Growth of bing trade paths –Silk Roads. Mediterranean Sea. Trans-Saharan. Indian Ocean-due to inventions and engineering ( trains. compass. larger ships. recognition ) The rise of new trade paths focus oning on Mesoamerica and the Andes Commercial growing due to new trading organisations ( Hanseatic League ) . and province patterns ( coining of coins. paper money ) and state-sponsored commercial substructures such as the Grand Canal of China Trans-Eurasian trade as a consequence of the enlargement of imperium ( China. Byzantine Empire. Muslim caliphates. Mongols ) Cross- Cultural exchanges through bing or new webs of trade and communicating.
The diffusion of cultural. scientific and technological traditions and new nutrient harvests. agricultural techniques. and epidemic diseases ( including the Black Death ) along Eastern Hemisphere trade paths Byzantine Empire. Chinese dynasties. Islamic provinces. Mongol Khanates. and feudal system in Europe and Japan The enlargement of province systems in the Americas: Mayan metropolis provinces. Mexica ( “Aztecs” ) . Inca Technological and cultural transportation between provinces and imperiums. including tang China and the Abbasids. across the Mongol Empires. and during the Crusades Increased agricultural and industrial production in many parts due to technological inventions ( such as Chinmpa ( drifting workss in the H2O ) field systems ) the enlargements of fabric. porcelain. Fe and exports from China. Persia and India
Revival of urban centres. the rise of commercialism and heater temperatures between 800 and 1300 ; lifting agricultural productiveness and population. and the greater handiness of labour.
Changing signifiers of labour organisation: free provincial agribusiness. guild organisation. several signifiers of coerced and unfree labour ( serfhood. mit’a. bondage )
The spread and diffusion of Buddhism. Christianity. Islam. and Neoconfucianism. and matching alterations in gender dealingss and household construction.
Intensification of bing regional trade webs. conveying prosperity and economic break ot the trading parts of the Indian Ocean. Mediterranean. Sahara. and overland Eurasia.
European synthesis of technological developments based on cognition developed in the classical. Islamic. and Asiatic universes – ensuing in new tools. ship designs. and apprehension of planetary air current and current forms.
New transoceanic maritime reconnaissance: Zheng He in the Indian Ocean. Portuguese in West Africa. Spanish ocean trips across the Atlantic and Pacific. European hunts for multiple paths to Asia across the North Atlantic
A new planetary circulation of goods driven by mercantilist European monarchies. with world-wide circulation of Ag from the Americas. colonial joint-stock companies. and the usage of free and unfree labourers blending African. American. and European civilizations and peoples
The Columbian Exchange of diseases. nutrients. and domesticated animate beings between
Eastern and Western hemispheres. with subsequent population addition in Afro-Eurasia but autochthonal population loss. deforestation. and dirt depletion in the United states
Worldwide inventions in ocular and executing humanistic disciplines. such as the Renaissance in Europe ( with its attach toing enlargement of literacy )
A turning planetary demand for natural stuffs and finished merchandises. ensuing within Africa and the export of slaves to the Mediterranean. Indian Ocean. and the Americas ; and a scope of coerced labour in American colonial economic systems ( apprenticed servitude. encomienda system )
The formation of new political and economic elites as a consequence of imperial conquerings and widening planetary economic chances. such as the Manchus in China and Creole elites in Spanish America
Fluctuating power of bing elites such as the aristocracy in Europe and daimyo in Japan. as a reult of progressively powerful sovereigns and leaders
Gender and household restructuring: demographic alterations in Arica ensuing from the slave trades. the trade relationships of Southeast Asiatic adult females and European work forces. and the smaller size of European households
Massive demographic alterations in the Americas ensuing in new cultural and racial categorizations ( ladino. mulatto. Creole )
Use of a assortment of methods by swayers to legalize. consolidate. and centralise power – including monumental architecture. urban design. spiritual thoughts ( European Godhead right. Aztec human forfeit. Songhay publicity of Islam ) . differential intervention of cultural and spiritual groups ( Ottoman intervention of non-Muslims ) . enlisting of bureaucratic elites and military professionals ( Ottoman devshirme. Chinese scrutiny system. samurai ) . tribute aggregation. and revenue enhancement agriculture
Increased usage of gunpowder. cannons. and armed trade to set up big imperiums in both hemispheres: European trading- station imperiums in Africa and Asia ; land empires in China. India. the Middle East. and Eurasia ( Manchus. Mughals. Ottomans. Russians ) Spanish. Portuguese. Dutch. Gallic. and British maritime imperiums in the United states
Competition over trade paths ( Caribbean buccaneering ) . province competitions ( Thirty Years War ) . and local opposition ( samurai rebellions ) challenged province consolidation and enlargement