Achieving a balance between work and household is of import to everyone. A balance between work and household duties occurs when a individual ‘s demand to run into household committednesss is accepted and respected in the workplace. Helping people achieve a balance between their household demands and their work committednesss supports productive workers every bit good as committed household people.
Commissariats to help with the balance between work and household must be available to everyone in the workplace. However, non all people in the workplace will necessitate to or wish to entree these commissariats.
These commissariats cut down the barriers that may forestall people from come ining and staying in the work force. They enable people with lovingness and household duties to hold just chances to come on in their calling in the same manner as those without these duties.
Work and household balance commissariats contribute to equality in the workplace by recognizing that some workers have caring duties. They enable those workers to hold just entree to workplace chances.
Work-family facilitation, or the extent to which persons ‘ engagement in one life sphere ( e.g. , work ) is made easier by the accomplishments, experiences, and chances gained by their participating in another. Frone ( 2003 ) suggested that work-family balance likely represents multiple dimensions composed of bidirectional ( i.e. , work-toÃ‚Âfamily and family-to-work ) struggle and facilitation. Finally, Hammer ( 2003 ) called for an expressed expanÃ‚Âsion of the work-family paradigm to include work- household facilitation. Unfortunately, work-family facilÃ‚Âitation remains conceptually and through empirical observation developing ( Frone, 2003 ) , and its differentiation from struggle remains ill-defined.
Work-family struggle is “ a signifier of interrole struggle in which function presÃ‚Âsures from the work and household spheres are reciprocally incompatible in some regard ” ( Greenhaus & A ; Beutell, 1985, p. 77 ) . The struggle does non run in one way. Family sometimes interferes with work ( FIW ) , and work can interfere with household ( WIF ) .
Further, some research workers suggest that struggles between the work and household spheres can happen when ( a ) clip consumed by one function consequences in a deficiency of clip for the other, ( B ) strain caused by the activities of one function makes it hard to carry through duties in the other, or ( hundred ) in-role behaviour in one sphere is incompatible with the function behaviour in the other sphere. The clip struggle is reasonably obvious and likely most outstanding to us put people ( i.e. , nonÃ‚Âwork household struggle experts ) . So is strain-if we ‘re wholly stressed-out at work, we may non be able to cover with our household duties and frailty versa. However, the behavior constituent is less obvious. It has been sugÃ‚Âgested that we may sometimes act in ways in one sphere that is incomÃ‚Âpatible with the other sphere, such that the behaviour in inquiry does non ease carry throughing one ‘s functions in the other sphere. For case, being a perÃ‚Âfectionist may be utile at work, but the same behaviours may take to less effectual parenting or in other ways inhibit one from adequately carry throughing household duties.
It should be noted that the conceptual foundation of clip, strain, and behavior-based dimensions of work-family struggle have been debated. As Mike notes, they do non hold strong empirical proof and may confuse the work-family concept with its putative causes and results.
What happens if work-family struggles are non efficaciously managed? Work-family struggle can ensue in a figure of dysfunctional results, including burnout, lessening in mental wellbeing, deteriorating relationships, and occupation and life dissatisfaction. Presumably in the hopes that a better underÃ‚Âstanding of the causes of work-family struggle will assist people avoid it, conÃ‚Âsiderable research has been directed toward seeking to understand the ancestors of work-family struggle. Some of the things that lead to struggles are reasonably intuitive. For illustration, working long hours, long commutes to and from work, work load, deficiency of direction support, occupation engagement, and degree of importance assigned to one ‘s work, all predict the extent to which WIF. Further, matrimonial position, figure of kids, degree of importance assigned to household functions, and deficiency of household support all contribute to FIW.
Further, some people are more susceptible to work-family struggle than others. For case, research suggests certain personality types are more inclined to see work-family struggle. Neuroticism, Type A tendenÃ‚Âcies, and negative affectivity are all related to work-family struggle. As one might anticipate, age besides relates to work-family struggle. There ‘s initial eviÃ‚Âdence that as we get older, we develop more effectual schemes for covering with these struggles.
Aim: -Both academic and corporate research are corroborating the being of work-to-family and family-to-work spillover and the importance of healthy work-family interface for households and concerns. This is to turn out that there is a demand of equilibrating work & A ; household in everybody ‘s life irrespective of the work he/she is making & A ; to keep a healthy clip tabular array for the beginning of twenty-four hours to twenty-four hours activities.Our twenty-four hours to twenty-four hours agenda is going hectic.In such state of affairs peoples are losing their pique, & A ; are into incorrect behaviors of all sort.Schedule demands to do for keeping a healthy Work-Family Balance.People are so busy in doing money that they started pretermiting their family.They start giving more importance to their work and no clip for family.This should non be the instance as all these make a adult male a mechanised robot.They began pretermiting all societal activities, as a consequence their household suffers or experience their absence and unhappiness fill their lives. Unhappiness creeps in such household and destruct their life.We should maintain in head that Money is non everything in Life.Yes, we can state money as the demand fulfiller.we can fullfill are demands with the money earned.But we should non be ever money doing oriented.If we neglect our household for doing more money, so all money earned goes worthless! So, apart from work giving quality clip to the household is really indispensable.
“ Work- household balance ” is a term that refers to an person ‘s perceptual experiences of the grade to which s/he is sing positive relationships between work and household functions, where the relationships are viewed as compatible and at equilibrium with each other. Like a fulcrum mensurating the day-to-day switching weights of clip and energy allotment between work and household life, the term, “ work-family balance, ” provides a metaphor to offset the historical impression that work and household relationships can frequently be viing, at odds, and conflicting.
Sociologist Rosabeth Moss Kanter was one of the first bookmans to review the prevailing premise that workplaces and occupations must be designed to divide work from household demands. She challenged this attack as being socially necessary for employee effectivity in transporting out the double demands of being a worker and being a household member. She noted that as using organisations shifted to be more demographically diverse, these stereotyped positions on appropriate work and household relationships needed to be re-viewed in order to forestall negative procedures impacting persons and groups who were demographically different from the bulk. Womans as a turning minority group in using organisations were holding trouble lifting up the hierarchy and being accepted as directors as they juggled employment, and caregiving and domestic demands. These same issues are still relevant to organisational surveies today. Most work forces and adult females are beguiling viing life demands outside of workplaces that still are mostly designed based on a civilization that work is the cardinal function in employees ‘ lives, and a belief that workers should give household personal functions in order to be successful on the occupation.
From Work-Family Conflict To Work-Family Enrichment: Competing Negative and Positive Views
Traditionally, research workers have assumed a “ win-lose ” relationship between work and household and focused on work-family struggle, based on the belief that persons have limited clip and resources to apportion to their many life functions. Most research relevant to the impression of work-family balance has been conducted on work-family struggle, which can be viewed as the antonym of work-family balance.
The concept “ work-family balance ” is a more positive manner of sing work-family relationships. It is consistent with the outgrowth of a new watercourse of research being promulgated by such authors as Greenhaus and Powell on work-family enrichment, the thought that work and household can besides enrich and complement each other. Overall, research on work-family balance can be characterized as being organized along these viing positive and negative positions.
The negative position on equilibrating work-family relationships emanates out of function struggle theory, which Goode noted assumed that holding multiple functions is deflecting, depletes resources, and consequences in function strain and overload. With respect to work household functions, when employees try to transport these viing demands out while being embedded in traditional workplaces that are designed to back up separation of work and household demands, they are likely to see higher work-family function struggle.
Greenhaus and Beutell wrote one of the earliest theoretical articles on work-family struggle. They defined work-family struggle as a type of inter-role struggle where work and household functions are incompatible and seen as viing for an person ‘s clip, energy, and behaviors on and off the occupation. Their work built on earlier function theory by Ebaugh and others who defined a function as affecting behavioral outlooks associated with a place in a societal construction.
Early research on work and household did n’t needfully distinguish where the function struggle was happening, such as whether it was due to an inflexible occupation ( work to household struggle ) or whether it was due to non holding back up kid attention for when a kid was ill ( household to work struggle ) Later Kossek and Ozeki conducted a meta-analysis reexamining decennaries of surveies that show that life and occupation satisfaction for work forces and adult females is affected by the type and way of these viing function kineticss. Given adult females ‘s traditional greater duty for caregiving, work to household struggle was found to impact life satisfaction to a greater grade for adult females than for work forces. Job satisfaction for work forces and adult females was every bit affected by household to work struggle. Understanding the type, way, and beginning of the struggle can assist organisations and directors design appropriate workplace intercessions to back up work-family balance.
For illustration, holding to work overtime on a occupation and being forced to lose a kid ‘s school event is an illustration of time-based work-to-family struggle. However, being absent from work because a baby-sitter did non demo up is an illustration of time-based family- to- work struggle. For the overtime illustration, an organisation might let for merely in clip worker scheduling to let those workers with the most involvement in overtime to volunteer. In the other illustration, managing overtime would n’t work out the baby-sitter non demoing up. Helping the employee happen back-up attention for exigencies or allowing them work from place one time in a piece in exigencies would.
An illustration of energy-based family-to-work struggle is when an employee is excessively tired to work good in the forenoon because he or she was up wholly dark with an ailment partner. An illustration of energy- based work to household struggle is when person is excessively tired to cook dinner or clean the house, because of working excessively intensely on the occupation. In order to advance work- household balance to advance better energy allotment between functions, in the first illustration, the house needs to supply dependant attention support or leave from work. In the 2nd illustration, the house might necessitate to increase staffing degrees so the work load is dispersed among more workers, or supply stress direction techniques that allow workers to take interruptions.
An illustration of behaviour-based family-to-work struggle is when 1 is so stressed from a household demand, that the person is unable to concentrate at work or exhibits private emotions such as shouting at work that would be more associated with the private domain. An illustration of behaviour- based work- to-family struggle is when person comes place and cries at one ‘s partner or kicks one ‘s pet because of choler related to work. In these instances, intercessions to cut down the emphasis in the peculiar sphere where it is happening would ensue in better work-family balance.
The positive attack to analyzing work-family balance emanates from Seiber ‘s function accretion theory which assumes that holding multiple life functions can be psychologically enriching, every bit long as the functions are 1s that the person has high individuality with, sees of good quality, and harvest wagess and life privileges. Under a function accretion position, a individual can accomplish balance by being able to modulate and hold greater control over when where and how invest clip and energy between work and household to guarantee that they perceive they are roll uping positive results from both functions. The more functions one has that provide positive wagess, the better off an person is, unless s/he has excessively much excessively do from the amount of these functions ( doing function overload ) or has excessively many viing function demands. The premise is that work and household balance have instrumental and affectional waies. The instrumental way focal points on how positive accomplishments and behaviors and wagess from one sphere ( such as income, larning how to pull off people or work out jobs ) can assist one perform better in the other sphere. The affectional way focused on the grade to which temper and emotions from one sphere can ooze in and positively impact how one feels, Acts of the Apostless and behaves in the other sphere. So if person has a good twenty-four hours at work, s/he comes place and are able to hold excess energy and emotions to apportion to the household. Or if one has a fantastic household life, s/he is able to convey these positive emotions to work.
A concluding set of surveies focus on the procedures of equilibrating relationships between work and household. Some authors focus on compensation- how holding a better function quality and higher individuality in one sphere such as the work function may counterbalance for lower function quality and investing in another sphere such as household. For illustration, an person who extremely identifies with work might put more in work functions to counterbalance for a less fulfilling household life.
Other authors might concentrate on cleavage and integrating procedures, the grade to which persons have penchants for maintaining work and personal functions segmented or integrated. Job and organisational design can interact with penchants for the passage of life functions and direction of the work and household boundary. A survey by Kossek, Lautsch, & A ; Eaton on teleworking found that persons who teleworked and adopted an integrative boundary direction manner were likely to see higher work to household struggle but non household to work struggle than persons who adopted a separation manner. Their survey showed that the more the workplace is brought into the place via occupation and organisational design, the more likely it increases work-to- household struggle, peculiarly for persons who like to incorporate work and household functions ( say watching kids while taking a work call ) .
Cross-over effects is another new country of survey: how the work-family balance of one household member such as a married woman or hubby may reassign over positive and negative relationships to the other partner. For illustration, if a partner has a good or bad twenty-four hours at work the balance of the spouse may be affected.
Direction Of Work- Family Interactions, Disciplinary Foci, and Levels of Analysis
It is besides of import to observe that research on work-family balance is grounded in distinguishable subjects that are non good integrated, which influences the way and content of surveies focus. Besides by and large planing research surveies as mensurating by and large positive or negative results from equilibrating work and household, authors in the field have tended to concentrate on either how work affects household OR how household affects work. This inclination to presume a peculiar way of relationship has branchings for the steps and results surveies. In several enchiridions such as Work and Life Integration and The Work and Family Handbook, the editors noted that research workers who study how household demands are affected by work demands frequently use different steps and concentrate on different degrees of analysis in measuring work-family relationships so direction bookmans who might analyze how work duties are affected by being a parent or a partner.
One big bunch of surveies focal points on how household demands affect work. Historically, much of the authorship in the direction and organisational literature followed this attack. A general premise is that the more household and other nonwork demands and involvements an person has, the more likely work is traveling to be negative impacted. For illustration, research workers in this watercourse might mensurate the figure of kids an employee has, his or her matrimonial position. They would so associate these personal demographics to the grade to which a individual experiences positive work attitudes ( e.g. , committedness, occupation satisfaction ) and work behaviours ( e.g. , turnover, public presentation ) . The degree of analysis tended to be mostly single and focused on the employees ‘ personal, household and work features.
The other directional group of surveies examines the different ways work impacts the household. Writers coming from this attack tend to emanate out of psychological science and sociology and belief that the construction, emphasiss, and demands of work can do it more hard for persons to carry through their household duties every bit good as sing occupation emphasis at place. Some people refer to this negative ooze as negative spillover from work to place.
Writers from this position might mensurate the grade to which inflexible work hours, deficiency of supervisor support, occupation demands and the construction of the workplace, negatively impact household and personal results ( e.g. , occupation satisfaction, equal engagement in household and domestic functions, life satisfaction, work-life balance ) . Here the degree of analysis tended to concentrate more on workplace, occupation and organisational degree. Researchers besides might typically analyze of the handiness of policies to back up work and household, and the grade to which organisational civilization and directors provided a supportive civilization and norms to ease usage of policies every bit good as positive relationships between work and place. For illustration, an person would non hold to give their household life in order to acquire in front at work.
Traveling From Study of Work and Family To Study of Work and Life Integration
The future waies of the work and household field are traveling from the impression of work and household balance and struggle to footings of turning credence of work and nonwork life balance or work and life balance. Such footings suggest that many employees, even those without dependants or seeable signifiers of household related to caregiving can see the demand to seek work and household balance. It besides suggests as work forces become more involved in caregiving and domestic functions and adult females more involved in work and breadwinning functions, struggle and enrichment may more strongly associate to the function an person is ordaining ( e.g. , health professional or breadwinner ) than gender.
Pull offing Work and Family
Surprisingly, our literature has more to state about the ancestors and conÃ‚Âsequences of work-family struggle and less on schemes to efficaciously manÃ‚Âage it. However, there are some surveies that have explored this issue and merely cognizing what causes work-family struggle can take to an apprehension of how to efficaciously pull off struggle.
Carefully see work-family issues when taking a occupation. The predeÃ‚Âcessors of this column one time interviewed Kevin Murphy and asked him how he manages work-family struggle. One thing he did was to take a occupation that would offer him flexibleness to cover with his household life. For illustration, if a possible employer seemed less than favourable about conveying kids to meetings, that was n’t a occupation he wanted. True, non all of us have so many options to take from that we can afford to be this selective, but it ‘s cerÃ‚Âtainly deserving sing the type of environment that would be ideal and taking for such places. Be certain to happen out how the organisation you ‘re sing feels about conveying childs into work or if there is a rigorous civilization of coming in early and working tardily. If the organisation frowns upon anyone go forthing before 5:00 and you have childs that need to picked up from school, that ‘s got to factor into your occupation determination or you could be confronting old ages of conÃ‚Âflict. Some houses are “ household friendly ” while others have a repute of non being so household friendly.
Further, do n’t experience guilty or experience like you are settling by sing these issues. As Lillian points out, happening a occupation that allows you to run into your famÃ‚Âily ‘s demands is an issue of fit. We consider a host of fit issues when we make a occupation pick ; why should n’t we besides see how the determination is traveling to suit other facets of our life? In other words, it ‘s of import to take a holistic attack when you ‘re seeking for a occupation. Do n’t merely leap on the most presÃ‚Âtigious offer or the one that offers the most money. Work-family issues must besides be considered.
Choice, Optimization, and Compensation ( SOC ) . SOC is a life-manÃ‚Âagement header manner for work-family state of affairss. Although related, SOC is different from clip direction. This get bying manner consists of being more selective in concentrating on a few ends, continuity in order to accomplish those ends, and seeking extra resources ( e.g. , kid attention ) to counterbalance for deficiency of clip. Basically, it is suggested that those sing work-family struggle should take the clip to measure which ends are most of import to them and concentrate on accomplishing those ends. Take the clip to measure your ends and if the activities you engage in on a day-to-day footing aid you to run into those ends. Does reexamining a text edition aid you run into your ends, or is it a undertaking that takes considerable clip but does non assist you do advancement toward one of your ends? If a undertaking does non assist you do advancement toward a end and you have the ability to avoid it ( i.e. , it ‘s non a demand of your occupation ) , do n’t waver to state no.
Further, it ‘s of import to acknowledge that you do n’t necessitate to travel it entirely. You should happen ways to counterbalance for deficiency of clip. This may affect kid attention, paying to hold your house cleaned, holding food markets delivered to your place, or acquiring person to walk your Canis familiaris. Lillian points out that it may be easier for folks with money to counterbalance for deficiency of clip because they can pay to outsource many of these things.
Research shows that application of SOC in both the work and household spheres leads to take down occupation and household stressors which lowers work-family struggle ( in both waies ) . For a more elaborate history of this scheme see Baltes and Heydens-Gahir ( 2003 ) .
Communicate your duties to those at work and at place. As Lou points out, a really of import portion of pull offing work-family struggle is merely doing those around you aware of your duties. For case, if you merely have daycare certain times of the hebdomad and need to watch the childs when they ‘re non in day care, state your employer this agenda so you can be certain your place duties are considered when meetings are arranged. You should hold similar treatments with your important other as good. There may be yearss he or she will necessitate to do dinner or pick the childs up from school. It ‘s besides a good thought to speak frequently. Duties at both work and place may alter so it ‘s of import to inform everyone when that occurs. Besides, you may happen some things are non working out and you need to invent a new scheme to suit all of your duties.
Time direction. To minimise work-family struggle, it ‘s of import to pull off your clip good. I ‘m likely non stating you anything you do n’t already cognize, but allow me add to this. Macan, Shahani, Dipboye, and Phillips ( 1990 ) suggest that clip direction can be broken down into three dimenÃ‚Âsions. First, end scene and prioritization involve day-to-day determinations about what is most of import to be accomplished. Second, the mechanics of clip manÃ‚Âagement include such activities as doing “ to make ” lists. Finally, a penchant for organisation involves keeping a methodical, organized attack to work. Just like the SOC theoretical account, the time-management theoretical account first stresses the importance of make up one’s minding on what ends are most of import for you to accomplish and doing certain you focus on those ends
Increase your societal web. I know some of you are resisting at this sugÃ‚Âgestion. After all, if you ‘re fighting to do clip for work and household, how on Earth are you traveling to suit a societal life into the equation? Who has clip for friends? Well, believe it or non, there ‘s grounds that increased societal support can assist diminish work-family struggle. Further, Leslie ‘s ain research sugÃ‚Âgests that diminishing societal engagement in nonwork activities really leads to higher degrees of work-family struggle ( Neal & A ; Hammer, forthcoming ) . So, do n’t discontinue disbursement clip with friends because you feel like you have excessively much to make at place and at work. Doing so could do you less effectual in both spheres.
Future Research Trends
Research on work-family balance is merely likely to increase among organisational bookmans. One ground for heightened involvement around the Earth in work-family balance today is altering work force demographics. A general tendency around the universe is a gradual but changeless growing in the labour market engagement of adult females. Using the U.S. as an illustration, which has some of the highest rates, research by the Families and Work Institute shows that 83 % of all two-parent households with kids under 18 have both parents working at least portion of this clip. Another survey by Cohen studies that half of all kids under 18 will populate in a individual parent place for at least portion of their childhood in the U.S.
Besides persons with kids, work-family balance concerns affect employees in general. For illustration, research by the Families and Work Institute studies that one
tierce of employees say they have to take between progressing in their occupations or giving attending to their household or personal lives and one tierce will hold managed elder care- attention for a parent over the past twelvemonth.
Another ground for turning involvement relates technological transmutations that have resulted in some workplaces runing 24-7 every bit good as the ability to telework and be invariably accessible to work and occupations by electronic mail and cell phone and beepers even when non officially at the workplace. With 24-7 operations, the definition of the typical working day and what work hours are “ normal ” to back up work household balance are besides likely to redefined. For illustration, a U.S. based position of a 9-5 Eastern clip zone of normal on the job hours, may non supply balance for workers where it is the center of the dark in India or China.
Future research on work household balance will concentrate on differences in cross-cultural perceptual experiences, how demands for balance displacement over the life class, and how different occupations, household constructions, and demographic groups may change in their entree to, perceptual experiences of and results from the degree of work household balance they are afforded on and off the occupation. Multi-level research incorporating single and organisational positions and steps, and positive and negative steps is besides likely to increase in future surveies.
Job design and work and household wagess and resources are likely to go of peculiarly progressively importance in analyzing work household balance and struggle with highest emphasiss at either terminal of the economic spectrum. Persons in higher paid managerial occupations are likely to see higher work struggle and a lower balance due to overwork. There will be excessively many work hours viing for single clip and energy and excessively high work loads.
Persons at the lower terminal of the economic spectrum will see work and household struggle more likely due to a deficiency of flexibleness and ability to command when one plant and a deficiency of economic resources to purchase high quality kid attention and dependant attention. Therefore, employees throughout the organisation ‘s hierarchy will see lower work-family balance but for different grounds. This tendency makes it critical for future research to non merely step struggle, but to measure the procedures and grounds for struggle and the function of organisational and occupation constructions, every bit good as household and societal and cultural constructions ( such as how household duties are shared or viewed as ought to be shared ) in heightening or extenuating struggle and balance. The more that workers have entree to occupations enabling higher control how when and where they do their occupations and the sum of work load, and the more that communities are design to provider greater populace and private supports to enable double passage in work and household functions, the more likely that members of society will hold greater work-life balance.
Further Readings and Mentions
Chemical bond, J. , Thompson, C. , Galinsky, E. , & A ; Prottas, D. ( 2003 ) . Highlights of the 2002 national survey of the altering work force. NY Families and Work Institute.
Cohen, S. ( 2002 ) . Cohabitation and the worsening matrimony premium for work forces. Work and Occupations, 29,343-383..
Ebaugh, H. ( 1988 ) . Becoming an ex: The procedure of function issue. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Goode, W. ( 1960 ) . A theory of function strain. American Sociological Review, 25, 483-496.
Greenhaus, G. & A ; Powell. G. 2006. When work and household are Alliess: A theory of work-family enrichment. Academy of Management Review, 31, 72-92.
Greenhaus, J. & A ; Beutell, N. 1985. Beginnings of struggle between work and fmaly functions. Academy of Management Review, 10: 76-88.
Hammer L. , Bauer T.Ã‚ Grandey A. ( 2003 ) . Work-family struggle and work-related backdown behaviours. Journal of Business and Psychology.17, 419-436.
Kanter, R. ( 1977 ) . Work and household in the United States: A critical reappraisal for research and policy. NY, NY: Russell Sage.
Kanter, R. M. ( 1977 ) . Work force and Women of the Corporation. New York: Basic Books.
Kossek, E. , Lautsch, B. , Eaton, S. 2006. Telecommuting, control, and boundary direction: Correlates of policy usage and pattern, occupation control, and work-family effectivity. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 68, 347-367.
Kossek, E. E. & A ; Lambert, S. ( 2005 ) . Work And Life Integration: Organizational, Cultural and Psychological Perspectives. Mahwah, N.J. : LEA Press.
Kossek E. & A ; Ozeki, C. ( 1998 ) . Work-family struggle, policies and the job-life satisfaction relationship: A reappraisal and waies for work-family research. Journal of Applied Psychology.83: 139-149.fol
Pitt-Catsouphes, M. , Kossek, E. & A ; Sweet, S. ( 2006 ) . The Work-Family Handbook: Multi-Disciplinary Positions, Methods, and Approaches. Mahwah, N.J. : LEA Press.
Seiber, S. ( 1974 ) . Toward a theory of function accretion. American Sociological Review, 39, 567-578
Beginnings of Data ( References ) :
1.Finding an Excess Day a Week: The Positive Influence of sensed Job Flexibility on Work and Family Life Balance. Published by: National Council on Family Relations
Stable Uniform resource locator: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.jstor.org/stable/585774
2. The Impact of Job Characteristics on Work-to-Family Facilitation:
Testing a Theory and Distinguishing a Concept from Journal of Occupational Health Psychology Copyright 2005 by the Educational Publishing Foundation
2005, Vol. 10, No. 2, -109.
3. Rhythms of Life: Ancestors and Outcomes of Work-Family Balance in Employed Parents from Journal of Applied Psychology
2005, Vol. 90, No. 1, 132-146.
4.The instance for work life balance, Closing the spread between policy and pattern. Hudson Initiative to assist Businesses complete & A ; win in the Future.
Submitted by: -Raj Kumar Bhaumik