Patel. Faiza. and Elizabeth Goitein. “Religious Profiling: An Unwelcome Guest. ” The Hill. N. p. . 12 Apr. 2012. Web. . The article starts off by saying the Torahs against profiling. In 2003. the Department of Justice issued counsel forbiding racial and cultural profiling by federal jurisprudence enforcement bureaus. which it characterized as “invidious discrimination” rejecting our committedness to autonomy and justness for all. Like racial profiling. spiritual profiling is “invidious discrimination” that is damaging to America’s establishing rules. The first colonists and many of our ascendants came to this state because spiritual persecution. The right to freedom of faith is so cardinal to American democracy that it was enshrined in the First Amendment to the U. S. Constitution.
But when constabularies openly use the pattern of Islam as a permutation for terrorist intuition. American Muslims hesitate to pray at mosques and sometimes even seek to conceal their spiritual individuality. Faiza Patel and Elizabeth Goitein are co-directors of Brennan Center for Justice’s Liberty & A ; National Security Program. The Brennan Center seeks national security policies that are effectual and respect constitutional values and the regulation of jurisprudence while protecting our people. One of the program’s chief end focal point is guaranting authorities policies aiming terrorists do so efficaciously and without spiritual or cultural profiling.
This beginning is really utile for my research essay because both managers. Faiza Patel and Elizabeth Goitein. back up their thoughts that racial profiling goes against the rights of the people. Patel and Goitein contradict the American government’s Fundamental law about the freedom of Religion. Bing enshrined as the First Amendment and the chief cause why The Establishing Father’s came to America. shows how governments go against the people’s rights. Congresswoman Clarke’s Speech on Ending Racial and Religious Profiling. Lanham: Federal Information & A ; News Dispatch. Inc. 2014. ProQuest. 26 Mar 2014 Congresswoman Clarke has tried to extinguish racial profiling. by bureaus of the federal authorities and in New York City.
For illustration. she has been knocking the New York Police Department’s policy of descrying Muslim organisations without any intuition that a offense had been committed and the policy of Stop-and-Frisk under which the privateness of 1000000s of African-Americans and Latinos was violated without any legal footing. Congresswomen Clarke compares the policy of Stop and Frisk to the South African apartheid. She believes it is what the American people feel like and is an embarrassment to the populace. Alternatively of intuition the governments should concentrate on how they could maintain the state a safer topographic point. Not merely by intuition. Congresswoman Yvette D. Clarke is a New York Congresswoman. She has worked to extinguish racial profiling. by bureaus of the federal authorities and in New York City. Clarke’s addresss are carrying when she negotiations. She persuades her audience by knocking the NYPD policy of Stop and Frisk. She has done a batch to halt racial profiling.
Congresswoman Clarke hosted New York City elected functionaries on Capitol Hill for End Racial Profiling Advocacy Day. This beginning would be an of import portion of my research because the Stop and Frisk policy has been a really controversial subject has angered many people. The policy of Stop and Frisk opposes the rights of Americans. Fisher. William. “DISCRIMINATION: RIGHTS GROUPS SUE U. S. OVER ‘RELIGIOUS PROFILING’ . ” Global Information Network Apr 21 2005: 1. ProQuest. 26 Mar. 2014 In coincident intelligence conferences held in New York City and Buffalo. on the Canadian boundary line. the Council on American-Islamic Relations ( CAIR ) . the New York Civil Liberties Union and the American Civil Liberties Union announced that they were actioning the caput of the Department of Homeland Security over the pattern of aiming U. S. citizens take parting in spiritual conferences outside the United States.
The case was filed in U. S. territory tribunal on behalf of five Muslim-Americans who. along with tonss of others. were detained for six and a half hours. interrogated. fingerprinted. and photographed at the Canadian boundary line traversing to Buffalo as they returned place from an one-year Islamic conference in Toronto. Among the conference’s keynote talkers was Hamza Yusuf. a U. S. citizen and outstanding imaum from Hayward. California. who has advised President George W. Bush on several occasions on affairs sing Islam. Yusuf sat near First Lady Laura Bush during the president’s Sep. 20. 2001 reference to a joint session of Congress.
Pratt. Mary Louis. “Arts of the Contact Zones. ” Modern Language Association. JSTOR ( 1991 ) . pp 60- 68. Print. 27 Mar 2014 The article “Art of the Contact Zones” by Mary Louis Pratt is chiefly about “contact zones” and how they are a topographic point for linguistic communication. literacy. and civilization. She defines contact zones as “social infinites where civilizations run into. clang. and grapple with each other. frequently in contexts of extremely asymmetrical dealingss of power such as. colonialism. bondage. or their wakes as they are lived out in many parts of the universe today. ” Pratt provinces that transculturation is a phenomenon of the contact zones.
Mary Louis Pratt is a Silver Professor and Professor of Spanish and Lusitanian Languages and Literatures at New York University. Throughout her article. Pratt uses back uping statements and uses her ain experiences to back up her statement. An illustration of this is in the beginning of the article when Pratt negotiations about her son’s experience with baseball cards. Pratt uses a major illustration to exemplify the dominant- subsidiary relationship in the “contact zones. ” Pratt negotiations about how her boy Manuel was given an assignment by his instructor necessitating them to compose single- sentence responses to a list of inquiries on a “helpful innovation. ” Although Manuel did the assignment. he had a batch of spelling mistakes ; therefore. he received a star.
Pratt uses this illustration to exemplify the relationship between instructors and pupil. as a relationship that consists of the instructor being the higher beginning of authorization. and the pupil being subsidiary in this “contact” with the instructor. Manuel’s teacher gave him an assignment that he was expected to make. nevertheless. Manuel tries to defy the subordination by deliberately misspelling a batch of words throughout his paragraph. He still received a star for the assignment. This is utile for my research because the thought of dominant- subsidiary in the “contact zones” that Pratt discusses in her article is similar to the higher authorization against the minority. The Stop and Frisk policy shows how the constabulary is the higher beginning of authorization and minorities are low-level in the “contact zone. ” The constabulary uses their power to halt a individual based on intuition of condemnable activity. and some minorities try to defy this pattern. while others try to obey the higher beginning of authorization.
Friedersdorf. Conor. “The Dismaying Effectss of NYPD Ethnic Profiling on Innocent Muslim Americans. ” The Atlantic. Atlantic Media Company. 28 Mar. 2013. Web. 1 Apr. 2014.
Get downing shortly after the September 11 terrorist onslaughts. officers infiltrated Muslim communities and spied on 100s or possibly 1000s of wholly guiltless Americans at mosques. colleges. and elsewhere. These officers “put American citizens under surveillance and scrutinized where they ate. prayed and worked. non because of charges of wrongdoing but because of their ethnicity. ” the intelligence bureau reported. mentioning NYPD paperss. “In more than six old ages of descrying on Muslim vicinities. listen ining on conversations and cataloguing mosques. ” the Associated Press reported. “the New York Police Department’s secret Demographics Unit ne’er generated a lead or triggered a terrorist act probe. “
They acknowledged. in tribunal testimony. holding generated zero leads. Conor Friedersdorf is a staff author at The Atlantic. where he focuses on political relations and national personal businesss. He lives in Venice. California. and is the establishing editor of The Best of Journalism. a newssheet that is devoted for non fiction. This beginning would be helpful with my research essay because New York City’s stop-and-frisk policy is once more being challenged as racial profiling. And Muslim Americans continue to be profiled at work. in their houses of worship. where they eat and even when they play cricket. Americans would be outraged if Catholics or Jews were targeted by the Police Department in this manner doubtly so if the surveillance produced zero leads and no grounds of debaring any serious offense.