Quantitative agencies measure which implies that there is something that can be counted. Quantitative research has been defined in many ways. It is the sort of research that involves the tallying, use or systematic collection of measures of informations ( Henning, 1986 ) John W. Creswell defined quantitative research as an enquiry into a societal or human job based on proving a theory composed a theory composed of variables, measured with Numberss, and analysed with statistical processs in order to find whether the prognostic generalizations of the theory holds true. ( Creswell, 2003 ) On the other manus, another writer defined quantitative research as the aggregation of numerical informations in order to explicate, foretell and/or command phenomena of involvement.
Quantitative research is explicating phenomena by roll uping numerical informations that are analysed utilizing mathematically based methods ( Aliaga & A ; Gunderson, 2000 ) Quantitative research can besides be said to be a research based on traditional scientific methods, which generates numerical informations and normally seeks to set up causal relationships ( or association ) between two or more variables, utilizing statistical methods to prove the strength and significance of the relationships ( A lexicon of Nursing, 2008 ) Simply put, quantitative research reflects the doctrine that everything can be described harmonizing to some type of numerical system. It uses numerical analysis ; in kernel this attack reduces the information into Numberss, for case the per centum of teenage female parents in Lagos. The research knows in progress what he/she is looking for and all facets of the survey are carefully designed before the information is collected. Quantitative research methods reflect the doctrine that everything can be described harmonizing to some type of numerical system for case The tallness of a individual ( In meters )
The weight of a individual ( In kgs )
The age of a individual ( in old ages and months )
Quantitative Research is used to find exact figures and facts. It is used to find ‘precise measurements’ of things ; it is besides used to reply inquiries such as how much, how frequently, how many, when, and who ( Cooper and Schindler, 2006 ) . As quantitative research is basically about roll uping numerical informations to explicate a peculiar property, peculiar inquiries are more suitable to be answered utilizing quantitative methods for illustration I. How many males get a first category grade at university compared to females? II. What per centum of instructors and school leaders belong to cultural minority groups? From the inquiries above, it can be seen that quantitative research methods emphasise on nonsubjective measurings and numerical analysis of informations and generalizing the consequences. It should be noted that many informations that do non of course appear in quantitative signifier can be collected in a quantitative manner. This done by planing research instruments aimed at specifically change overing phenomena that do non of course exist in quantitative signifier into quantitative informations, which can so be analysed statistically. Examples of this are attitudes and beliefs
Besides a research worker can roll up informations on a broad figure of phenomena, and do them quantitative through informations aggregation instruments, which in bend implies that quantitative research methods are rather flexible. A common misconception about quantitative research methods that puts a batch of people off making quantitative research is that the research worker needs to be an expert in mathematics and statistics ; this is non wholly true because computing machine package allows the analysis to be done rapidly and comparatively easy. The procedure of quantitative Research
The research worker will hold one or more hypothesis. These are the inquiries that they want to turn to, which include anticipations about possible relationships between the things, they want to look into ( Variables ) , In order to happen replies to these inquiries, the research worker will besides hold assorted instruments and stuffs ( e.g. paper or computing machine trials, observation ) and a clearly defined program of action. Data is collected by assorted agencies following a rigorous process and prepared for Statistical Analysis. Nowadays this is carried out with the assistance of sophisticated statistical computing machine bundles. The analysis enables the research worker to find to what extent, there is a relationship between two or more variables. This could be a simple association ( for illustration people who exercise on a day-to-day footing have lower blood force per unit area ) or a causal relationships ( for illustration day-to-day exercising really leads to take down blood force per unit area ) Statistical analysis permits the research worker to detect complex causal relationships and to find to what extent one variable influences another. The consequences of statistical analysis are presented in a standard manner, the terminal consequence being a Probability value. Reasons for choosing a quantitative paradigm
Researcher’s universe position
A researcher’s comfort with ontological, epistemic, axiological, rhetorical, and methodological premises of the quantitative paradigm Training and Experience of the research worker
Technical Writing Skills, computing machine statistical accomplishments, library accomplishments Researcher’s Psychological properties
Comfort with regulations and guidelines for carry oning research ; low tolerance for ambiguity ; clip for a survey short continuance Nature of the job
Previously studied by other research workers so that organic structure of literature exists, known variables ; bing theories Audience of the survey
Persons accustomed to/ supportive of quantitative surveies
Peculiarities of Quantitative Research
I. Deductive or Top-down: The research worker trial hypothesis and theory with informations. It involves the systematic creative activity of a hypothesis and subjecting it to an empirical trial. The chief accent of quantitative research is on deductive logical thinking which tends to travel from the general to the particular, the cogency of decisions is shown to be dependent on one or more premises ( anterior statements, findings or conditions ) being valid. For illustration Aristotle’s celebrated illustration of deductive logical thinking was: All work forces are mortal, Socrates is a adult male, and hence Socrates is mortal. If the premises of an statements are inaccurate, so the statement is inaccurate. II. The consequences are based on larger sample sizes that are representative of the populations. It tends to be associated with large-scales surveies and with a specific focal point, frequently distilling information from a big figure of specific happenings to seek for general description. In quantitative research methods, the research worker seldom has entree to all members of a peculiar group.
However, they are normally interested in being able to do illations from their survey about the larger groups ; for this ground, it is of import that the people involved in the survey are a representative sample of the wider population/group. For illustration, generalizations about head-shrinkers should be based on a survey affecting head-shrinkers and non one based on medical pupils. III. All facets of the survey are carefully defined before informations is collected, this means that footings must be defined by the stairss or operations used to mensurate them. Such a processs is necessary to extinguish any confusion in significance and communications. See the statement “Anxiety causes pupils to hit ill in trials “ ; one might inquire, what is meant by anxiousness? Stating that anxiousness refers to being tense or some other term merely adds to the confusion. However, saying that anxiousness refers to a mark over a standard degree on an anxiousness graduated table, enables others to gain what you mean by anxiousness. IV. It tends to be associated with research worker withdrawal, bring forthing nonsubjective informations.
Objectivity is really of import in quantitative research, accordingly research workers take great attention to avoid their ain presence, behavior, or attitude impacting the consequences ( for illustration by altering the state of affairs being studied or doing participants to act otherwise. ) They besides critically analyze their methods and decisions for any possible prejudice. Research workers go to great lengths to guarantee that they are mensurating what they claim to be mensurating. V. It is normally based upon numerical measurings and therefore tends to utilize Numberss and statistical methods as they research indexs and tools. VI. It tends to be associated with pre-determined research design, utilizing measuring and analysis in a systematic and logically ordered manner that may be replicated comparatively easy by other research workers. To be replicable, the informations obtained in an experiments must be dependable ; that is, the same consequence must be obtained, if the survey is repeated by another research worker. If observations are non quotable, our descriptions and accounts are thought to be undependable. VII. The research worker efforts to analyze behavior under controlled conditions.
This is the most of import feature because it enables the research workers to place the causes of his or her observations. Experiments are conducted in an effort to reply certain inquiries ; they represent efforts to place why something happens, what causes some event or under what conditions does an event occur. Control is necessary in order to supply unambiguous replies to such inquiries. Controlled enquiry is perfectly indispensable to this because without it, the cause of an consequence can non be isolated. VIII. The research can be carried out independent of the research worker. The research worker does non hold to be every bit involved as the qualitative research worker and similar consequences are obtained no affair who carries out the survey. IX. Quantitative research methods are cheaper to implement and are standardised so comparings can be easy made and the size of the consequence can normally be measured. Other features include
It tends to be associated with analysis
Facts are value-free and indifferent
It establishes relationships and causing
The informations used are variables
The concluding study is usually a statistical study ( with correlativities, comparings of agencies, and coverage of statistical significance of findings ) it is easier to roll up into chart or graph. Types of Quantitative Research Methods
1. Experimental Research Methods: With quantitative research being rooted in the scientific method, it is structured in an experimental manner. This is particularly true in the natural scientific disciplines, where they seek to turn out causes and effects. This is a survey where an attempt is made to place and enforce control over all other variables except one ; an independent variable is manipulated to find the effects on the dependant variable. Subjects are indiscriminately assigned to experimental interventions instead than identified in of course happening groups. Examples include The consequence of a new intervention program on chest malignant neoplastic disease
The consequence of positive support on attitude toward school 2. Quasi Experiments/ Causal – Comparative Research Methods Attempts to set up cause-effect relationships among the variables, this is similar to experimental research but with some cardinal differences, an independent variable is identified but non manipulated ; and the effects of the independent variable on the dependant variable are measured The research worker does non randomly assign groups and must utilize 1s that are of course formed or preexistent groups. When analysis and decisions are made, finding causes must be done carefully, as other variables, both known and unknown could still impact the results. Examples include The consequence of preschool attending on societal adulthood at the terminal of the first class The consequence of portion clip employment on the accomplishment of high school pupils.
3. Descriptive or Non- experimental Research Method: seeks to depict the current position of an identified variable. This research is defined to supply systematic information about a phenomenon. The research worker does non normally begin with a hypothesis but is likely to develop one after roll uping informations ; the analysis and synthesis of the informations provide the best hypothesis. Example A description of how 2nd class pupils spend their clip during summer holiday. A description of the sorts of physical activities that typically occur in nursing places, and how often each occurs. 4. Correlational Research: this attempts to find the extent of a relationship between two or more variables utilizing statistical informations ; relationships between and among a figure of facts are sought and interpreted. This type of research will recognize tendencies and forms in informations, but it does non travel so far in its analysis to turn out causes for these observed forms. Examples The relationship between intelligence and ego regard.