The intent of this survey was to analyze the influence of gross revenues publicity on purchasing behaviour among university pupils. Specifically. Kongunadu Arts and Science College was chosen as survey location. The research information was collected from 171 respondents. The informations were collected utilizing self-administrated questionnaires. This survey found that there was no important difference between gender and purchasing behaviour ( t = -1. 003. P & gt ; 0. 05 ) . There were important relationship between attitude towards monetary value price reductions ( r = 0. 372. P & lt ; 0. 01 ) . vouchers ( R = 0. 270. P & lt ; 0. 01 ) . free samples ( r = 0. 256. P & lt ; 0. 01 ) and “buy-one-get-one-free” ( r = 0. 338. P & lt ; 0. 01 ) with purchasing behaviour. Consequences of Hierarchical Multiple Regression found that of the four variables. monetary value price reduction ( ÃŸ = 0. 256 ) was more influential that of buy-one-get-one free ( ÃŸ = 0. 183 ) . voucher price reductions ( ÃŸ = 0. 014 ) and free samples ( ÃŸ = 0. 040 ) . The findings of this survey would assist sellers to understand the types of publicity that significantly influence purchasing behavior of the respondents. Hence. this could assist sellers in their selling planning to go more competitory and gain net income. Keywords: Gross saless publicity. Buying behaviour. University pupils
1. Background of Study
Many purchase state of affairss are so accustomed that consumers conduct really small cognitive activity ( Wathieu & A ; Murre. 2007 ) . In such instances. it is difficult to actuate behaviours such as trade name svwtching or additions in the figure of units purchased. One of the advantages of publicities is that they can excite consumers to believe and measure trade names and purchase possibilities when they otherwise may non hold. Therefore. many sellers and retail merchants utilize different sorts of publicity tools and schemes in order to understand the penchant of consumers and hike their gross revenues. Normally. gross revenues may pull more clients spend their money. do ingestion and buy the merchandises they wish during this ace save period as the they believed that during the gross revenues publicity. monetary values of all merchandises are cheaper than usual.
This phenomenon shows that some of the consumers are easy tempted when they see the word of gross revenues publicity. Other than monetary value decreases. voucher or rebate given by the retail merchant and other promotional tools like free sample. bonus battalion and “buy one acquire one free” were found to be bring oning consumer bargain more than they expect ( Gilbert. 1999 ) . What are more important now are consumers themselves non aware the influence of gross revenues publicity on their purchasing behavior and particularly small is understood about their responds to the assorted promotional schemes pattern by sellers. This will finally take to over-consuming and purchase the merchandises which are non necessary and useless.
2. Purpose and Significant of Study
Research on selling tools is so of import to understand the most influencing tools to vie with rivals. Through this information. sellers and retail merchants could good be after their resources to derive the maxiirium net income. Thus this survey purpose to look into the penchant of consumer on different promotional tools. sellers and retail merchants will able to aware of the consumer behaviour so that they can use the right and th most effectual publicity technique to pull clients. From the consumer position. this survey will uncover the consumer attitude toward gross revenues publicity and therefore raise the consciousness of consumers about their behaviour that influenced by gross revenues publicity. It besides presents better understanding and information to consumers where their purchase behaviour will be affected otherwise due to different type of promotional tools.
3. Literature Reappraisal
Promotion is one of the techniques to pull consumers to buy more or seek a merchandise or service. Severe results of publicity included gross revenues increased. quantify of stock used and attract new consumers. For illustration. monetary value publicity refers to impermanent monetary value decrease which offers to consumers. The feature is the retail merchant would label a specific per centum or hard currency economy for the merchandises or services. Previous surveies indicated that a sudden addition of gross revenues would see by retail merchants because of price-conscious of consumers ( Banks & A ; Moorthy. 1999 ; Kopalle & A ; Mela. 1999 ; Smith & A ; Sinha. 2000 ; Gilbert & A ; Jackaria. 2002 ) . Harmonizing to Blackwell. Miniard and Engel ( 2001 ) . monetary value price reductions played important functions in act uponing consumer merchandise test behaviour by which indirectly attract new consumer.
In term of voucher publicities. those consumers obtained voucher are entitled to acquire price reduction of the merchandises at its brighial monetary value ( Ndubisi & A ; Chew. 2006 ) . Previous survey found that voucher publicities do non hold important consequence on volume of merchandise purchase by consumer ( Gilbert & A ; Jackaria’s. 2002 ) . Later. a survey conducted by Ndubisi and Chew ( 2006 ) at Malaysia has re-affirmed the statement by Gilbert and Jackaria’s ( 2002 ) . They besides reported that voucher publicity was among the least used and unpopular promotional tools by consumers. However. the consequences in Dotson’s ( 2001 ) research proved that adult females report being more likely to utilize lone vouchers than work forces ( P & lt ; 0. 05 ) and the youngest age group ( less than 25 old ages old ) reports a higher possibilify of taking advantage of fillip battalions ( P & lt ; 0. 05 ) . monetary value trades ( P & lt ; 0. 05 ) and samples ( P & lt ; 0. 05 ) than the age group of 35 to 54 severally.
Harmonizing to Kardes ( 1999 ) . selling directors cognizant of merchandise test related to behavioural experience of consumers towards a merchandise. Therefore. directing free sample take topographic point in promotional tools. Free samples refers to consumers are giving a free little sample of the merchandise so that consumers have the opportunity to seek and utilize the merchandise. Shimp ( 2003 ) reported that a free sample had influence on consumer’s purchasing behaviour while Gilbert and Jackaria ( 2002 ) have shown otherwise. Free sample was positively related to immediate gross revenues of that peculiar ( Lammers. 1991 ) .
Promotion technique of “buy-one-get-one-free” is one of the types of fillip battalions in which the consumers are offered the extra merchandise at the ordinary monetary value but are in an enhanced bundle. Consumer would be easy persuaded to purchase merchandises as there is no excess cost demand and more valuable perceived by consumers ( Sinha & A ; Smith. 2000 ) . Besides. this publicity technique would beneficial to retail merchants in velocity up the stock clearance compared to monetary value publicities ( Li. Sun & A ; Wang. 2007 ) .
Associating with purchasing behaviour. consumers normally have eternal demand to ftilfiU their demands and satisfaction to obtain something new or better as every person has their ain behaviour. attitude and idea while taking merchandises. services and doing purchase determination. Consequently. there is a big organic structure of literattire. which has examined consumers purchasing behaviour and the surveies have reported that many factor would infiuence consumer behaviour whether bargain or non to purchase a merchandise.
Harmonizing to Smelser and Baltes ( 2001 ) . most of the day-to-day life activities dominated by purchasing goods behaviour and besides experience which gained from the topographic point such as shopping centres. cify Centre. stores. recreational park. touristry Centre and so on. where some stimulation radius can be stimulated. William ( 2002 ) revealed that societal category has important finding on purchase rating standards. Attitude formation. motive. value orientation. income. socialisation during childhood and instruction degrees will act upon one’s societal category. Harmonizing to Yip ( 2003 ) . societal category of an person indirectly shows that low income would do limited pick when doing purchase determinations. High buying power. gross revenues individual and gross revenues fortunes was among three key factors which influenced unprompted apparels purchasing pattern among adult females consumer ( Naimah & A ; Tan. 1999 ) .
For the convinence of the research workers Kongunadu College of Arts and Science was selected as location of survey. The informations aggregation procedure was conducted among the pupils with anterior permission from the section. Even though this little sample might non able to representative of all the population. it is considered as appropriate sampling because of utilizing a comparatively homogenous group and this is helpful to minimise random mistake that might happen in utilizing a heterogenous sample such as the general populace ( Calder. Philips & A ; Tybout. 1981 ) .
Pilot survey had been done before the existent survey take topographic point. The intent of pilot survey was to measure the dependability of the instruments that used in existent survey. For this research. the pilot trial had involved a sum of 25 pupils in order to guarantee that the inquiry were apprehensible by the existent respondents. In add-on. pre-test allowed the research worker to better assurance and to do certain that the points that existed in questionnaire was accommodating the study’s demand.
4. 1 Instrumentality
The present survey used the questionnaire as the instrument of the survey. The questionnaire was divided into three parts that were background of the respondents. the respondent’s attitude and perceptual experience with respects to different promotional tools and purchasing behavior of respondents. In first portion of questionnaire. each respondent was asked to reply both open-ended and close-ended inquiries. Open-ended inquiries allowed respondents to bring forth an reply without restrictions such as age and household monthly income. On the other manus. close-ended inquiries required respondents to choose from a set of reply already provided such as gender and race. Second portion of the questionnaire was consisted of 30 two points where each different promotional tool was measured utilizing eight points. The points developed to find respondent’s attitude towards different promotional tools. There were four different promotional tools tested ( i. e. . monetary value price reductions. vouchers. free samples and “buy-one-get-one-free” ) .
Respondents were required to give a respond on a four point ordinal graduated table ( strongly disagree. disagree. agree. strongly agree ) . The last of the questionnaire was besides used four points ordinal graduated table ( strongly disagree. disagree. agree. strongly agree ) where there were 13 points mensurating the consumer’s purchasing behavior. adopted from BakeweÃ¼ and Mitchell survey. In the add-on. the responses are given from one point in one terminal to four points in the other terminal. The Statistical Package for Social Science ( SPSS ) version 16. 0 was used to analyse informations.
For analytical intents. each graduated table of the entire attitude mark ( monetary value price reductions. voucher price reduction. free samples and buy-one-get-one-free attack ) were categorized into two categorized. entirely based on the average mark of each measuring. The dependability for attitude towards monetary value price reductions graduated table was 0. 752 while the reliabiliy of attitude towards vouchers graduated table was 0. 827. Furthermore. the dependability for attitude towards free samples graduated table was 0. 862 and the reliabiliy for attitude towards “buy-one-get-one-free” graduated table was 0. 806. Buying behaviour graduated table had achieved dependability of 0. 680. These five instruments had achieved acceptable dependability for concern and societal scientific discipline research.
5. Research Finding and Discussion
5. 1 Attitude towards Price Discounts
Table 1 demonstrates that more than half of the respondents agree that they prefer trade names which offer monetary value price reductions. but more than half of the respondents prefer their front-runner trade names than trade names which offer monetary value price reductions. This survey besides interested in indentifying about the class of attitude towards monetary value price reductions. The graduated table of the entire attitude towards monetary value price reductions was so categorized into two equal groups. Respondents who scored above the average graduated table ( 2. 56 points ) were categorized as holding favorable attitude towards monetary value price reductions and respondents who scored below of the average graduated table were categorized as holding unfavorable attitude towards monetary value price reductions. Table 1 showed that less than half of the respondents ( 40. 4 % ) had unfavorable attitude towards monetary value price reductions. where as there were 69. 0 % of the respondents have favorable attitude towards monetary value price reductions.
5. 2 Attitude towards Coupons
Table 1 indicated that the first statement was agreed by most of the respondents which were 53. 2 % . They acknowledged that a trade name offers voucher would be a ground for them to purchase. The respondents feel that a trade name which offers voucher doesn’t give them a good bargain ( 56. 1 % ) . Respondents do non give precedence for the trade names which offers voucher and they prefer their regular and favorite trade names more. The information in Table 3 showed that the mark of entire attitude towards vouchers of the respondents in scope of lower than 2. 44 points which were 49. 7 % of the respondents have unfavorable attitude towards vouchers. On the other manus. there was 50. 3 % of the respondents have favorable attitude towards vouchers. This indicated that precisely half of the respondents have positive attitude towards vouchers publicity in this research.
5. 3 Attitude towards Free Samples
Harmonizing to Table 1. precisely half of the respondents agreed that when they buy a trade name that offers free samples. they feel they are acquiring a good bargain ( 51. 4 % ) and free sample has allowed them to purchase more measures of the same merchandise. Furthermore. half of the respondents prefer to purchase the same trade name even if they have free samples on other trade names. However. Shimp ( 2003 ) reported that free sample had influence on consumers’ purchasing behavior.
As presented by Table 3. the graduated table of the entire attitude towards free samples score cut point for two equal groups was 2. 46 points which mean the group who scored higher than the average graduated table of 2. 46 has favorable attitude towards free samples and respondents who scored below of the average graduated table were classified as holding unfavorable attitude towards free samples. Based on Table 3. it proved that bulk of the respondents ( 55. 6 % ) have favorable attitude towards free samples while there were 44. 4 % of the respondents have unfavorable attitude towards free samples. This showed that there were 95 respondents ( 55. 6 % ) out of the 171 respondents willing to devour more during the gross revenues publicity with free samples technique.
5. 4 Attitude towards “Buy-One-Get-One-Free”
Table 1 illustrated the respondents in this survey have agreed perceptual experience on all of the eight statements related to “buy-one-get-one-free” publicity tool. It showed that the per centum of the respondents who agreed on the statements was more or higher than respondents who disagreed on it. For illustration. 62. 6 of the respondents agreed that a trade name offers “buy-one-get-one-free” could be a ground for them to purchase. Based on Table 1. it presented the graduated table of the attitude towards buy-one-get-one-free cut point for two equal groups were 2. 6 points. Respondents who scored below the average graduated table ( & lt ; 2. 6 points ) of the attitude towards buy-one-get-one-free were categorized as holding unfavorable attitude where as respondents who scored above the average graduated table ( & gt ; 2. 6 points ) were categorized as holding favorable attitude towards buy-one-get-one-free. In Table 3. there were 48 % of the respondents who have unfavorable attitude towards buy-one-get-one-free while 52 % of the respondents have favorable attitude towards buy-one get-one-free.
5. 5 Respondents ‘ Buying Behaviour
Harmonizing to Brown ( 2007 ) . purchasing behavior refers to the determination processes and Acts of the Apostless of people involved in purchasing and utilizing merchandises. There were entire of 13 statements used to analyze the respondents’ purchasing behavior. The responses were scored by four point ordinal graduated table. Table 2 indicated the descriptive analysis of each inquiry for purchasing behavior. The analysis had been divided into two degrees of purchasing behavior: agree and disagree. From Table 2. it showed that bulk of the respondents ( 80. 7 % ) agreed in general. they try to acquire the best overall quality and 81. 8 % of them agreed they look really carefully to happen the best value for money. More to the point. there were 71. 9 % of respondents agreed one time they find the merchandise they like. they will purchase it on a regular basis and 81. 3 % of them would carefully watch how much they spend. Among the 13 statements. the statement of “I usually shop rapidly. purchasing the first merchandise or trade name I find that seems good enough” agreed by most least respondents which were 56. 8 % of respondents.
The consequences of purchasing behaviour degree as shown in Table 3. Equal scope was used to categorise the purchasing behavior that is low and high degree Respondents who under 2. 87 points and above were categorized as holding high degrees of purchasing behavior and frailty versa. There were 49. 7 % of respondents in class of low degree purchasing behavior and 50. 3 % of respondents have high degree of purchasing behavior. The respondents. who have high degree of purchasing behavior usually. have high degree of engagement where they are paying more attending towards gross revenues publicity ( Raaij et al. 2001 ) .
The consequence of Independent Samples T-test showed that there was no important difference between purchasing behavior and gender ( t = -1. 003. P & gt ; 0. 05 ) . It was consistent with old survey by Chu ( 2006 ) . However. the average mark of purchasing behavior of male ( M = 2. 8390 ) respondents is somewhat lower than female respondents ( M =2. 9059 ) .
5. 6 The relationship between the selected variables and purchasing behavior
The consequence of Pearson Correlation trial revealed that there was a important relationship between attitude towards monetary value price reductions and purchasing behavior among respondents ( r = 0. 372. p â‰¤ 0. 001 ) ( refer to Postpone 4 ) . The consequences of this survey reaffirmed that findings of old survey by. Blackwell. Miniard and Engel ( 2001 ) that monetary value price reductions play important functions in act uponing consumers’ purchase test behavior. and Smith and Sinha ( 2000 ) . monetary value publicities can bring on consumers’ purchasing behavior and consequence in a short term additions in gross revenues. There was a important relationship between attitude towards vouchers and purchasing behavior ( r = 0. 270. pâ‰¤ 0. 001 ) . The consequence of this survey was inconsistent with old survey in Kota Kinabalu. Malaysia which found that vouchers have no important relationship on merchandise test ptu-chase ( Ndubisi & A ; Chew. 2006 ) . This may caused by vicinity difference.
This survey besides found that. there was a important relationship between attitude towards free samples and purchasing behavior ( r = 0. 256. p â‰¤ 0. 001 ) . The consequence is consistent with Shimp ( 2003 ) that a free sample had influence on consumers’ purchasing behavior. Besides. Lammers ( 1991 ) besides verified that free samples did hold a positive impact on immediate gross revenues of the merchandise. Last. there was a important relationship between attitude towards “buy-one-get-one-free” and purchasing behavior ( r = 0. 338. p â‰¤ 0. 001 ) . It showed that the publicity tools with “buy-one-get-one-free” did pull and bring on consumers’ favorable attitude on purchasing behavior.
Table 5 summarizes consequences of a multiple arrested development analyses of the purchasing behaviour” . All the four selected variables viz. : monetary value price reductions. vouchers. free samples and buy-one-get-one-free which significantly related to purchasing behavior was regressed utilizing hierarchal method. Model 1 was used to in construing the purchasing behavior of the respondents. Of the four variables. monetary value price reduction ( ÃŸ = 0. 256 ) was more influential that of buy-one-get-one free ( ÃŸ = 0. 183 ) . voucher price reductions ( ÃŸ = 0. 014 ) and free samples ( ÃŸ = 0. 040 ) .
6. Deductions. Recommendations and Decisions
6. 1 Deductions
Every consumer has their ain personal feature particularly in taking and doing purchase determination. With the turning figure of gross revenues publicity. it is of import to find the consumers’ perceptual experience towards their purchasing behavior. Besides. this survey besides examines several factors which included socio-demographic background ( gender ) and attitude towards four different promotional tools on purchasing behavior. From the findings. it was noticed that consumers respond positively to the assorted promotional tools that is promoted by the sellers. It is because consumers are believed that during the gross revenues publicity. monetary values of all merchandises are cheaper than usual and they felt they are acquiring a good bargain. It meant that the more positive or favorable the attitude towards promotional tools. the more increasing possibility consumers make purchase determination during gross revenues publicity. Gender was found to hold no important difference on purchasing behavior.
The consequences of this survey have several deductions that would be good to sellers. consumers and future research. From the marketer’s position. they can hold a better apprehension of UPM students’ purchasing behaviors so that they can break foretell the wants and demands of possible consumers. The information derived from this research enable sellers to aware of the consumer behavior. It will assist them use the right and the most effectual publicity technique to pull clients. Furthermore. the survey from Ndubisi and Chew ( 2006 ) besides supported that by offering the right promotional tools. it can assist organisations carefully plan their promotional schemes by giving penchant to the more effectual tools.
It is critical because the precise selling schemes determination assists the company to minimise cost and maximise their net income. In add-on. the current research made consumers more cognizant of their easy act upon behavior to gross revenues publicity because it present better understanding and information to consumers where they respond otherwise due to different type of promotional tools. The research besides created consumer consciousness to do careful analysis before they decide to purchase merchandises and services. Hence. the consumers will recognize the importance of understanding the altering environment and update themselves from clip to clip ( Hang. 2008 ) . Finally. consumers were benefited through this survey and going smarter twenty-four hours by twenty-four hours. This survey was besides utile to academicians where current survey could function as a mention and may supply some ushers for research workers who would wish to analyze about the same subject.
6. 2 Recommendations
Although this research has taken critical stairss to place the factors that influence purchasing behavior. it besides has certain restrictions. First. the restriction of the information prevents farther geographic expedition of the survey. There was an age bound and merely 171 respondents have been participated in this survey. The respondents were about homogeneous for age types because there were between 18 to 24 old ages old and represent early maturity merely. Different phases of life rhythms of respondents would give different consequences. Therefore. hereafter research workers are suggested to increase the sample size assortment particularly in respondents’ age to diminish the mistake for the intent of the generalising consequence to a wider population. They can make comparison among early. in-between and late striplings in respects to purchasing behavior.
Second. future research workers may farther scope to double the survey in different environment and different geographical locations. Different environment played a important factor that influence respondents behaviour specifically workplace. supermarkets and shopping composites or promenades. Working persons could act in a different mode compared with this sample. Besides. the persons who do non hold business such as homemaker and retired individual may besides act otherwise because the understanding and experience of respondents towards the inquiries might act upon their replies. Since this survey was conducted in Kongunadu Arts and Science College. Coimbatore. it could non stand for other people in urban or rural countries where the quality of life is different.
Third. future research workers are suggested to utilize interview technique in making research particularly at the topographic point here minutess happen. This will enable the research workers obtain an accurate information based on the respondents’ fresh memory ; Last but non least. this research has merely examines four promotional tools that influence purchasing behavior. Future research workers are suggested to find other promotional tools such as discounts. sweeptakes. in battalion premiums and so forth. Besides. the survey can besides stipulate in class of merchandises or services to hold more focal point information.
However. for more meaningful findings the different promotional tools can be investigated together instead than individually so that the interactions among them can be better understand. As a consequence. it can help sellers and consumers understand other promotional tools that may act upon the purchasing behavior.
6. 3 Decisions
Gross saless publicities play an of import function in the selling plans of sellers and retail merchants. A big per centum of marketers’ gross revenues are made on publicity. This state of affairs is going seemingly when the fiscal crisis and economic downtime happened in 2008. The sellers are instead use assortment of promotional tools to offers consumers an excess incentive to purchase their merchandises than advertisement in authoritative media. It is supported by the research from Curzon ( 2009 ) who stated that gross revenues publicities are non merely effectual in achieving short-run gross revenues as they are besides more cost-efficient compared to other incorporate selling communications tools such as advertisement.
In decision. the consumers’ attitude towards different promotional tools on purchasing behavior is favorable. It showed that gross revenues publicity tools are auxiliary or complementary to bing concern as an extra selling scheme. This research demonstrated that consumers’ purchasing behaviors were motivated by multiple types of factors. including socio-demography. promotional tools such as monetary value price reductions. vouchers. free samples and “buy-one-get-one-free” . In add-on. the model provides new penetrations into the apprehension of how pupils respond to assorted promotional tools offered by sellers and the impacts on their purchasing behavior. which may be indispensable for sellers in order to use accurate selling schemes to advance merchandises.