“A theory. as a general term. is a impression or an thought that explains experience. interprets observation. describes relationships. and undertakings outcomes ( Parker & A ; Smith. 2010 ) . When applied to nursing. theories help us “understand and make significance from our experience. form and joint our knowing. and ask inquiries taking to new penetrations ( Parker & A ; Smith. 2010 ) . Since Florence Nightingale’s “Notes on Nursing” in 1859. theoreticians have continued to analyze. research and spread out nursing theories. This paper will discourse the importance of nursing theory and Jean Watson’s good known Theory of Human Caring. Examples of the application of Watson’s theory will besides be discussed. Nursing Theory
The development of nursing theories has defined nursing pattern. Prior to nursing theories. nursing was “largely subsumed under medicine” ( McEwen & A ; Wills. 2014 ) . Nurses largely followed physician orders and completed undertakings. Harmonizing to McEwen and Wills ( 2014 ) . the “use of theory offers construction and organisation to nursing cognition and provides a systematic agencies of roll uping informations to depict. explicate. and predict nursing pattern. ” Nursing theories provide counsel and define criterions for nursing pattern. Nursing theories have besides led to the development of patient categorization systems. quality confidence plans. and clinical information systems ( McEwen & A ; Wills. 2014 ) . There are four degrees of nursing theories. The most abstract are metatheories.
These are theories about theory ( McEwen & A ; Wills. 2014 ) . Grand theories are abstract and wide. They frequently incorporate the thoughts of many other theories ( McEwen & A ; Wills. 2014 ) . Middle scope theories are more specific and have fewer constructs. The development and usage of in-between scope theories has grown significantly over the last two decennaries ( McEwen & A ; Wills. 2014 ) . Practice theories are more expressed and guild nursing pattern in specific state of affairss. These theories are research based and normative. Jean Watson’s Theory of Human Caring
Jean Watson’s Theory of Human Caring was chosen for this assignment because of its common application in the workplace. including my ain. As one of the most late developed expansive theories. Watson’s theory is used in a assortment of diverse scenes and has been portion of many research undertakings and articles. Watson believes that nurses make societal. moral. and scientific parts to civilisation and that their lovingness ideal can act upon human development ( McEwen & A ; Wills. 2014 ) . Watson’s theory includes a “’deep regard for the admirations and enigmas of life’ and acknowledgment that religious and ethical dimensions are major elements of the human lovingness process” ( McEwen & A ; Wills. 2014 ) . This theory consists of 10 carative factors. six premises. and eight major constructs. Watson’s 10 carative factors. harmonizing to McEwen and Wills ( 2014 ) include:
1. Humanistic-altruistic system of values
3. Sensitivity to self and others
4. Developing helping- trusting. lovingness relationship
5. Expressing positive and negative feelings and emotions
6. Creative. individualized. problem-solving lovingness procedure
7. Transpersonal teaching-leaning
8. Supportive. protective. and/or disciplinary. mental. physical. societal. and religious environment
9. Human needs aid
10. Existential-phenomenologic and religious forces
Six premises were derived from Watson’s theory. They include an ontologic premise of unity. integrity. integrity. relatedness. and connection ; an epistemologic premise that there are multiple ways of knowing ; diverseness of cognizing assumes all. and assorted signifiers of grounds can be included ; a lovingness scientific discipline theoretical account makes these diverse positions explicitly and straight ; moral-metaphysical integrating with scientific discipline evokes spirit ; a lovingness scientific discipline outgrowth. founded on new premises. makes explicit an spread outing unitary. energetic worldview with a relational human caring ethic and ontology as its get downing point ( McEwen & A ; Wills. 2014 ) .
Watson’s theory defines three of the four metaparadigm constructs. including human being. wellness. and nursing. and several other constructs that are critical to understanding the Theory of Caring. Watson’s definitions ( as sited by McEwen & A ; Wills. 2014 ) are provided below. Human being: A valued individual to be cared for. respected. nurtured. understood. and assisted. Health: Integrity and harmoniousness within the head. organic structure. and psyche ; wellness is associated with the grade of congruity between the ego as perceived and the ego as experient. Nursing: A human scientific discipline of individuals and human health–illness experiences that are mediated by professional. personal. scientific. esthetic. and ethical homo attention minutess. Actual caring juncture: Involves actions and picks by the nurse and the person.
The minute of coming together in a lovingness juncture presents the two individuals with the chance to make up one’s mind how to be in the relationship-what to make with the minute. Transpersonal: An intersubjective human-to-human relationship in which the nurse affects and is affected by the individual of the other. Both are to the full present in the minute and experience a brotherhood with the other ; they portion a phenomenal field that becomes portion of the life history of both. Phenomenal field: The entirety of human experience of one’s being in the universe. This refers to the individual’s frame of mention that can merely be known to that individual. Self: The organized conceptual gestalt composed of perceptual experiences of the features of the “I” or “ME” and the perceptual experiences of the relationship of the “I” or “ME” to others and to assorted facets of life. Time: The present is more subjectively existent and the yesteryear is more objectively existent. Past. nowadays. and future incidents merge and fuse.
Over clip. Watson has refined the relationships of the theory to more closely relate to her current apprehension of human lovingness and spiritualty. The followers are some of these relationships ( McEwen & A ; Wills. 2014 ) . A transpersonal lovingness relationship connotes a spirit-to-spirit unitary connexion between the practician and the patient within a caring minute. The practitioner’s reliable intentionality and consciousness of lovingness has a higher frequence of energy than noncaring consciousness. supplying greater entree to one’s interior therapist. Transpersonal lovingness is communicated via the practitioner’s energetic forms of consciousness. intentionality. and reliable presence in a lovingness relationship. Caring-healing modes are frequently noninvasive. nonintrusive. natural-human. energetic environmental field modes. Transpersonal caring promotes self-knowledge. self-denial. and self-healing forms and possibilities. Advanced transpersonal lovingness modes encompass ethical and relational lovingness. along with energetic consciousness modes that honor integrity. healing. comfort. balance. harmoniousness. and well-being. Application of Watson’s Theory of Caring
Watson’s Theory of Caring is used by nurses in many subjects. including leading. instruction. and direct patient attention. Below are two illustrations of the usage of the theory in nursing instruction. The Butterfly Effect of Caring ( Gustin & A ; Wagner. 2012 ) was a survey aimed at researching participants’ apprehension of self-compassion as a foundation to feel for attention. During this survey. participants studied and experienced Watson’s 10 Caritas Processess through a assortment of experiential and brooding exercisings ( Gustin & A ; Wagner. 2012 ) . Participants noticed during the survey that compassion for ego and others could be taught and learned and new apprehensions of the significance of compassionate attention giving ( Gustin & A ; Wagner. 2012 ) .
Recordings and notes from these Sessionss were analyzed and interpreted utilizing Watson’s Theory of Caring as the theoretical model. Findingss showed that development of compassion diminishes caregiver frights. Therefore. it would be good to back up students’ development of a compassionate ego prior to learning compassionate attention of others ( Gustin & A ; Wagner. 2012 ) . The consequences of this survey were used in the development of a teaching-learning theoretical account that develops students’ ability to be compassionate towards themselves and toward others while larning caring theory ( Gustin & A ; Wagner. 2012 ) .
In Teaching Theoretically Based Interventions: Use of Life Review. Hermanns. Mastel-Smith. Lilly. Deardorff. and Price ( 2009 ) study the effects of a life reappraisal assignment of nursing pupils. The life reappraisal assignment is based on Eriksons’ developmental theory and requires the pupil to implement several factors of Watson’s caring theory ( Hermanns et al. . 2009 ) . The intent of the life reappraisal assignment is for pupils to use the carative characteristics of Watson’s theory and to understand the life reappraisal procedure. It besides allows the older individual to reflect on their life and portion their experiences ( Hermanns et al. . 2009 ) . Students selected an older individual. 65 old ages or older. and asked them specific inquiries that summarized their life experience.
The pupils so reflected on their experience and analyzed the information as it relates to Erikson’s theory of development ( Hermanns et al. . 2009 ) . The students’ contemplations brought feelings of anguish and inspiration. every bit good as cultural consciousness. The assignment needed pupils to use the constructs of Watson’s theory. Students were able to “experience being in the minute and being in relation to single through listening with reliable presence” ( Hermanns et al. . 2009 ) . Through reappraisal of the students’ responses. the module realized the benefit of life reappraisal. This theory based intercession supports the construct of caring through human connexions ( Hermanns et al. . 2009 ) . Decision
The usage of nursing theory has long been used to specify nursing pattern and supply counsel. Jean Watson’s Theory of Caring focal points on human interaction as the footing for nursing attention. research. and instruction ( McEwen & A ; Wills. 2014 ) . Watson’s carative factors serve as a usher to the “core of nursing. ” steering curative healing procedures and relationships ( Parker & A ; Smith. 2010 ) . Research of Watson’s Theory of Caring has shown that compassion for ego and others can be taught and learned. human connexions promote caring and compassion. and that the development of compassion diminishes caregiver frights.
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