This chapter describes research activities presently conducted in the universe that are related to robotics for biological and medical applications. Roboticss for medical applications started fifteen old ages ago while for biological applications it is instead new ( about five old ages old ) . In this chapter. we foremost discourse why we need automatons and mechanization in biological science and medical specialty. Then we present robotic tools. devices and systems. cardinal engineerings. and cardinal research challenges that are relevant to the two applications. Research activities conducted and visited by the appraisal squad in the U. S. . Japan. Korea and Europe are introduced.
WHY ROBOTS AND AUTOMATION IN BIOLOGY AND MEDICINE
The primary intent for usage of robotics in biological science is to accomplish high throughput in experiments related to research and development of life scientific discipline. Those experiments involve the bringing and dispensation of biological samples/solutions in big Numberss each with really little volumes. Typical applications include high-throughput systems for large-scale DNA sequencing. individual nucleotide polymorphism ( SNP ) analysis. haplotype function. compound testing for drug development. and bio-solution commixture and distributing for membrane protein crystallisation. Without automatons and mechanization. biosamples/solutions must be handled manually by human custodies. which is non merely boring but besides slow. Assorted robotic systems have been developed in research labs that are either specially developed for a peculiar application or integrating of commercially available automatons. general intent tools and detectors. The 2nd intent of robotics for biological applications is for effectual handling and geographic expedition of molecular and cell biological science. This type of application includes immobilisation of single cells. cell use. and cell injection for pronuclei DNA interpolation.
Particular tools fabricated utilizing different engineerings have to be developed such as optical masers for microsensing and pull stringsing. electroactive polymer for cell use. and microneedles for cell incursion. Another interesting country of application is robotics-inspired algorithms for molecular and cellular biological science. This includes the work for foretelling protein folding. and for structural biological science ( Zheng and Chen. 2004 ) . High-throughput systems for DNA sequencing ( U. Of Washington ) ( Meldrum and Kavraki. 2004 ) .
Research on robotics for medical applications started fifteen old ages ago and is really active today. The intent is treble. First it is for robotic surgery. Robotic surgery can carry through what physicians can non because of preciseness and repeatability of robotic systems. Besides. automatons are able to run in a contained infinite inside 6. Roboticss for Biological 64 and Medical Applications the human organic structure. All these make automatons particularly suited for non-invasive or minimally invasive surgery and for better results of surgery. Today. automatons have been demonstrated or routinely used for bosom. encephalon. spinal cord. pharynx. and knee surgeries at many infirmaries in the United States ( International Journal of Emerging Medical Technologies. 2005 ) . shows physicians executing articulatio genus surgery utilizing a robotic system. Since robotic surgery improves consistence and quality. it is going more and more popular. High-throughput systems for DNA sequencing ( U. Of Washington ) ( Meldrum and Kavraki. 2004 ) .
Doctors perform articulatio genus surgery utilizing a robotic system ( Taylor. 2004 ) . The 2nd usage of robotics in medical specialty is diagnosing. Robotic diagnosing reduces invasiveness to the human organic structure and improves the truth and range of the diagnosing. One illustration is the robotic capsular endoscope that has been developed for non-invasive diagnosing of GI piece of land by Polo Sant’Anna Valdera of the Sant’Anna School of Advanced Studies in Italy.
The 3rd usage of robotics is for supplying unreal constituents to retrieve physical maps of human existences such as robotic prosthetic legs. weaponries and custodies. For illustration. at the Technical University of Berlin there is work on powered leg orthoses utilizing electromyographic signals for control and on prosthetic custodies ) . The latter is fundamentally an exo-skeleton for a non-functional manus. Prosthetic custodies are besides Yuan Zheng. George Bekey. Arthur Sanderson 65 being developed at University of Tsukuba in Japan. In add-on. rehabilitation robotics can assist patients retrieve physical maps more efficaciously after hurt by replacing or supplementing the work of physical healers. Robotic devices and systems can besides assist aged people move about ; this includes intelligent wheeled chairs. walking-assistance machines. and limb-empowering robotic devices.
For illustration. a new type of powered Walker was developed at Waseda University. It is capable of feeling force per unit area from both the left and right weaponries. Robotic capsular endoscope for scrutiny of GI piece of land ( Polo Sant’Anna Valdera of the Sant’Anna School of Advanced Studies. 2005 ) . In add-on. rehabilitation robotics can assist patients retrieve physical maps more efficaciously after hurt. Robotic devices and systems can besides assist aged people move about ; this includes intelligent wheeled chairs. walking-assistance machines. and limb-empowering robotic devices.
Doctors perform articulatio genus surgery utilizing a robotic system ( Taylor. 2004 ) .
Robotic Tools. Devices and Systems
Roboticss for biological and medical applications uses many tools. devices. and systems of both generalpurpose and specially designed types. The former includes automaton operators for picking and puting. and microactuators for distributing biosamples/solutions such as the one shown Another illustration is the system developed by the Novartis Research Foundation’s Genomics Institute. which includes standard industrial operators for high-throughput showing of compounds up to 1 million samples per twenty-four hours ( Meldrum and Kavraki. 2004 ) . In robotic surgery. commercially available automatons are frequently a portion of an incorporate system.
Off-the-shelf automaton is a portion of a biosolution distributing system ( Ohio State U. ) . 6. Roboticss for Biological 66 and Medical Applications Special-purpose devices and systems come in many assortments depending on the intent of applications. For illustration. particular systems are developed for high-throughput readying of bio-solutions such as the one developed by the University of Washington. shown in Special purpose detectors have even more types including ocular. force. and neuro-sensing. Biosensors frequently are really little and so microelectromechanical systems ( MEMS ) engineering is used to manufacture such elements as the microforce detector from the University of Minnesota and ETH-ZÃ¼rich shown in Particular tools utilizing untraditional rules are besides developed to manage bio-solutions or to pull strings cells. For illustration. Nagoya University in Japan used local exposure polymerisation on a bit to immobilise single cells. Microforce detector utilizing integrated circuit ( IC ) fiction engineering. U. of Minnesota ( Nelson and Zheng. 2004 ) .
Besides tools and devices. package and algorithms are besides an of import portion of robotics for biological and medical applications. In robotic surgery. for illustration. effectual algorithms for patterning and analysis of human organic structure constituents are an of import subject of research. The intent is to develop patient-specific theoretical accounts for executing precise surgery.
Key engineerings for robotics in biological and medical applications include the undermentioned: a ) MEMS technologies that can manufacture tools and devices suited for microsensing. microactuation and micromanipulation of biosamples/solutions and bio-objects such as cells. These engineerings use either IC-fabricating methods or utilize micromachining methods.
B ) Special robotic systems that can execute surgery exactly and at low cost. The challenge is to plan gesture of automatons expeditiously based on patient-specific mold and analysis. degree Celsius ) Modeling and analysis algorithms that are precise and fast for single patients. vitamin D ) Reliable and efficient system integrating of off-the-rack constituents and devices for specific biological and medical operations.
vitamin E ) Engineering mold of biological systems. The intent is to develop mathematical theoretical accounts for explicating the behaviour and construction of biological systems as applied scientists do for unreal physical systems. This has been proved highly ambitious because of the complexness of biological systems. degree Fahrenheit ) Solid apprehension of life scientific discipline. To develop an effectual robotic or mechanization system for biological and medical applications. it is necessary for applied scientists to hold a deep apprehension of life scientific discipline. Yuan Zheng. George Bekey. Arthur Sanderson 67 From the above. one can see that robotics for biological and medical applications covers a broad range of engineerings from conventional automatons and detectors to micro detectors and actuators. from tools and devices to algorithms. For molecular-level survey of biological systems. nano-devices and propulsion are cardinal engineerings as good.
Cardinal Research Challenges
There are a figure of cardinal research challenges in robotics for biological and medical applications that can be summarized as follows. First and first. engineerings for biological and medical applications are non mature. particularly for biological science. There is still a deficiency of effectual tooling and feeling engineerings to cover with monolithic and bantam bio-objects and biosamples/solutions. In peculiar. the undermentioned issues in biological research are still non resolved:
ï‚•ï€ Automated cell handling and operations ( examining and feeling ) is highly ambitious because of the bantam size of the cells.
ï‚•ï€ Automated protein word picture and functional analysis is highly hard because happening protein construction is slow and dearly-won.
ï‚•ï€ Automated protein crystallography including protein crystallisation. crystal harvest home. and X-ray sensing is still non possible because protein crystals are so little that they are hard to observe utilizing vision detectors. and there are no effectual tools for picking and puting. ï‚•ï€ Automated Deoxyribonucleic acid sequencing is still slow and expensive.
ï‚•ï€ Automated Deoxyribonucleic acid and protein bit production and analysis are still expensive and slow. although engineerings have been improved invariably.
For medical applications. Russell Taylor of the Johns Hopkins University summarized nucleus challenges in three countries: mold and analysis. interface engineerings. and systems. which are described below ( Taylor. 2004 ) :
ï‚•ï€ For mold and analysis. the accent is on developing computationally effectual methods for patientspecific mold and analysis.
ï‚•ï€ For interface engineering. the accent is to basically widen the sensory. motor. and humanadaptation abilities of computer-based systems in an remarkably demanding and constrained environment. ï‚•ï€ For systems. the
accent is on developing architectures. edifice blocks and analysis techniques that facilitate rapid development and proof of various computing machine integrated surgery ( CIS ) systems and processes with predicable public presentation.
In general. robotics for biological and medical applications is still new. and relevant engineerings are immature. particularly for biological applications. Consequently methods of robotics and mechanization are frequently ad hoc. and systems developed for a peculiar application are evolutional. non radical ( Meldrum. 2000 ) . For medical applications. robotic methods are more systematic. but non needfully a affair of scientific discipline yet. Furthermore applied scientists of robotics and mechanization have limited cognition of life scientific discipline. As a consequence. applied scientists have trouble developing effectual tools. devices and systems in an efficient manner for both biological and medical applications. Collaboration between technology and biological science is still rare. although that between technology and medical specialty has a longer history.
Research on robotics for biological and medical applications is still immature. Scientists in the U. S. are more active in placing and developing new applications of robotics for the two applications. Many important consequences have been achieved. and some have been commercialized to go utile devices and systems such as the district attorney Vinci surgical system ( International Journal of Emerging Medical Technologies. 2005 ) . In the U. S. . the figure of establishments involved in the research of robotics for both applications is significantly higher than any other state while the quality of research is every bit good. 6. Roboticss for Biological 72 and Medical Applications
On the other manus. attacks for robotics for biological and medical applications. particularly for the former. are evolutionary. non radical. Still there are many chances for coaction between applied scientists and life scientists. and between applied scientists and physicians. It is believed that any new discovery in biological science and in medical specialty may necessitate radical tools. possibly in robotics. to take topographic point. Although the U. S. is still taking the universe in the two applications. more and more states are take parting and doing impressive advancement. After all. the field has possible to convey great economic impact.