The purpose of this assignment is to demo how a Social Worker would use a Behavioural Method as an apprehension and intercession on the instance survey supplied. I will make this by explicating what Behavioural Social Work is, how it is used in pattern, how it meets the demands of the service user and place personal challenges along the manner. I will seek to dispute my ain positions and ideals on the service user, and how these can be challenged for Anti-Oppressive Practice.
Most of what makes us genuinely human, most of what makes us persons instead than ‘clones ‘ , most of what gives us a discernable personality – made up of characteristic forms of behavior, emotion and knowledge – is the consequence of acquisition ( Sheldon and McDonald, 2008 ) . The Behavioural Perspective focuses on the person and the relationship between stimulation in an environment and how it determines behaviour through acquisition ( Westen, 2001 ) . This is besides how Behavioral Social Work is executed, by concentrating on behavior that is discernible and mutable. Like other signifiers of societal work methods it has been adopted from other subjects, and in peculiar Psychology, but has been adapted to accomplish measured results and effectual pattern for Social Work ( Watson and West, 2006 ) .
There are four chief Theories that are relevant and used in Behavioural Social Work ;
The first behavioral theory is Answering Conditioning, foremost introduced by Ivan Pavlov, who used experiments on Canis familiariss to detect how to condition a response after the presence of a certain stimulation has been removed.
The 2nd major behavioral theoretician is B.F Skinner and his Operant Conditioning, he observed that the behavior of beings can be controlled by environmental effects that either addition ( reinforce ) or lessening ( punish ) the likeliness of the behavior happening ( Westen, 2001 ) . He claimed that the result of behavior was voluntary and end directed, and ever controlled by the effects the behavior would take to.
The following behavioral theory identified is Social Learning Theory, which extends behavioral thoughts and claims that most acquisition is gained by copying others around them, instead than them being reinforced as Skinner claimed. That behavior is shaped by detecting others and construing it ( Payne, 1997 ) .
The 4th behavioral theory is Cognitive Learning Theory and was introduced by Albert Ellis and Aaron Beck in the 1960 ‘s, this is a theory that focuses on the manner people perceive, procedure and recover information ( Westen, 2001 ) . A perceptual experience of the environment from old experience.
It was during the 1980 ‘s that Social Work adopted behavioral theory as a method of working with service users, portion of the ground for this was the ability of the theory to accomplish realistic results ( Watson and West, 2006 ) . The acquisition theory used in societal work is a combination between all four theories listed above ; Respondent Conditioning, Operant Conditioning, The Social Learning Theory and Cognitive Learning. These are used to enable the societal worker to detect behavior and hence intervene suitably ( Watson and West, 2006 ) . The importance of behavioral societal work is that the behavior is learned and can hence be unconditioned. Cognitive larning theory focal points on this specifically and its battle with cognitive procedures which produce ideas and feelings ( Sheldon, 1995 ) . Behavioural societal work allows the service user to modify and alter their behavior through a procedure of support, both positive and negative, to bring forth a likelihood of a wanted behavior happening ( Watson and West, 2006 ) .
There have been unfavorable judgments of this signifier of societal work as it involves make up one’s minding what ‘normal ‘ behavior is. This may take to prejudiced and oppressive pattern, as a perceptual experience of ‘normal ‘ behavior can come from a scope of beginnings, such as, personal and professional values ( Trevithick, 2000 ) . Another unfavorable judgment is that the societal worker may be seen as holding important power in make up one’s minding a hereafter for the service user, which may in bend lead to farther jobs. To get the better of these unfavorable judgments for an affectional and constructive service for users, societal workers have to be cognizant of authorising accomplishments to assist the service user aid themselves. Informed consent and active engagement is besides a important portion of behavioral societal work ( Watson and West, 2006 ) .
How is Behavioral Social Work Used in Practice?
Some of the grounds a behavioral method was chosen for intercession is because it chiefly targets job resolution, and choler direction, which are some of the jobs faced by the household in the instance survey.
The first phase of Behavioural Social Work is the procedure of Assessment. This will get down by placing the service user ‘s job ( s ) ( Howe, 1998 ) . It non merely identifies the job behavior, but how it manifested to get down with, and what can be done to alter it.
The first phase of appraisal and intercession is to set up the behavior to work with ( Watson and West, 2006 ) . Within the instance survey, the job is the behavior of Jake who is progressively violent and aggressive towards his parents and siblings. To set up the strength and happening of his aggression it should be recorded and written down. This will supply lucidity and apprehension of the nature of the force, which individual ( s ) are present when he does it and what are the effects of his behavior ( Watson and West, 2006 ) The job behavior has to be described in footings that are discernible and measureable ( Howe, 1998 ) . To guarantee an accurate certification of behavior, partnership should be used with the parents and societal worker for authorization ( Watson and West, 2006 ) . A contact either written or verbal can be utile in set uping purposes and ends for Sessionss, and an overall purpose for behavior ( Howe, 1998 ) .
Operant conditioning is one of the chief theories used in Behavioural Social Work ; this is put into pattern by the ABC Assessment, which uses the designation of Ancestors, Behaviour and Consequences to assist form wanted behavior ( Hudson and Macdonald, 1998 cited in Watson and West, 2006 ) . The Antecedent – what precedes the behavior, The Behaviour – in this instance aggression and force, and the Consequence – What happens instantly after the force i.e Is the behavior being reinforced? Once all the appraisal has been carried out and all the information gathered, the societal worker and the service user ( parents ) must work together to be after a method of intercession which promotes a wanted behavior, this will be a baseline for intercession ( Watson and West, 2006 )
The following phase in the procedure of behavioral intercession is the execution of the program to alter the unwanted behavior. For this method to be effectual it needs partnership of both parents and the societal worker to set up functions, undertakings and duties ( Howe, 1998 ) . The chief undertaking for all involved is to develop appropriate schemes to implement within a certain clip frame ( Watson and West, 2006 ) , which will enable the societal worker to measure the procedure and respond by either altering the schemes or the method implemented. In the instance study Jake ‘s behavior deteriorated after the new babe was born, so the schemes that could be implemented would affect activities and more contact with his female parent, and the remainder of the household. Consequences of his bad behavior should be consistent and go on instantly after an event ( Watson and West, 2006 ) . The chief purpose of Behavioural Intervention and Operant Conditioning is to concentrate on positive support instead than penalty, this is to positively alter behavior and actuate Jake to finish ends ( Watson and West, 2006 ) .
How Does Behavioural Intervention Meet the Needs of the Service User?
Behavioural Social Work is effectual in run intoing the demands of the service user as it is specific, simple and structured. It works in partnership with the parents and gives them an understanding into why their boy behaves the manner he does, and that Jake ‘s behavior is the job and non Jake. Behavioural intercession is besides cost effectual and does n’t trust on fiscal aid, therefore can be used instantly to assist and back up Jake ‘s parents, every bit good as Jake ‘s behavior. One of the grounds why this method is widely used is because it is clip limited ; this allows the societal worker to measure if the method is effectual and if it is non it can be easy altered or changed.
This method is specifically relevant to the instance survey as Jake ‘s behavior is the job, which has been learned through clip. A positive to this is that it can be unlearned with the aid of his parents. To avoid oppressive pattern this has to be a method that includes Jake, both his parents and the Social Worker. This will guarantee authorization to Jake ‘s parents ; a less likeliness of impotence over Jakes behavior and a more effectual result.
Some of the negatives of this method if intercession is that it does non undertake the underlying jobs to Jake ‘s force, but by utilizing accomplishments, values and knowledge the societal worker can speak and back up Jake to detect other implicit in issues.
Challenges working with this service user
Some of the challenges I would confront being a societal worker for this instance is assisting Linda and Michael become more involved in altering Jake ‘s behavior. There is a new babe in the place and one other sibling besides Jake, and acquiring clip to react to Jake ‘s behavior may be hard. There is besides no other societal support outside the place and Linda is really stressed and “ at the terminal of her leash ” with Jake, so acquiring clip to pass with Jake entirely may besides be complicated. Another job is that Michael is already endangering about holding Jake removed from the place as his behavior is so bad, so Michael ‘s forbearance to measure and implement a behavioral intercession may be limited. To decide these challenges I would hold to utilize accomplishments such as empathy and active hearing, every bit good as appropriate oppugning to derive a full consciousness of the state of affairs. The following measure would be to affect both parents in seeking to understand that Jake ‘s behavior is a consequence of acquisition and can hence be unlearned in clip, to demo both parents that I am at that place to assist and back up both them and Jake for the interest of the household.
Some personal challenges I would confront as the societal worker is seeking to understand what it must be like to hold three kids under the age of 10, and being at a crisis point with one of them. To be so stressed that your hubby is endangering to set one of your kids into attention because of his behavior towards the remainder of the household. I ca n’t assist but experience “ how could anyone, through pick, want to set their kid into attention ” . Can things acquire that terrible that some parent ‘s can non see any manner out instead than this? I could n’t assist but believe that Michael is stating this because he is Jake ‘s measure father and non biological male parent, but so, I do non hold kids and hence hold ne’er had a kid with behavioral troubles. But I do understand what emphasis can make to a individual, and how it can look like there is no manner out. I must dispute these stereotyped positions on Michael and realise he has raised Jake from six old ages old, and likely knows a batch more about Jake ‘s behavior and the household dynamic than I do, as a Social Worker.
A behavioral method for Social Work was chosen for this instance survey. It enables the societal worker and the service user to work in partnership which is cardinal for a behavioral method to win. It includes a measure by measure procedure with defined functions and duties to change behavior. Operant Conditioning is chiefly used as its accent is reenforcing positive behavior, but with penalty which should be consistent and applied instantly. Behavioral Intervention provides the Social Worker with a method which can be implemented fleetly, but can besides be evaluated after clip for its effectivity. This provides the societal worker with the cognition to change a method or implement and new one. Valuess such as anti-oppressive pattern and authorization are critical to implement this method as they provide the service user with pick, functions and duties. By disputing stereotyped positions, a societal worker can do informed determinations and back up the service user efficaciously. Over all a behavioral intercession is used to change behavior, as it is the behavior that is the job, non the individual.