines the job of all time more hard. The system analyst has to be more precise in specifying the job besides finding the range of a new system. This is the undertaking where, system analysts have to decently specify the possible job and the mark where they aim to hit. Important to cognize that, if the job is wrongly identified it may impact on the system development, such as the new system will non good known, more clip needed to make some research on a new system and many possible issues might be occurred. In contrast, if the jobs are good identified with the analytical accomplishment is applied to make this ; the solutions to the peculiar job are normally straightforward. Furthermore, to guarantee the job is exactly identified, systems analysts need to analyse and turn to the available information, to cognize what information beginnings are good, to be able to entree and to do effectual usage in developing a new system. Identifying really clearly defined and specific job is an of import measure to successfully implement the first solution.
Interpersonal accomplishments and communicating accomplishments
Interpersonal and communicating accomplishments are other accomplishments that required by every system analyst. Such accomplishments are required at assorted phases of the development procedure for interacting with the users and seek to place their demands in order to happen out possible solutions to that peculiar job. Interpersonal accomplishments are related with single accomplishments needed to interact with persons that associated with an IS undertaking. In other words, interpersonal accomplishments besides can be referred as a behavior and attitudes of single, interpersonal communicating and group behavior in the IS context ( Lerouge, Newton and Blanton, 2005 ) . Harmonizing to Lerouge, Newton and Blanton, ( 2005 ) in their survey, IS directors have viewed these accomplishments as the most of import set accomplishments for a system analyst in impacting IS success, whereas, for CIOs and terminal users indicated that proficient accomplishments were the most critical accomplishments in successful of system development. Several writers indicated that behavioral, societal, communicating and soft accomplishments are sometimes referred to interpersonal accomplishments as its characteristic represents the single behaviors such as jointing and talking accomplishments to interact with the users, ability to work in a squad such as coders, analysts and other system professionals, personal motive and working independently, good hearer, ability to compose and many more. Based on Odini ( 1991 ) , interpersonal accomplishments are term usage to depict assortment of societal and communicative accomplishments that involve two manner communicating accomplishments, manners of positive behaviour, leading and teamwork and apprehension of human behaviour and interpersonal relationships in footings of interaction with relevant persons. In contrast, Misic and Graf ( 2004 ) have distinguished interpersonal and communicating accomplishments into two different classs. Interpersonal accomplishments are the ability to interact with other workers including terminal users, other system analyst, directors and outside sellers. Meanwhile, communicating accomplishments are referred to the ability of people to efficaciously compose and talk clearly, able to sum up a papers and that papers must be apprehensible to the users.
Most of the company IT based found that interpersonal accomplishments or communicating accomplishments in both speech production and authorship and ability to work in a squad are really of import and necessary to transport out their undertaking. A system analyst needs to hold communicating accomplishments as they are required to compose user demands into proficient specifications. It is a fact that, good communicating accomplishments is significance to assist the system analyst to interact with users in order to place their demands, to interact with system interior decorators to help them in developing of a system interface every bit good as to pass on with the system developer as to maintain path of system development. Harmonizing to Green ( 1989 ) , “ system analysts believe that they must trust on behavioural accomplishments to efficaciously interact with user during the important phases of job definition and analysis ” . As indicated by Misic and Graf ( 2004 ) , if a system analyst is able to interact good with users, it shows that he or she has the ability to work with members of the undertaking squad. Furthermore, a system analyst should pass clip acquiring near to the diverse stakeholders such as users, client and proficient staffs in order to obtain information as they are the group of people who will utilize a new system and will profit most from it. By and large, interpersonal accomplishment is a important factor in the success of a system analyst in developing system. The first-class system analyst is involved in every facet of the system development procedure, and is actively involved in the interaction design for the system. They have an apprehension of the assorted ways the stakeholder demand to interact with the system, understand the different demands and to place the different facets of design that will work for different stakeholders.
Based on Green ( 1989 ) , direction must acknowledge that successful system development depends on both behavioural and proficient accomplishments. He added that, developing to better behavioural accomplishments such as interviewing and hearing is needed. This is because they have to interact with many groups of people in assorted concerns where this group of people provides valuable penetrations to guarantee the system satisfies the concern demands. Besides, system analysts besides liaise with about every section of the concern that is involved in work outing the system job. In add-on, direction must besides supply an orientation plan for the users involved in new undertakings. This plan is chiefly about the specific activities of system development and related accomplishments demands for analysis. This plan may ease the betterment of interaction accomplishments and advancing greater consumer consciousness of the importance of behavioural accomplishments for systems development maps ( Green, 1989 ) .
There is no uncertainty that proficient accomplishments are countries normally considered major to the computing machine related profession including system analyst. Harmonizing to Misic and Graf ( 2004 ) proficient accomplishments are the ability to utilize techniques such as the development of systems of functional decomposition, informations flow diagrams, procedure specifications, object-oriented analysis, informations mold, computing machine scheduling, hardware and package cognition and other tools that are recognized to assist in the development of a system. Similar with Lerouge, Newton and Blanton ( 2005 ) proficient accomplishments referred to hardware, package and programming facets of information systems.
In different point of positions, Gallagher et. Al ( 2010 ) indicated that proficient accomplishments can be divided into three major classs, foundational accomplishments, operational accomplishments and indispensable accomplishments. Table 1, shows some of the proficient accomplishments that need to be possessed by every IT professional.
Table 1: Technical Skills
Desktop Support/ Helpdesk
Database Design / Management
Voice / Data Telecommunications
Continuity / Discovery Planning
Mainframe / Legacy
IT Architectures / Standard
Beginning: Adapted from Gallagher et. Al ( 2010 )
Based on the above tabular array, it can be assumed that system analyst requires all three proficient accomplishments as to remain competitory with today ‘s dynamic environment, particularly in the outgrowth of the cyberspace and intranet engineerings. This rapid alteration in engineering forced the system analyst to fix and focuses on the system analysis and development of a system by get the hanging all relevant proficient accomplishments. Foundation accomplishments are accomplishments to be obtained in progress by system analysts for their basic cognition for continued calling growing every bit good as before farther develop to a higher degree of accomplishments. Whereas as indicated by Gallagher et. Al ( 2010 ) , “ operational accomplishments frequently in peculiar, but they are normally non firm-specific. Though, they may be specific to engineering suppliers such as, IBM mainframes or Microsoft waiter merchandises ” . These accomplishments are of import to work out jobs that are related to the computing machines and both hardware and package. Meanwhile, indispensable accomplishments are the most of import accomplishments in helping a system analyst to execute undertaking in analysing and planing of system development.
There are alterations in the system analyst proficient accomplishment set due to the development of engineering. In add-on, these accomplishments have progressively emphasized across all IS occupation. Harmonizing to Lee ( 2002 ) , the accomplishments involved were desktop, runing systems, 3rd coevals linguistic communications, database and bundles every bit good. In contrast, Haga et. Al ( 2007 ) , have identified three major proficient accomplishments set that is listed in the occupation bank, there are, database accomplishments, runing system accomplishments and other assorted accomplishments. Table 2, summarizes the proficient accomplishments required for a system analyst listed in the occupation bank. Some of these accomplishments are important for them to run and implement the system development.
Table 1: Technical accomplishments required for system analyst listed in the occupation bank.
Operating System Skills
Other Miscellaneous Skills
SQL & A ; PL/SQL
Data Mining/ Data Warehousing
Department of state
Internet/ Intranet Development
Accounting ( pay-roll, etc )
Tech Support/ Help Desk
Beginning: Adapted from Haga et. Al ( 2007 )
It can be concluded that first-class system analyst merely can be developed through appropriate accomplishments and sufficient cognition. While developing an effectual undertaking squad members, the squad leader besides need to hold multiple accomplishments in pull offing those people in the undertaking direction. Harmonizing to Tan ( 2004 ) , due to multi-disciplinary and multi-dimensional of undertaking direction, a good director is an single that can have on multiple chapeaus and work in any subject of development to stop up up any defects. For system analysts, it is necessary for them to carry through the first-class system analyst feature in order to accomplish undertaking ends on clip and within the budget besides forestalling a struggle with others in the same undertaking.