Public private partnership is a concerted venture between the public and private sector in which the populace and genitalias sector carry out a peculiar undertaking on the footing of agreed undertaking and hazards, each party retaining its undertakings and duty. The involvement in PPPs is turning twenty-four hours by twenty-four hours because it is an efficient manner of presenting the populace services to the multitudes. The fundamental principal behind public private partnership is that, Although Public sector entities may necessitate to be responsible for the bringing of public services, but it is non necessary that it must be really responsible for supplying or set abouting the investing themselves. In this manner all histrions in public private partnership can concentrate on making what they are likely to make in the best possible manner by using their resources and accomplishments. In order to under take any public private partnership for a peculiar venture we have different manners or theoretical account for PPPs, Which are described briefly as under.
A brief overview of Prominent Models of PPPs
Operation and direction contracts
In these understandings the duty for plus operation and direction is passed on to the private sector entities. The continuance for these contracts is by and large short runing from 3 to 5 old ages, but can usually be extended. The private party is remunerated on a fixed fee footing or on an Incentive footing with premiums linked to specific public presentation marks. Under this understanding the populace party still bears the fiscal and investing hazard associated with the undertakings. This type of contract is an efficient manner to set about a undertaking because the private sector has adequate accomplishments and have strong involvement in bettering the service quality. This theoretical account of PPPs contract is suited for dealing stages which eventually lead to denationalization.
Potential strengths of direction
The profound advantage of direction contract is that many operational benefits that result from private sector can be availed without reassigning the assets to the private party. Management contract are less thorny to develop as compared to others and are considered less controversial. Thesiss contracts are besides less expensive as compared to others because fewer but efficient staff can be used to carryout the undertaking. They can besides be seen as interim agreements, leting for modest betterments while more comprehensive contracts and constructions are developed. Similarly, a direction contract can be structured to phase-in progressively extended engagement of the private sector over clip and as advancement is demonstrated.
Despite of the aforementioned advantages of direction contract it besides embodies some drawbacks one of the cardinal disadvantage of this contract is that in this contract the private sector entity who is pull offing a peculiar undertaking does non bask the liberty. This is of import to accomplish deep and permanent alteration besides the division between the duty for service and direction, on one manus, and funding and enlargement planning, on the other, is a slippery one.
It is a limited type of PPPs theoretical account in this understanding the Private party procure, run an assets for a short span of clip largely for 2 to 5 old ages. In this contract the populace sector is responsible for investing and direction of the undertaking which bears the fiscal and residuary value hazards. While the public sector entity provide the services. It is suited for simple and operational requirments.it is frequently used for toll aggregations.
Potential strengths of Service Contract
This contract is best suited when the services are clearly defined in the understanding, the demand is moderately certain and the public presentation of the undertaking can easy be monitored. One of the the mammoth advantage of service contract is that it provides us comparatively low-risk option for the enlargement of private sector which in return brings efficiency in the system operation. It is a less expensive manner to bringing the populace services and due to low barrier to competition it encourage competition which in return enhance the public service bringing and it is besides a good beginning of engineering transportation and for the development of managerial capacity. The other outstanding advantages include
- Decrease in operation cost
- Access to cheaper labour
- Cut up in labour preparation cost
- Access to progress engineering at lower limit cost
- Enhance service bringing
Service contracts are used for simple and short term undertaking in this the private sector merely supply their services non the capital investing. But this contract is non suited for such state of affairs in which the aim is to pool up capital.An other of import drawback of this contract is that of loss of managerial control because it is much hard to pull off the outside service supplier as compared to have employees. Besides other draw dorsums include the loss of flexibleness in responding to altering the concern status, lake of internal and external focal point, loss of competitory border, job in contract reclamation and contractual misinterpretation. In this it is hard to cipher the concealed cost associated with the contract like legal cost and the clip require to set the contract into action.
It is a fiscal agreement in which the proprietor of a installation sells it to another entity, and later leases it back from the new proprietor. In this contract both public and private sectors entities may come in into sale/leaseback agreements for a assortment of grounds. An advanced application of the sale/leaseback technique is the sale of a public installation to a public or private retention company for the intents of restricting governmental liability under certain statues. Under this agreement, the authorities that sold the installation leases it back and continues to run it. Under this understanding the private party better off merely if it manages to cut down operating costs while run intoing the designated service degree. On the other manus the populace sector bears the hazards associated with the web enlargement, capital betterment and funding. Its life ranges from 12 to 16 old ages, this type of understanding is best suited for substructure. Other outstanding renting contract include
- Buy-build-operate ( BBO )
- Lease-develop-operate ( LDO )
- Wrap-around add-on ( WAA )
One of the chief advantage of this contract is that it brings efficiency in the public service bringing.Also in this contract the commercial hazard is borne by the private sector which give a strong public presentation inducement and which coax the private sector to execute good. Under this contract the private sector competitively bid for supplying the services which in return enhance the bringing of public services.
As we know that in rental understanding the contractor gross is based on the gross watercourse of the clients ‘ payments so in such state of affairs the inquiry of duty degrees is of sensitive nature which can take to possible struggle between the public and private parties. Besides under this understanding the duty of capital investing is of public sector and the fiscal hazard is borne by the populace sector so in this contract no capital is mobilized from the private sector entity and besides labour issues are of more sensitive nature as compared to other PPPs contracts.
It is a type of renting contract in which the ownership remain with the authorities while the private party non merely supply capital investing but besides responsible for the care of the assets. After the completion of the undertaking the authorities pays the in agreement amount of money to the private party and gets the assets. It is suited for the building and its life is from 15 to 30 old ages.
Potential strengths of grant contract
One of cardinal advantage of Concessions is that it helps to mobilise capital from private sector for the building or rehabilitation of bing undertakings. As we know that under this understanding the private sector besides contribute capital for the undertaking so it coax the private sector ( concessioner ) to convey efficiency and effectivity in order to increase his return in the undertaking. It besides encourages the private party to convey invention in the bringing of public services.
One of the major drawback of this contract is that the complexness of specifying the activities of private sector entity. One of the major disadvantage of this contract rises in instance of long-run undertakings i.e. more than 25 old ages because this complicate the command procedure and the contract design which hinder in expecting the events of the undertaking. Besides due to its long term term of office it is deemed politically controversial and hard to form. Another drawback of this contract is that it limit the competition because of limited figure of qualified contractors are available.
Green field Contracts
This type of understanding is largely used for the development of new undertakings. Such undertakings are frequently demanded by applied scientists. Examples of Greenfield undertakings are new mills, power workss or airdromes which are built from abrasion. Those installations which are modified/ upgraded are called Brownfield undertakings.
Build-Operate-Transfer ( BOT )
In this the private party is responsible for planing, building and operation of the assets. In this public party bears the fiscal hazards but it has control on of import stages of the life rhythm of the undertaking. This type of contract bring efficiency in the undertakings and removes the of import care issues from public budget This integrated strategy obliges the private operator to take into history the cost of runing the plus during the design and operation stage and hence stimulates a better planning and direction of the service itself It include the undermentioned types
- Build-own-operate-transfer ( BOOT )
- Build-rent-own-transfer ( BROT )
- Build-transfer-operate ( BTO )
- Build-lease-operate-transfer ( BLOT )
As we know that BOTs have been largely used to pull private support to the building or redevelopment of substructure. Hence one of the cardinal advantage of BOT understandings is that it reduces commercial hazard for the private spouse because there is frequently merely one client, i.e. public sector ( authorities ) .The following are some of the major advantages of BOT contract
- Due to the efficiency of private sector the public services can be delivered with lower limit cost
- As the private sector straight involved in this so it reduces the public debit, equilibrating the beget shortage and cut down the function of public sector.
- It besides installation the transportation of progress engineering by irrupting international contractors in the host state.
The followers are some of the major disadvantages of BOT contract
- The dealing cost in this instance is higher as compared to other contracts
- Not suited for little undertakings.
- The success of this undertaking depends upon the successful elevation of financess.
- BOT undertakings are successful merely when significant grosss are generated during the operation stage.
A CASE STUDY
This instance survey is one of the best illustration of public private partnership ( service contract ) which is lending to the overall economic development of Pakistan.
Faisalabad Industrial Estate Development and Management Company ( FIEDMC )
Faisalabad Industrial Estate Development and Management Company ( FIEDMC ) is a classical illustration of PPP where the public money is being gainfully managed by the private sector to accomplish optimal consequences. Established in late 2004 under Companies Ordinance Act 1984 on the footing of Public Private Partnership, the company is managed by a 21 member Board of Directors-16 from private sector and 5 from public sector. The function of public sector managers is more facilitative than monitoring. The private sector managers provide their services without any wage on voluntary footing. This eliminates the net income gaining facet of the private sector and puts them under heavy moral duties for wise usage of public money. They are of all time witting of the assurance vested in them by the populace sector and other subdivisions of society. The company was assigned the undertaking to develop two industrial estates viz. Value Addition City ( VAC ) and M-3 Industrial City ( M-3 IC ) . The full development cost has been provided as seed money by Government of the Punjab.
Value Addition City ( VAC )
VAC is a to the full functional province of the art aesthetically developed industrial estate catering for the demands of SMEs. It is spread over an country of over 200 estates where about all the secret plans have been sold out and industries have started mushrooming in this metropolis. It has provided an unprecedented alleviation to industrialists who were in hunt of a piece of land where all public-service corporations and installations would be available at their door measure. Some of the industrialists have described it as the most beautiful industrial estate of Pakistan. Security has been given top most precedence and effectual stairss have been taken to guarantee the safety of assets of the investors.
M-3 Industrial City ( M-3 IC )
This is the largest industrial estate development undertaking in the state. The kineticss of such a big undertaking are wholly different from any other undertaking on a lesser graduated table. It involves advanced maestro be aftering catering for the demands of all concern sectors, both industrialists and service suppliers. It entails the fulfilment of the demands and wants of prospective international purchasers and investors- wants usually transcending their demands but have to be addressed to. The construct of 3rd party logistics ( 3 PL ) would besides be to the full engrained in such a big industrial environment without which optimal consequences can non be obtained. While the civil plants have been designed on internationally recognized criterions, province of the art telecommunication system has been planned to fit the best in the field. An outstanding characteristic of this industrial estate is the proviso of common installations which are otherwise expensive for single industries. Two Common Effluent Treatment Plants ( CETPs ) are being provided to guarantee environment friendly disposal of the wastewater. Transport installations will be provided by the direction of M-3 IC to guarantee nice transposing within the industrial metropolis. Labor settlements are being developed on a big graduated table at both terminals of M-3 IC giving healthy environment for the labour. It will make about 3 million occupations both straight and indirectly. A immense sum is being spent on proviso of high quality electricity which will be distributed through 11 grid Stationss.
A Failure of PP Project ( Metronet UK )
The London belowground rail system is the universe foremost belowground system which was established in 1863 and up to early 20 century it was operated by six private operators. But due to their substandard services its activities was straight or indirectly classified by the UK governments by 1933.
In February 2002 it was decided to convey betterment in the public service bringing by come ining into a PFI contract with the private sector.Under this agreement it was decided that care and reclamation of London belowground substructure would be incorporated through three PPP contracts
Under this understanding the Responsibility for Stationss, train operations, signaling and safety remained in the Public sector, being run by London Underground Limited, a new operating company set up for the intent. It besides had duty for finding service forms and puting menus. Under this PPP undertaking there were three private sectors companies which were called infracos viz.
- Infraco BCV Bakerloo, Central, Victoria, Waterloo & A ; City.
- Infraco JNP Jubilee, Northern, Piccadilly.
- Infraco SSL Circle, District, East London, Hammersmith & A ; City, Metropolitan.
To better the Services and to guarantee long-run assets direction a 30 twelvemonth contract was signed which is divided into 7.5 twelvemonth section. In this agreement an Arbiter was besides appointed whose function was to decide the differences between the London Under Ground Limited and an infaco sing the payment and other issues.
On December 31 2002 Tube Line acquired Infraco JNP and on April 2003 Metronet acquired the other two infracos.The PPP contract give legal ownership of London Underground substructure during the term of the catching In July 2007 the work of modernisation of London Underground Infrastructure was entrusted to Metronet BCV and Metronet SSL.and the fund was provided by the Government under PPP.
But Metronet was unable to finish their undertaking in the in agreement clip and estimated cost of command. By March 2005 Metronet had non completed any of the eight Stationss due. Merely 11 out of 35 Stationss were accepted as delivered by March and eventually the London Underground Limited purchased 95 % of Metrone ‘s outstaniding debt duties from its private sector loaners in February 2008 instead than refunding this debt over the 30 old ages of the contract. The Department for Transport ( DfT ) made & A ; lb ; 1.7 billion of grant available to assist London Underground do so.
Causes of Failure of this Debacle of PPP
The followers are some of the chief ground for the fiasco of this PPP contract.
- Poor Corporate Governance and Leadership construction of Metronet and tied Supply concatenation direction
- Supplier was failed to give timely information to Metronet direction about the costs against bringing.
- Ambiguities in the range of the undertaking and hapless plan direction.
- Besides it was found that it was unable to put to death the the operation in the best possible manner and lake of efficiencies in concern disposal activities.
From the aforementioned treatment on the assorted outstanding types of PPPs theoretical accounts we conclude that It is non ever fruitful to come in to a PPP understanding.So the authorities should non come in into such contract without accurate and comprehensive appraisal of the hazard transferred to the private sector and a house thought that what would represent an appropriate monetary value for taking such degree of hazard. If it does non reassign an appropriate degree of hazard to the private sector so it should non be availed. PPPs can be really helpful for the public service bringing if the implicit in drawbacks are minimized and to minimise the hazard associated with these theoretical accounts we must use each theoretical account harmonizing to the type of job we are work outing. For case if we need for Capital so BOT/BOO/Divestiture can be used. In instance if we need for Expertise and Performance so Management Contract can be the best option. But if we need for Expertise merely so Service Contract is the best option. Or if we are confronting a composite job which can non be solved with one theoretical account so a combination of these theoretical accounts can be used.
- Article by By Brig.Ahmad Riaz Siddiqi ( Retd ) , X-Chief runing officer FIEDMC ( Dawn Saturday, December 20, 2008 )
- PUBLIC – Private PARTNERSHIPS Models and Trends in the European Union Writers: Andrea RENDA ( Senior Research Fellow, CEPS ) and Lorna SCHREFLER ( Research Assistant, CEPS )
- India time.com hypertext transfer protocol: //www.cyfuture.com/disadvantages-of-outsourcing.htm
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- The failure of Metronet REPORT BY THE COMPTROLLER AND AUDITOR GENERAL | HC 512 Session 2008-2009 5 June 2009 Department Of Management Sciences Ciit Islamabad