Major Work Data Sheet: Candide – Essay Sample

Genre: Sarcasm. ‘Conte Philosophique’ ( Philosophical Fiction ) biographical statement about the writer: Francois-Marie Arouet. better known as Voltaire. was born in 1694 in Paris. France. Though his male parent wanted him to go a attorney. Voltaire long held a great passion for composing, and instead than traveling to jurisprudence school, pass his clip extensively composing poesy, essays, and historical surveies. His widespread acknowledgment as an writer was established with the publication of the drama “Oedipus” . a fluctuation on the original Grecian calamity, in 1718. In 1726. after a battle with a Gallic Lord. Voltaire was exiled to England. There. he was exposed to a huge array of new philosophical thoughts. specifically the construct of a constitutional monarchy and support for the freedoms of address and faith. every bit good as the plants of Shakespeare and Isaac Newton. He subsequently returned to France. traveling into a new place. Chateau de Cirey. with his married woman. Emilie du Chatelet.

The relationship between the two was extremely rational. as they were both profoundly intrigued by history. doctrine. and Newtonian natural philosophies. Greatly influenced by his earlier stay in England. Voltaire began to develop some of the thoughts for which he is best known during this clip. including his support for the separation of church and province and unfavorable judgment of both spiritual intolerance and certain spiritual patterns. In 1736. Voltaire came in contact with Frederick the Great of Prussia. one of his supporters. and worked aboard him for several old ages in Prussia. until being exiled after a political difference in 1752. Returning to France. Voltaire tied together his assorted experiences with doctrine. faith. and political relations in composing his magnum musical composition. “Candide” . published in 1759. Having undergone a drawn-out expatriate. Voltaire did non return to his metropolis of beginning. Paris. until 1778. shortly before his decease. Voltaire’s diverse and extremely influential Hagiographas have solidified him as one of the most important figures in the history of the Enlightenment and the Western universe in general.

Historical information about the period of publication: “Candide” was published in the mid-18th century. during the “Age of Enlightenment” . a rich period in the cultural history of France and Europe as a whole. The Enlightenment was marked by great progresss in scientific discipline and doctrine. every bit good as an accent upon ground and rational idea amongst intellectuals. Politically talking. the Enlightenment was an epoch of rebellious societal reform. as indicated by frequent. unfastened unfavorable judgments of church authorization and the European nobility. culminating in the Gallic Revolution. In composing “Candide” . Voltaire. being a philosopher himself. was to a great extent influenced by the doctrine of the Enlightenment. every bit good as existent historical events. which were modern-day at the clip of publication. such as the Seven Year’s War and the Lisbon temblor of 1755. Voltaire possibly alludes most straight to the doctrine of Leibniz. who championed classical optimism. or the belief that. because God is benevolent. “all is for the best in the best of all possible worlds” . with perfidy and panic merely being portion of the best being that can perchance be experienced.

Voltaire. in fierce resistance to this doctrine. sought to expose its mistakes by puting it within the context of his ain “enlightened” milieus. Therefore. in “Candide” . Voltaire combines these elements–political. spiritual. philosophical–into a incorporate piece of absurd sarcasm which. despite being considered a landmark in Enlightenment literature. is unrelentingly critical of the age in which it was conceived. Features of the genre: Sarcasms typically use irony and dry or overly dramatic events to expose or knock person or something. and Voltaire’s “Candide” is no exclusion. Throughout the book Voltaire criticizes other philosophers from Rousseau to Leibniz. Leibniz in peculiar is mocked invariably in “Candide” . organizing the footing of the satirical elements. Voltaire’s sarcasm contains a strong sense of witful sarcasm and lampoons meant to arouse disgust at the subjects he is knocking. “Candide’s” sense of sarcasm is mostly derived from the Juvenalian sarcasm which was created by the Roman satirist Juvenal. By utilizing absurdist and dry images of characters. ironists intend to raise disgust or laughter at a subject to the point where it is rejected a legitimate. Thi is the point with Voltaire’s jeer of optimism in “Candide” .

Plot Summary: “Candide” is a tale told in a fast-paced series of episodic escapades. The gap chapter establishes the Edenic artlessness of the background in which the supporter. Candide. is raised. Leading a privileged. stray being in a Westphalian palace. Candide finds himself in love with Cunegonde. girl of the Baron of the palace. He is besides thirstily indoctrinated with Leibnitzian optimism by his coach. Pangloss. who. in bend. is in love with Paquette. the fille de chambre of the palace. After openly demoing his fondness for Cunegonde. Candide. non being of baronial adequate blood. is quickly expelled by the Baron. and involuntarily sets out upon his ain into the universe. Candide’s foremost major escapade is his unwilled enlisting into the Bulgar ground forces. which exposes him to the panics of physical and sexual maltreatment. every bit good as the flooring force of warfare. After pull offing to get away the ground forces. Candide comes across a sort Anabaptist. Jacques. every bit good as Pangloss. who has been rendered syphilitic due to an earlier brush with Paquette.

The three canvas to Lisbon. where a sudden storm. temblor. tsunami. and fire consequence in the decease of 10s of 1000s. including the good-natured Jacques. The following twenty-four hours. Pangloss and Candide are arrested and tortured by the Inquisition for unorthodoxy in an “auto-da-fe” . Candide witnesses the hanging of Pangloss. but is saved from a similar destiny by another sudden temblor. after which he escapes to the place of a welcoming old adult female. Candide discovers. much to his surprise. that Cunegonde is populating in the same place. but has now become the sexual belongings of a Judaic merchandiser and a Grand Inquisitor. Shortly thenceforth. Candide ends up rather out of the blue slaying both work forces. The old adult female. Cunegonde. and Candide so flee to Buenos Aires. There. Candide discovers that he is being pursued for the slaying of the Grand Inquisitor. He makes an flight to Paraguay with his retainer. Cacambo. go forthing the old adult female and Cunegonde buttocks. After a farther series of absurd escapades in rapid sequence. Candide and Cacambo by chance find themselves in the land of El Dorado. a concealed Utopia of huge wealth and felicity.

Though the two are safe and provided with great luxuries. Candide still views himself as incomplete without Cunegonde. and leaves with Cacambo one month subsequently. The two make their manner to Suriname. where they portion ways. Candide asks Cacambo to recover Cunegonde in Buenos Aires. while he makes his manner to Venice to expect the two. For his ocean trip. Candide hires a bookman. Martin. to be his comrade. Martin. a Manichaean. discusses doctrine during the journey with Candide. who still remains an optimist at bosom. After several satirical European escapades. the two arrive in Venice. where they happen to detect Paquette. who has now become a cocotte. with a monastic. Brother Giroflee. Both are suffering with their lives. While Candide and Martin dine with the two of them. Cacambo makes his return. uncovering that Cunegonde and the old adult female have become enslaved. and now shack in Constantinople. Furthermore. he states that Cunegonde has become awfully ugly.

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Unshaken. Candide and his comrades make their manner to Constantinople. where they find the old adult female and the ugly Cunegonde. Candide buys their freedom. and marries Cunegonde. though he is rather defeated by her new visual aspect. Candide and Pangloss subsequently inquire a Turkish dervish. considered the greatest philosopher in the land. why world suffers so greatly. The dervish jeers at what he considers to be a foolish inquiry. and compares mankind to mice on a ship. whose comfort is of no importance. Candide. Pangloss. Cunegonde. Martin. Paquette. Brother Giroflee. Cacambo. and the old adult female so buy a little farm. upon which each plant at a specific undertaking. While Pangloss pig-headedly maintains his belief in optimism. Candide declares the celebrated concluding statement of the novel. “we must cultivate our garden” .

Describe the author’s manner:
In Candide. Voltaire uses a speedy narrative gait that passages fleetly from scene to scene. duologue to action. and from location to location as the narrative progresses. He besides uses allusions to the historical context in which the book was written. like Christopher Columbus and the new universe. pestilences and diseases. and El Dorado and alludes to the 7 Year’s War. supplying non merely a political but besides societal background to the narrative. This adds to his voice and sentiments which are presented through some of the doctrines that the characters claim they adhere to. Through duologue and some of the actions that the characters take. he is able to integrate exaggeration and dark wit.

This lends itself to the sarcasm that this novel is. as Voltaire can be really sarcastic and dry at times when he places characters in absurd state of affairss and makes them respond in an unconventional and irregular manner. His portraitures of faith and doctrine mock the really tenets that they are established upon through the characters that he creates who conventionally are associated with these two countries. His crisp statements coupled with the inclusion idiom support the diverseness. in footings of geographics and civilization. nowadays in the book. However. Voltaire nowadayss this diverseness more as alien and foreign. Additionally. through absurd statements and logic statements that make small sense. Voltaire adds wit to Candide.

An illustration that demonstrates the manner:
“ ‘Oh. Pangloss. Pangloss! Martin. Martin! Oh. my dearest Cunegonde! What kind of a universe is this? ’ sighed Candide on board the Dutch ship. – ‘A really huffy and really detestable 1. ’ replied Martin. – ‘You have been to England. ’ said Candide. ‘Are they as mad at that place as in France? ’ – ‘It’s a different type of lunacy. ’ said Martin. ‘As you know. the two states are at war over a few estates of snow on the Canadian boundary line. and they are passing instead more on their lovely war than the whole of Canada is deserving. But to state exactly if there are more people in one state who should be locked up than in another is something beyond the bounds of my lame apprehension. All I know is that by and big the people we are now traveling to see are disposed to be really glooming ‘ ( p. 69 ) .

In this illustration. Voltaire references Canada. noticing on the colonial battle in North America at the tallness of the Seven Years’ War and how he considered the battled and unclear frontier part a waste of a war over a few square units of country. He adds some amusing alleviation when Martin adds that they are people who ‘disposed to be really gloomy’ . epitomizing the English people. He brings to illume his philosophical contemplation through the inquiries that characters ask. particularly the consistent ‘what kind of a universe is this? ’ type of inquiry that Candide. the chief character. has a bent for inquiring. Memorable Quotation marks

Quotation mark:
“Thus expelled from the earthly Eden. Candide wandered for a long clip. non cognizing where he was traveling. crying. raising his eyes to the Eden. so turning them often in the way of the most beautiful of palaces. incorporating the most beautiful of baron’s girls ; he fell asleep eventually in the center of a field. with no supper. between two furrows ; the snow fell in big flakes” ( p. 5 ) This occurs instantly after Candide is exiled from the palace due to his little matter with Cunegonde. girl of the Baron. This exemplifies the alteration of puting that is about to happen and the different types of environments that Candide will be exposed to. as his cushiony life in the ‘earthly paradise’ is over. Now. he must look elsewhere ‘raising his eyes to the heaven’ . presenting elements of faith. This begins his pursuit for the truth. basically an reply to his inquiry of what is optimism and why do worlds be. This displacement emphasizes the drastic alterations as his nutrient is meager and his comfort has decreased radically. as he assimilates into the wild and is merely seeking to last. This predisposes him to the dangers and immoralities that he will meet in the ulterior portion of the book.

“Candide obeyed her without inquiry ; and although he was bewildered. and his voice lame and quavering. and his spinal column still aching a small. he described with the most ingenuous simpleness what he had suffered since the minute of their separation. Cunegonde raised her eyes to heaven ; she wept at the decease of the good Anabaptist. and wept once more over Pangloss ; after which she spoke as follows to Candide. who did non lose a syllable. even as he devoured her with his eyes” ( p. 18 ) Candide has merely been reunited with Cunegonde whom he believed to be dead. He intensively inquires about her endurance and for her to tale her narrative of flight and calamity. However. she asks that he state his narrative foremost. He yields to her petition instantly. This emphasizes his fondness towards her. after being so long apart and after enduring through their ain experiences at a distance. His ‘voice lame and tremulous’ adds to his surprise of events as he is shaken by the recent bend of events. Again. mentions to Edens are made which connotes spiritual engagement.

Her response ( i. e. her crying ) shows her good-natured side as she laments the deceases of her friends. After carry throughing his promise. she tells her narrative with Candide attentive as ‘he devoured her with his eyes’ . Even after stating his glooming narrative. Candide can non assist but detect her beauty. illuming up the tone in this peculiar subdivision. “ ‘So you would hold the presumption to get married my sister. who has 72 quarterings on her coat of weaponries! I consider it extremely assumptive of you to make bold to talk to me of so rash an purpose! ’ ” ( p. 38 ) : The Baron. Cunegonde’s brother. does non O.K. of Candide’s recent confession and petition that he marry Cunegonde. Just a few lines antecedently. they were talking on good footings. telling on their past calamities and sympathising with each other.

However. at this occasion. the baron experiences a temper alteration as he becomes more hostile and becomes offended at Candide’s comment. This is apparent in this response. as he describes Candide as ‘presumptuous’ and accuses him of exposing ‘effrontery’ . The concluding behind this response is her higher position. integrating the thoughts of aristocracy and rank into the book. Quarterings here refer the ascendants among the aristocracy and this response shows how serious he takes it. This terse. scathing comment foreshadows his violent onslaught against Candide merely a few minutes subsequently. when Candide is forced to kill him in self-defence.

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“He instantly ordered his applied scientists to do a machine to lift these two extraordinary individuals up and out of his land. Three 1000 skilled applied scientists worked at the job. for two hebdomads. at a cost of a mere twenty million lbs in sterling Ag. which is the currency of that state. Candide and Cacambo were placed in the machine. along with two big ruddy sheep saddled and bridled for them to sit after they had cleared the mountains. plus 20 pack-sheep laden with commissariats. 30 more carrying gifts of the richest native craft and 50 laden with gold and diamonds and other cherished rocks. The male monarch embraced the two roamers tenderly” ( 50 ) Candide and Cacambo have requested to go forth El Dorado in chase of Cunegonde. In response. the king instantly approves of their petition and orders his topics to make a ‘machine’ that will take them out of the mountains all the piece being escorted with gifts and cherished rocks. They leave with 20 sheep that carry these munificent points.

This is when they are richest in the book. The last sentence affirms the king’s generousness as he treated them as invitees and sets them up with points to be covetous for. The king’s breeding nevertheless remains in El Dorado as it is non seen anyplace else in the book. However. even with the new wealths. the minute of cloud nine and wealth is fleeting as Candide loses most of his money. with the epicurean life coming to its terminal one time more. “ ‘I should wish to cognize which is worse: to be raped a hundred times by negro plagiarists. and have a cheek cut off. and run the gantlet of the Bulgars. and be flogged and hanged in an auto-da-fe. and be dissected. and have to row in a galley- in short. to undergo all the wretchednesss we have each of us suffered- or merely to sit here and make nil? ’ ” ( p. 91 ) Towards the terminal of this book. the old adult female. who is non given a name. expresses her inquisitives and reflects on her life experiences as a whole. integrating peculiarly straitening memories that her comrades have made along the manner.

In each of the events that she lists. she is mentioning to people’s traumatising experiences. although they don’t seem to hold been every bit affected as one would anticipate to be. She compares the colzas. the whippings. the dissections. and bondage to idling about and admirations which one is worse. To an foreigner the reply is simple but because of the doctrines that each one contributes. it is non as surprising that she asks this inquiry. as she is the 1 who has likely suffered the most and yet has found ground to be happy with herself and the universe. She finally conveys the inquiry that many of them already have and serves to convey it under their examination as it eventually has been asked. Each responds otherwise. with Candide eventually happening peace with his work and with himself.

When she becomes lost. Candide searches for her throughout the book Pure. artless. victimized
Dr. Pangloss
Candide’s coach. cardinal philosopher
His optimistic doctrine embodies Leibniz’s doctrine. which Voltaire satirizes throughout the book Stubborn. unchanging. convinced
Candide’s retainer
He introduces Candide to assorted civilizations. and accompanies him on his journeys. Loyal. honest. cultured
Accompanies Candide
Has doctrine antonym to Pangloss
Wise. pessimistic. unwavering
The Baron
Cunegonde’s broher
He forbids Candide and Cunegonde to get married due to Candide’s low rank in society stubborn. unchanging. good-humored
Saves Candide and Pangloss from hungriness
Bing the most sort and selfless character in the book. it is dry that he should be the lone cardinal character to decease after salvaging Candide and Pangloss Godhead. charitable. warm-hearted
Italian Senator
He remains unimpressed by anything. and as a doctrine similar to James. Unimpressed. uncaring. cognizing

Major Works Data Sheet Page 6 Puting
Significance of the gap scene
Westphalia: Introduced as the theoretical account for flawlessness in the universe and place to the Baron’s palace. Westphalia is proven to be susceptible to the world’s evils.

El Dorado: Isolated “Garden of Eden” . El Dorado is the unachievable flawlessness which the doctrine of optimism utilizations to depict the universe. The streets lined with gold and gems. the people content with a merely swayer. El Dorado is utopia to the sing Candide and Cacambo.

Lisboa: Ravaged by an temblor every bit shortly as Candide arrives. Lisbon is snake pit for Candide as he is about roasted and Pangloss hanged. Lisbon serves as Candide’s driving force towards the New World.

Netherlands: The topographic point where Candide recovers from his problems as a draftee at war. Holland reunites Candide with Pangloss and is by and large a good topographic point for Candide. despite the bad intelligence of Cunegonde that he receives at that place.

Venezia: Described as a “free state” by Candide. Venice is the holiday topographic point for deposed male monarchs and is yet another topographic point where nobility is worthless.

Paris: A cruel a bewildering topographic point. Paris cheats Candide out of portion of his hoarded wealth and is the topographic point he hates the most. despite non being in direct mortal danger.

New World: The New World is anticipated as being a topographic point of expansive chance. as a oasis for people get awaying less-than-ideal yesteryears. but ends up being merely as barbarous and unforgiving as the ‘old world’ . and far more unusual. Candide can’t escape his past wherever he goes–when he volunteers for the Jesuit ground forces in the New World. he encounters Cunegonde’s brother. who he kills for roasting his dream of get marrieding Cunegonde.

Istanbul: The location where Candide is reunited with Cunegonde. Constantinople is Candide’s finish line both in his pursuit and his philosophical traffics. It is here he decides to cultivate his garden and take life into his ain custodies.

The gap scene introduces the characters of the Baron. Candide. Pangloss. and Cunegonde. Apart from presenting these characters as occupants of the Baron’s palace in Westphalia. the gap scene besides introduces the absurd doctrine of optimism by depicting how Pangloss teaches Candide that everything was made for the best ; olfactory organs being made for spectacless and legs for bloomerss. This doctrine will lodge with Candide as he is quickly kicked out of the palace for snoging Cunegonde. an act which was preempted by Pangloss’ “experiments” on Paquette. the fille de chambre. These actions will take straight to the turns and bends. along with the dazes. that Candide will meet in his journey to re-embrace Cunegonde. Old AP Questions

Significance of the ending/closing scene
80. 86. 87. 91. 95. 96. 04. 06. 10
In the concluding scene. Candide is reunited with Cunegonde and the old adult female. merely to happen that Cunegonde has turned ugly but still intends to get married her but merely to hurt her brother. Her brother. the Baron. refuses to accept to their matrimony so Candide. with the blessing of all his comrades. sends him back to the galleys from where Candide late bought his autonomy. At this point. his life becomes unagitated and more philosophical contemplations take topographic point in his garden. He seeks out the sentiment of a dervish. a great philosopher from Turkey whose response to the inquiry about why was adult male created is to “keep your oral cavity shut” . quickly closing the door in their faces. He receives more sentiments from another Turk who claims that the three greatest immoralities are “boredom. frailty. and necessity” . Candide and Pangloss are left to contemplate these replies. The stoping scene shows that the characters. chiefly Pangloss and the old adult female. still remain philosophical and question life. The old adult female asks whether ennui is worse than the awful things that have occurred to them.

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Pangloss reflects on their occurrences and maintains his optimistic temper by claiming that if Candide hadn’t gone through all of that he wouldn’t be “sitting here no eating candied citron and pistachios” to which Candide answers “but we must cultivate our garden” . This last line of the drama reflects Candide’s alteration to a more apathetic province of head. as he focuses on himself and doesn’t attempt to uphold optimism. This stoping brings everything back to the beginning. as Candide spent clip in the garden and in the terminal. he still remains in one. His journey has made him a more knowing individual. as his experiences alter his attitude towards doctrines and now focuses on the present and his work. Subjects

Imperfection of life: Candide’s belief in the doctrine of optimism rapidly fades with each atrocious event which occurs around him. taking to his belief that Utopia is unachievable. This realisation of life’s true nature will take to his cultivation of his garden at the terminal of the novel as a manner of making the best with what he has.

Worthlessness of nobility: Nobility is mocked throughout “Candide” as worthless. The Baron’s aristocracy is unable to salvage his household from a grotesque colza and slaughter at the custodies of the Bulgars and the 6 male monarchs whom Candide runs into in Venice all being deposed. That Candide was able to give more money to one of the male monarchs than the other five combined shows their true worth.

Corruptness of Money: Money is a perverting factor in “Candide” . Candide is invariably being swindled by captains. people claiming to be Cunegonde. and even taken advantage of by people he believes he can swear. It is this presence of greed. where anyone can be bought off. that makes Cacambo’s trueness so of import.

Hypocrisy of Religion: Religion and spiritual figures in “Candide” are shown to be highly hypocritical and downright immorality. Whether it’’s the Grand Inquisitor who intends to kill Candide and exploit Cunegonde or the Franciscan priest who picks up cocottes on the side. spiritual figures in Candide lack any ethical motives in their secular traffics.

Defects of doctrine: The doctrine of optimism and doctrine in general are shown to be unhelpful in covering with the jobs of Candide’s universe. Doctrine is unable to halt or explicate the temblors. slaying. and agony of the universe. Candide’s realisation of this will take to the cultivation of his garden at the terminal of the book in order to make something for himself.

Wastefulness of War: War is described as beast raping and plundering. holding no delivering qualities and merely go forthing hurting and agony in it’s aftermath. It is therefore a uneconomical foolishness which has no tops as the devastation of an Abhar palace by Bulgars merely leads to a retaliatory work stoppage which merely leaves all sides in an immoral muss. El Dorado: The Utopia which the doctrine of optimism strives for. El Dorado is perfect to foreigners but a simple society to it’s occupants. That El Dorado’s fortunes are merely accomplishable in complete isolation shows the unachievableness of such a Utopia in the modern universe. A physical atavist to the Garden of Eden.

Paris: The incarnation of frailty and greed. Candide and Martin merely find defrauders and corruptness in their visit to Paris. Candide is vocal about his antipathy for the metropolis.

Baron’s Castle/Westphalia: A representation of what Candide and philosophers like Pangloss would hold their Garden of Eden. nil more than a consequence of the ignorance to the outside universe while besides being susceptible to the world’s dangers.

Candide: A immature rose-colored fellow. Candide is ignorance and cloud nine in one. His wilful entry to optimism and his disillusion with it represent the hazards of the mundane adult male.

Pangloss: A imitation of Voltaire’s coevalss. Pangloss is used as a front man to which Voltaire can assail in a satirical mode and mock the philosophical belief of optimism.

The Garden: Actual garden in which Candide and the chief characters find themselves in at the terminal of the novel. represents the existent universe and the in-between land between the impossible El Dorado and the mirage-like Westphalia. The characters choose to work and encompass life in the garden. as opposed to the big Utopia presented in the Garden of Eden.

The Red Sheep: A mark of Candide’s optimism after losing most of his luck. the ruddy sheep is a symbol of his belief that he still has adequate left in him to reunite with Cunegonde.

Lisbon Earthquake: A natural catastrophe of great philosophical importance. the temblor acts as a challenge to Candide and Pangloss’ belief in cause and consequence. Their close deceases as a forfeit to God to forestall another shudder shows the deficiency of rationalism in the existence which they so ascribe to.

Paquette: A sender of pox. Paquette acts as a contrasting figure to Cunegonde due to her diarrhea and maintaining of her beauty. non to advert her perceived greed by Candide.

Old Woman: The girl of a Pope. the old adult female acts as a vas of enduring in “Candide” and opens the eyes of Candide to the agony of the universe. or as Michael Wood puts it “the worst of all personal worlds” .

Cunegonde: The “pure” maiden whom Candide strives for. she is merely pure in personality and her ugly expressions at the terminal of the novel put her opposite the character of Paquette.

Deposed Kings in Venice: The 6 deposed male monarchs whom Candide and Martin dine with in Venice typify the close ineptitude of the rubric given to blue bloods.

Venezia: The cemetery of deposed royalty.

Sexual development: A repeating image in “Candide” . sexual development is brought up a figure of times whether it be the colza and sex bondage of Cunegonde or the harlotry of Paquette.

Suffering: Agony is a focal image of the novel. brought up clip and clip once more by Candide and other characters. with full chapters dedicated to the description of a character’s agony and statements of who has suffered more.

Disfigured slave: Symbolizes the effects of the demands and sloppiness of the Europeans. along with the agony they bring to the New World.

Pococurante: A adult male who “cares for little” . the senator seems to stand for Voltaire’s incarnation in the novel and takes on a strong antipathy of Voltaire’s challengers.