üThe Problem And Review Of Related Literature And Sudies Essay Sample

Introduction
Everyone is of course pre-determined to hold an progeny. This would merely be in a relationship of a adult male and adult female. It is non ever true in a relationship if there is a new life that will be formed. Several factors may lend to the hinderances in the formation of new life particularly to adult male because male ( sperm ) gamete is the 1 responsible to originate fertilisation, the brotherhood of male ( sperm ) and female ( ovum ) gametes. These may include low sperm counts, hapless sperm quality, anatomical jobs and hormonal instabilities. These factors were besides described under male sterility which leads to inability to bring forth offspring. Pre-fabricated drugs to handle this are readily available in the market, but it is associated with some unwanted effects.

Talahib ( Saccharum spontaneum ) is one of the most abundant workss found in the Philippines particularly in unfastened countries. The different parts of talahib are pharmaceutically used as diuretic, cataplasm, cathartic, acerb and cream. It is besides found to be an aphrodisiac that has an consequence to elicit sexual desire which may resemble to hike birthrate. The research workers aim to turn out the effectivity of ethanolic infusion of talahib on spermatocyte proliferation in male coney ( Oryctolagus Cuniculus ) . The foliages of talahib will be used in this experiment. The research workers will besides carry on phytochemical showing for the finding of the different chemical components present in the talahib leaves.

Therefore, if the ethanolic infusion of talahib foliages will be proven effectual, it would be good to those twosomes who desires to hold an offspring most particularly to male which is the focussed of this survey on spermatocyte proliferation.

Statement of the Problem
This survey deals with the finding of the efficaciousness of ethanolic infusion of talahib foliages on spermatocyte proliferation. Specifically, the survey aims to reply the… Botany Talahib is a coarse, erect, perennial grass, normally more or less caespitose, with stout resistance rhizome, turning to a tallness of 1 to 3.5 metres. Leafs are rough and additive, 0.5 to 1 metre long ; 6 to 15 millimetres broad. Pannicles are white and vertical, mensurating 15 to 30 centimetres long, with slender and whorled subdivisions, the articulations covered with soft white hair. Spines are about 3.5 millimetres long, much shorter than the voluminous, long, white hairs at the base. Distribution

– In unfastened countries at low and medium heights, go uping to 1,500 metres, frequently gregarious, busying big countries throughout the Philippines. – Besides occurs from India to southern China and through Malaya to Polynesia. Components

– Phytochemical showing yielded quinones, terpenes, alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, tannic acids, saccharides, protein, coumarin, phenol, steroids and glycosides. – Assorted root infusions yielded terpenoids, steroids, glycosides, tannic acids, flavonoids, saccharides. Properties

– In Ayurveda, roots are considered sweet, acerb, demulcent, refrigerating, diuretic, lithotriptic, cathartic, tonic, sexy.

Partss used
Rootss and roots.
Uses
Folkloric
– In the Philippines decoction of the roots used as a diuretic. – Decoction of roots used for febrility.
– Warmed cataplasm of the root mush applied to painful countries in the leg and in instances enduring from beri beri. – In Pakistan, used as laxative, pulmonary tuberculosis, firing esthesiss and disease of the blood. – In Ayurveda, used for indigestion, hemorrhoids, sexual failing, respiratory jobs and gynaecological problems. – In Bengal, roots used as galactagogue and diuretic.

– In India, fresh juice of roots used to handle mental unwellness and mental perturbations by the vaidhiyars. – In Siddha, the whole works is used for diseases of vatam and pittam, purging and assorted abdominal upsets, mental diseases, dyspnoea, anaemia and fleshiness. In Uttar Pradesh, paste prepared from equal measures of fresh roots of Cynodon dactylon and Saccharum sponataneum is given with cow’s milk and sugar for leukorrhea, early forenoon for one month.

Surveies
• Phytochemicals: Screening yielded the presence of quinines, alkaloids, tannic acids, saccharides, protein, coumarin, phenol, steroid and glycosides. • CNS Depressant / Antipsychotic Activity: Survey in rats showed decrease in motor activity, more marked in the ethyl alcohol and aqueous infusions. The aqueous infusions showed mild antipsychotic activity. The psychopharmacologic effects were attributed to the alklaloids, tannic acids, steroids and glycosides. • Antimicrobial / Cytotoxic / Antioxidant: Chloroform infusion showed antioxidant activity with IC50 value of 51.04 ug/ml ( vs ascorbic acid 41.04 ) . Crude infusion showed cytotoxic activity utilizing Brine runt deadliness assay with LC50 of 6.63 ug.mL ( vincristin 10.64 ) . Antimicrobial activity was exhibited against Gram-positive and Gram-negative infective bacteriums and against three tried Fungis.

• Antimicrobial / Trinpanchmool / Herbal Combination: Survey on the antimicrobic activity of trinpanchmool drugs – a combination of Kush ( Desmotachya bipinnata ) , Darbh ( Imperata cylindrica ) and Kas ( Saccharum spontaneum ) showed promising antimicrobic activity against different micro-organisms ( Gram-positive, gram negative and fungous strains ) . The drugs in coombination were more active than single infusions. • Pulp and Paper Making: Survey showed S. spontaneum is a bulky stuff with lower extractives and lignin content and higher holocellulose content with a good response towards multistage decoloring sequence and a mush of high brightness ceiling. • Cellulase Production: Survey showed S. spontaneum can be utilized as a substrate in solid province agitation for economic production of cellulase. Cellulases are the 3rd largest industrial enzyme in the universe. • Antioxidant Activity: Survey of infusions of S. spontaneum roots showed antioxidant activity similar to standard drugs used in the experiment. Methanolic extracts showed higher phenoplast and flavonoid content. Alkaloid

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopaedia
This article is about the category of chemical compounds. For the pharmaceutical company, see Alkaloid ( company ) .

The first single alkaloid, morphia, was isolated in 1804 from poppy ( Papaver somniferum ) . [ 1 ] Alkaloids are a group of of course happening chemical compounds that contain largely basic N atoms. This group besides includes some related compounds with impersonal [ 2 ] and even decrepit acidic belongingss. [ 3 ] Some man-made compounds of similar construction are besides attributed to alkaloids. [ 4 ] In add-on to C, H and N, alkaloids may besides incorporate O, S and more seldom other elements such as Cl, Br, and P. [ 5 ] Alkaloids are produced by a big assortment of beings, including bacteriums, Fungis, workss, and animate beings, and are portion of the group of natural merchandises ( besides called secondary metabolites ) .

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Many alkaloids can be purified from petroleum infusions by acid-base extraction. Many alkaloids are toxic to other beings. They frequently have pharmacological effects and are used as medicines, as recreational drugs, or in entheogenic rites. Examples are the local anaesthetic and stimulating cocaine, the psychedelic psilocybin, the stimulation caffeine, nicotine, [ 6 ] the analgetic morphia, the antibacterial berberine, the anticancer compound Oncovin, the antihypertension agent Raudixin, the cholinomimetic galantamine, the anticholinergic agent atropine, the vasodilative vincamine, the antiarrhythmia compound Quinidex, the antiasthma curative ephedrine, and the antimalarial drug quinine.

Although alkaloids act on a diverseness of metabolic systems in worlds and other animate beings, they about uniformly invoke a acrimonious gustatory sensation. [ 7 ] The boundary between alkaloids and other nitrogen-containing natural compounds is non distinct. [ 8 ] Compounds like amino acid peptides, proteins, bases, nucleic acid, aminoalkanes, and antibiotics are normally non called alkaloids. [ 2 ] Natural compounds incorporating N in the exocyclic place ( peyote, 5-hydroxytryptamine, Dopastat, etc. ) are normally attributed to aminoalkanes instead than alkaloids. [ 9 ] Some writers, nevertheless, see alkaloids a particular instance of aminoalkanes. [ 10 ] [ 11 ] [ 12 ] Extraction

Crystals of piperine extracted from black Piper nigrum.
Because of the structural diverseness of alkaloids, there is no individual method of their extraction from natural natural stuffs. [ 165 ] Most methods exploit the belongings of most alkaloids to be soluble in organic dissolvers but non in H2O, and the opposite inclination of their salts. Most workss contain several alkaloids. Their mixture is extracted foremost and so single alkaloids are separated. [ 166 ] Plants are exhaustively land before extraction. [ 165 ] [ 167 ] Most alkaloids are present in the natural workss in the signifier of salts of organic acids. [ 165 ] The extracted alkaloids may stay salts or alteration into bases. [ 166 ] Base extraction is achieved by treating the natural stuff with alkalic solutions and pull outing the alkaloid bases with organic dissolvers, such as 1,2-dichloroethane, trichloromethane, diethyl ether or benzine.

Then, the drosss are dissolved by weak acids ; this converts alkaloid bases into salts that are washed off with H2O. If necessary, an aqueous solution of alkaloid salts is once more made alkaline and treated with an organic dissolver. The procedure is repeated until the coveted pureness is achieved. In the acidic extraction, the natural works stuff is processed by a weak acidic solution ( e.g. , acetic acid in H2O, ethyl alcohol, or methyl alcohol ) . A base is so added to change over alkaloids to basic signifiers that are extracted with organic dissolver ( if the extraction was performed with intoxicant, it is removed foremost, and the balance is dissolved in H2O ) . The solution is purified as described above. [ 165 ] [ 168 ] Alkaloids are separated from their mixture utilizing their different solubility in certain dissolvers and different responsiveness with certain reagents or by distillment. [ 169 ] Abstract

The finding of the medicative values of some workss is due to the presence of some active substances, such as alkaloids, saponins, flavonoids, tannic acids, and anthraquinones. This substance can be found in specific parts of the workss as root, roots, and leaves. If talahib ( Saccharum spontaneum L. ) is found to be positive of said substances, so talahib can be a possible beginning of drug. The ethyl intoxicant infusions of different parts of talahib were studied through the usage of phytochemical analysis. The trial for alkaloid was done utilizing Mayer and Wagner reagents. Consequences showed that talahib infusions was positive in important sum of precipitate. Flavonoids were determined through Bate-Smith and Metcalf trial, which besides gave a positive consequence. The trial for tannic acid was determined through FeCh and protein adhering trial, which gave a negative consequence. Lbermann-Burchard and Froth trials were done to find the presence of saponins, and the consequence was negative. The consequence of the survey showed that talahib grass contained phytochemical components, such as alkaloids and flavonoids. Introduction

Talahib can be found about everyplace. In the early yearss, talahib was believed to hold a medicative value. At present, it was found that the lone given belongings of the grass is its active being called azospirilirium, which is found in its roots. Talahib is a coarse, erect, perennial grass with stout belowground rhizome turning to a tallness of 1 metre ( m ) to 3.5 m. Leafs are rough and additive, 0.5 m to 1 m long, 6 millimetres ( millimeter ) to 15 millimeters broad. Pannicles are white and vertical, mensurating 15 centimetres ( centimeter ) to 30 centimeter long, with slender and whorled subdivisions. Phytochemical Screening of Talahib ( Saccharum spontaneum L. ) ABSTRACT

The finding of the medicative values of some workss is due to the presence of some active substances, such as alkaloids, saponins, flavonoids, tannic acids, and anthraquinones. This substance can be found in specific parts of the workss as root, roots, and leaves. If talahib ( Saccharum spontaneum L. ) is found to be positive of said substances, so talahib can be a possible beginning of drug. The ethyl intoxicant infusions of different parts of talahib were studied through the usage of phytochemical analysis. The trial for alkaloid was done utilizing Mayer and Wagner reagents. Consequences showed that talahib infusions was positive in important sum of precipitate. Flavonoids were determined through Bate-Smith and Metcalf trial, which besides gave a positive consequence. The trial for tannic acid was determined through FeCh and protein adhering trial, which gave a negative consequence. Lbermann-Burchard and Froth trials were done to find the presence of saponins, and the consequence was negative. The consequence of the survey showed that talahib grass contained phytochemical components, such as alkaloids and flavonoids.

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Introduction

Talahib can be found about everyplace. In the early yearss, talahib was believed to hold a medicative value. At present, it was found that the lone given belongings of the grass is its active being called azospirilirium, which is found in its roots. Talahib is a coarse, erect, perennial grass with stout belowground rhizome turning to a tallness of 1 metre ( m ) to 3.5 m. Leafs are rough and additive, 0.5 m to 1 m long, 6 millimetres ( millimeter ) to 15 millimeters broad. Pannicles are white and vertical, mensurating 15 centimetres ( centimeter ) to 30 centimeter long, with slender and whorled subdivisions.

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

Alkaloid – a nitrogen-bearing organic molecule that has a pharmacological consequence on worlds and animate beings. Even though alkaloids are toxicant ( such as strychnine or coiine ) , some are used in medical specialty as anodynes ( hurting stand-ins ) or anesthetics, peculiarly morphia and codeme. with H2O. They have a acrimonious gustatory sensation, and when ingested orally, are practically non-poisonous to warm- full-blood animate beings. When injected straight into the blood stream. nevertheless, they are unsafe and rapidly fade out ruddy blood cells. • Tannins – besides tannic acid, common name applied to a group of veggie merchandises which are formless and crystalline, and are obtained from assorted workss. These are commercially of import in the tanning of leather. Tannic acid is valuable as an external medical specialty because it is acerb and hemostatic.

Materials

Talahib grass, brownish-yellow bottles, different reagents

Method

A. Preparation and Extraction of Samples

About 100 gms ( 2 ) of land dried works stuff was placed in a separate Erlenmeyer flask ; 80 per centum ethyl alcohol was added to submerse the stuff. The works stuff was soaked for 24 to 48 hours and filtered through Burcher funnel with soft subdivision. The flasks were rinsed with intoxicant and the lavation was combined with the filtrate. The filtrate was concentrated in a rotary evaporator. The volume of the dressed ore was expressed as g/ml. Concentration of works =

Weightof works stuff
Volume of the works
The infusions were stored in a tightly closed container and placed in a icebox ( 5 grades Celsius to 0°C ) and were subjected to phytochemical showing. B, Phytochemical Screening Method Test for Alkaloids

Preliminary trial: The 2 milliliter works infusion was evaporated to a cloying consistence over a steam bath to the 5 milliliter of 2M HCL to rinse the residue and to hold a volume of 5 ml filtrate. One millimetre of aliquot was taken and tested with two to three beads of Wagner reagent. Another 1 milliliter was tested with two to three beads of Mayer’s reagent. The consequence was observed and recorded as follows: + for little turbidness

++ for definite turbidness
+++ for heavy precipitate
A ( + ) , ( ++ ) , or ( +++ ) indicates the presence of primary, secondary, and third alkaloids while ( – ) consequences indicate the absence of alkaloids.

Collateral Trial
Twenty-eight per centum of ammonium hydroxide ( NH3 ) was added to the staying 3 ml aliquot. The solution was extracted three times with 10 milliliters trichloromethane ( CHCL3 ) . The CHCL3 infusions were combined and evaporated over a steam bath. The upper alkaline aqueous bed was reserved for quaternate and amine Test for Quaternary Bases and/or Amine Oxide Base

The staying alkaline aqueous bed was made acidic with 2M HCL, which was added bead by bead. It was filtered ; the filtrate was divided into two parts. Each part was tested with Wagner reagent and Mayer’s reagent individually. A ( + ) or ( ++ ) consequence was observed in both trial to bespeak the presence of quaternate or amine oxide base. Test for Flavonoids

Two millimetres of the sample infusion was evaporated to incipient waterlessness over steam bath. It was cooled to room temperature. This residue was defatted by handling with hexane until the infusion is about colorless. The hexane infusion was discarded. Ten millimetres of 80 per centum ethyl alcohol was added to the residue and the mixture was filtered. The filtrate was divided and poured into three trial tubings. One part was used as control. Bate-Smith and Metcalf Test for Leucoanthocyanins.

One part of the filtrate was treated with 0.5 milliliters concentrated HCL and was observed for any alteration in colour. It was heated for 15 proceedingss in a H2O bath. Further alteration in colour was observed within an hr. A strong ruddy or violet colour indicates the presence of leucoanthocynins. Consequences were compared with the control.

Flavonoids – occur largely in works species and history for important per centum of the chemical components ofsome dried green foliages. Flavonoids have been shown to hold antibacterial, anti- inflammatory, anti­allergic, antimutagenic, antiviral, anticancer, antithrombotic, and vasolidatory belongingss. Flavonoids have an ability to modify the body’s reaction to other compounds, such as allergens, viruses, and carcinogenic belongingss. Besides, flavonoids act as powerful anti-Oxidants. Saponins – a group of of course happening oily glycosides that foam freely when shaken.

The talahib works, besides known as wild sugar cane, is widespread in the Torrid Zones.

Trial for Saponins

Froth trial: A gugo ( Entada phscoluides ) infusion was used as control. About 1 g of gugo was extracted with 10 milliliters of ethyl alcohol. A volume of intoxicant extract equivalent to 2 g of works infusion was placed in two tubings ; the tubings were capped tightly and agitate smartly for 30 seconds and was allowed to stand for 30 proceedingss. Honeycomb froth above the surface of the liquid was observed. The consequences were compared to the gugo infusion. Liebermann-Burchard trial: The extract equivalent to 10 g works stuff was dried via steam bath. It was allowed to chill at room temperature. Residue was treated with 10 milliliters CHC3, and the mixture was stirred for approximately 5 proceedingss. It was allowed to stand and the CHC3 infusion was filtered with 100 milligrams anhydrous Na sulphate over a dry filter paper. The filtrate was divided into two parts.

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One was used as control. The other part was treated with three beads of acetic anhydride and one bead of dressed ore sulphuric acid ( H2SO4 ) . Any intermediate colour alteration was observed. The stuff was defatted by handling the residue with 10m1 hexane infusion. The intervention was repeated until most of the colourising stuff was removed. A alteration in colour was observed. Consequences were compared with control. Test for Tannins

An extract equivalent to 10 g works stuff was taken, and it was dried over a steam bath. The residue was extracted utilizing 20 ml hot distilled H2O. Five beads of 10 per centum NaCl was added ; the mixture was filtered. The filtrate was divided into three trial tubings. One part was used as control.

An aqueous solution of tannic acid was used as mention criterion. • Ferric Chloride Test: The other part of the filtrate was treated with three beads of ferrous chloride solution. The same process was done to tannic acerb solution. A bluish black colour indicates the presence of hydrolysable tannic acids, while a brown-green colour indicate the presence of condensed tannic acids. The consequences were compared with the control.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS

Different trials were conducted to happen out the phytochemical components present in talahib, which normally exhibited biological activities. ( The components were present in talahib. )

The tabular array shows that the talahib infusion was positive to alkaloid and flavonoids in four trials conducted and was negative to tannic acids and saponins. This means that the talahib infusion contains alkaloids, which are analgetic ( trouble stand-in ) and anti-bacterial agent. It besides contains flavonoids, which is known for their anti-inflammatory, anti-allergic, anticancer, and antibacterial belongingss. Article

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kerosine, besides spelled kerosene, besides called paraffin, paraffin oil, or coal oil, flammable pale yellow or colourless oily liquid with a not-unpleasant characteristic smell. It is obtained from crude oil and is used for firing in lamps and domestic warmers or furnaces, as a fuel or fuel constituent for jet engines, and as a dissolver for lubricating oils and insect powders. With a boiling point between about 150 and 300 °C ( 300 and 575 °F ) , kerosine is considered to be one of the alleged in-between distillations of petroleum oil, along with Diesel fuel. It can be produced as “straight-run kerosine, ” separated physically from the other rough oil fractions by distillment, or it can be produced as “cracked kerosine, ” by chemically break uping, or snap, heavier parts of the oil at elevated temperatures. Kerosene was foremost manufactured in the 1850s from coal pitch and shale oils, but crude oil became the major beginning after 1859, when E.L. Drake drilled the first oil well in Pennsylvania.

Because of its usage in lamps ( see kerosene lamp ) , kerosine was the major refinery merchandise until the electric lamp reduced its value for illuming and the car made gasolene an of import crude oil merchandise. Nevertheless, in many parts of the universe, kerosine is still a common warming and cooking fuel every bit good as a fuel for lamps. Standard commercial jet fuel is basically a high-quality straight-run kerosine, and many military jet fuels are blends based on kerosine. Chemically, kerosine is a mixture of hydrocarbons ; the chemical composing depends on its beginning, but it normally consists of approximately 10 different hydrocarbons, each incorporating 10 to 16 C atoms per molecule.

The chief components are saturated straight-chain and branched-chain paraffins, every bit good as annular cycloparaffins ( besides known as naphthenes ) . Kerosene is less volatile than gasolene ; its flash point ( the temperature at which it will bring forth a flammable vapor near its surface ) is 38 °C ( 100 °F ) or higher, whereas that of gasolene is every bit low as −40 °C ( −40 °F ) . This belongings makes kerosene a comparatively safe fuel to shop and grip. Kerosene is non a individual compound, but instead a mixture of hydrocarbons incorporating between about 12 and 15 C atoms.

When petroleum oil is distilled, it is split into fractions harmonizing to boiling point. The lightest 1s ( up to 4 Cs ) are gases. The igniter liquids ( 5 – 7 Cs or so ) are used industrially as dissolvers, and the scope between that and kerosene is more or less gasolene. Above kerosine ( & gt ; 15 Cs ) are
oils, after that the waxes, etc. etc.

Anyhow, kerosine is a medium-weight mix of hydrocarbons
Kerosene contains a mixture of Hydrocarbon liquids runing from C12H26 to C15H32. The burning reaction of Kerosene will depend upon the constituents of the mixture. However, as a hydrocarbon, the reaction will bring forth chiefly, CO2 gas and H2O vapor but, as Kerosene is a reasonably greasy substance, the liquid must foremost be atomised ( formed into a all right mist ) in order for it to wholly vapourise and so assorted with sufficient air to give complete burning, otherwise some Carbon ( as carbon black ) and some Carbon Monoxide ( CO ) will besides organize. kerosine is a mixture of hydrocarbons of 12 to 15 or more Cs. You can’t compose a chemical equation for the burning of a mixture.

Assume kerosine is all C15H32

C15H32 + 23O2 – & gt ; 15CO2 + 16H2