Similarities and Differences between First and Second-wave Empires Essay Sample

The outgrowth of second-wave imperiums in 500 BCE coincides with the diminution of earlier river societies. besides known as first-wave civilisations. which were present from about 3500 BCE to 500 BCE. River vale societies were. as its name suggests. situated close rivers as a beginning of H2O for irrigation and mundane usage. In comparing. second-wave imperiums adopted many traits from earlier civilisations and elaborated on them or wholly changed them. Despite bearing some minor similarities. the differences in political organisation. inventions. and societal inequality between first and 2nd moving ridge civilisations are more notable. The political constructions in first and 2nd moving ridge civilisations portion some traits while differing in others. For cases. leaders in early river societies claimed that they were divinely ordained. Sumerian male monarchs of single city states each claimed to be connected to a reverent entity and as a consequence were deemed fit to govern. Additionally. Egypt. the Nile river vale society. was led by a series of Pharaohs who claimed to be Gods in human signifier. Likewise. leaders of second-wave imperiums besides avowed that supernatural forces aid their governments. Rome past emperors were regarded as Gods.

Similarly. in China. emperors were thought to govern with the godly force of the Mandate of Heaven. On the other manus. many leaders of second-wave civilisations besides depended on personal virtues and high places in their societal hierarchy to set up leading. Furthermore. Han’s dynasty established an imperial academy and developed a civil service system to place possible authorities functionaries. Besides deserving adverting. is Athens’s construct of a “citizen” . which was a ground-breaking political thought. although non yet perfected. that views each person as a portion of a larger province system. Although there wasn’t any technological discovery every bit important as the Agricultural Revolution. second-wave imperiums did hold modest inventions that were non seen in first-wave civilisations. Some innovations. nevertheless. saw continuity from the first to second-wave civilisation. In the first-wave civilisations. in footings of arms. blades. pointers. and axes were used. The Chinese made promotions in arms. viz. . the innovation of Piston bellows. pieces. and gunpowder. altering the game of warfare. In add-on. the innovation of the draw-loom. silk-handling machinery. the magnetic compass. the iron-chain suspension span. paper. and porcelain was besides of Chinese beginning. and that’s merely calling a few.

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Meanwhile. India initiated the crystallisation of sugar and developed methods for doing cotton fabric. Rome. in conclusion. engineered legion infrastructural achievements that can still be seen today. Relative to measurings and weighing systems. the Indus vale civilisation developed standardised weights and steps which continued to be used by second-wave imperiums. To set briefly. many innovations from first-wave societies continued to be used – but improved upon. and many wholly new inventions were made every bit good. Social inequality was a characteristic of both first and second-wave civilisations ; however. there were little fluctuations. In ancient Egypt. there was a societal category pyramid with Pharaohs on the top and slaves on the underside with in-between classmen in between. In the same manner. the Tigris-Euphrates river vale civilisations besides had a societal ladder nevertheless alternatively of Pharaohs there were male monarchs and Lords. These societal categories caused a rift between the people. allowing excessively much power to some and excessively small to others. Additionally. earlier river societies frequently practiced patriarchate. raising the value of work forces above adult females.

Refering inequality between societal categories and gender. first and second-wave civilisations shared a common land. Second-wave imperiums continued to utilize societal ladders such as the caste system in India. These societal constructions nevertheless. became much more rigorous and stiff. Furthermore. the border of difference between societal categories widen significantly. In comparing. second-wave imperiums imposed a firmer clasp on adult females subordination. whereas river valley civilisations were less restrictive. Both first and second-wave civilisations claimed to hold leaders that are religious connected to the Gods. portion a twosome of inventions. have a societal category system. and pattern patriarchate. More marked. though. are the points that cause the earlier river societies to differ from second-wave imperiums. In amount. second-wave imperiums produced new political constructs – such as the construct of “citizens” . made an extended sum of innovations to break mundane life. while making a more defined societal ladder and strictly adhering to patterns of patriarchate.

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