Analyze how political, spiritual, and societal factors affected the work of scientists in the sixteenth and 17th centuries. Historical Background: Between 1500 and 1700. scientists. or natural philosophers as they were called, developed a new scientific worldview. A heliocentric theoretical account of the existence replaced the traditional geocentric theoretical account. Different methods for detecting scientific Torahs were developed. Scientists envisioned a existence composed of affair in gesture. which could best be understood through mathematics and experiment. This essay example depicts that research workers of nature organized into scientific subjects and societies were founded throughout Europe to ease the survey of scientific inquiries.
Analyzes prejudice or point of position in at least three papers. • Relates auctorial point of position to author’s topographic point ( place. position. etc. ) OR • Evaluates the dependability of the beginning OR • Recognizes that different sorts of papers serve different intents OR • Analyzes tone or purpose of documents-three weak efforts equal one point of position. • Point of position can be achieved jointly through analysis of motivations of a group or accounts of grounds for group’s attitudes ; counts as one point of position. • Attribution may NOT be sufficient to show point of position.
Analyzes papers by grouping them in at least three groups. A group must incorporate at least two papers. A unsound grouping receives no recognition.
Examples of possible groups: Political ( 1. 2. 5. 6. 7. 10. 11 ) Religious ( 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 7. 8. 12 ) Social ( 1. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 9. 10. 11 ) Religious figures ( 1. 2. 3. 5 ) Philosophers/scientists ( 1. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 12 ) Political figures ( 10. 11 )
Document 1. Nicolaus Copernicus. Polish priest and uranologist. dedication to Pope Paul III in Copernicus’ book On the Revolution of the Heavenly Spheres. 1543. Does non seek to avoid unfavorable judgment. Book dedicated to Pope Paul because of his importance and love of scientific discipline. The Pope has influence to barricade slander of the work. Mathematicians will hold that the book is supportive of the Church. ( political. spiritual. societal )
Document 2. John Calvin. Gallic Protestant theologist. Comments on the First Book of Moses ( Genesis ) . 1554. Moses dealt with affairs that were easy understood ; uranologists study topics that are much more complex. Such survey should non be prohibited because critics do non understand it. Astronomy is utile to show the wisdom of God. ( political. spiritual )
Document 3. Giovanni Ciampoli. Italian monastic. missive to Galileo. 1615. Ciampoli urges respect to governments in the Church in order to halt critics from ascribing false claims to Galileo’s work. ( spiritual. societal )
Document 4. Francis Bacon. English philosopher of scientific discipline. The Great Instauration ( a program to reorganise the scientific disciplines ) . 1620. Science has made small advancement because it has non sought a proper goal-the betterment of human life. ( spiritual. societal )
Document 5. Marin Mersenne. Gallic monastic and natural philosopher. missive to his baronial frequenter. 1635. Mersenne is willing to take anything from his work to which the frequenter objects. though all statements are based on repeated experimentation and supported by informants to the experiments. ( political. spiritual. societal )
Document 6. Henry Oldenbury. Secretary of the English Royal Society. missive to Johannes Hevelius. German scientist. February 1663. Interaction among research workers is of import to further development of larning. There is a demand for a community of scientists. ( political. societal )
Document 7. Thomas Hobbes. English philosopher. Leviathan. 1668. Scientific discoveries that affect the involvements of the powerful are called into inquiry or suppressed when these thoughts affect aspiration. net income. or lecherousness of the swayers. ( political. spiritual. societal )
Document 8. Walter Charleton. English physician and natural philosopher. The Natural Philosophy of Epicurus. Gassendi. and Charleton. 1654. Creation and agreement of affair depends upon being of an “Infinite Wisdom and Power. ” ( spiritual )
Document 9. Margaret Cavendish. English natural philosopher. Observations on Experimental Philosophy. 1666. Cavendish would set up a school of natural doctrine if adult females were allowed to make so. Women’s mind is at present less esteemed than was the instance once. ( societal )
Beginning: Drawing to mark Louis XIV’s visit to the Gallic Royal Academy. published 1671.
Document 11. Jean Baptiste Colbert. Gallic Finance Minister under Louis XIV. missive. 1676. Academies of letters and scientific disciplines have been established because they promote benefits to the province. ( political. societal. military )
Document 12. Gottfried Leibnitz. German philosopher. New System of Nature. 1695. God has arranged the universe for the benefit of the human head. The natural jurisprudence regulating heads transcends physical events. ( spiritual )
3 ( reasonably obvious ) possible Thesis
Political. spiritual and societal forces tended on the whole to impede the attempts of 16th and seventeenth century scientists. Political. spiritual and societal forces tended on the whole to promote the attempts of 16th and seventeenth century scientists. Political. spiritual and societal forces both encouraged and hindered the work of 16th and seventeenth century scientists.