Howard Zinn Essay Sample

p. 23“ . . . that particular racial feeling. . . that combination of inferior position and derogatory idea we call racism. ” Zinn says we need to understand how racism started in order to see how it might stop.

Factors that led to U. S. bondage

24 a-“The Virginians needed labor”-to grow nutrient & A ; baccy

25 b-“They couldn’t force Indians to work for them”

c-“White retainers had non yet been brought over in sufficient numbers”

d-Colonists sense of defeat: see citation from Morgan

e-Slavery and trade of African people was already established

“Black slaves were the reply. ” ( I take this sentence as Zinn saying the fact that this is what the Virginia settlers decided. as it is what their actions indicate. )

26-7Cultural comparings based on primary histories of European travellers from around 1560-1680 show African civilisations in a really positive visible radiation. Zinn returns to oppugning the thought that bondage and other signifiers of subjugation. including race murder. were portion of the United States’ fate. or were necessary for the interest of human advancement. He mentions an interesting historical difference between African vs. European history associating to “class status” .

27-8Zinn compares Africa’s ain history of bondage with European/colonists slave trade-partly to turn to the inquiry of whether Europeans were aching those they enslaved any more than they were already enduring: Zinn references “two elements that made American bondage the most barbarous signifier of bondage in history: the craze for illimitable net income that comes from capitalistic agribusiness ; [ and ] the decrease of the slave to less than human position by the usage of racial hatred…”

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28-9Conditions sing bondage are described-cruelties of the worst kind-ending with this startling estimation: “ . . . Africa lost 50 million human existences to decease and bondage. . . ” Besides. a speedy sum-up of causal forces is in the last paragraph on p. 29.

30Zinn compares the conditions of white retainers and black servants/slaves.
He so takes on the inquiry of whether racism is the consequence of a “natural” aversion of white against black-a major subject of Chapters 2 & A ; 3.

31“…there is grounds that where Whites and inkinesss found themselves with common jobs. common work. common enemy in their maestro. they behaved toward one another as peers. “

32-3As population and agribusiness grew. so did slavery-and slaves’ opposition.

34“Fear of slave rebellion. . . [ was ] . . . a fact of plantation life. “

35 The first two paragraphs explain the colonists’ ever-increasing elusive suppression of inkinesss. and elusive encouragement of Whites to take to encompass the thought of white high quality and racial segregation.

Slave-owners’ separation of “house slaves and field slaves” is mentioned as an of import constituent of the white owning/ruling category detering integrity. puting enslaved inkinesss against each other.

36“ . . . from clip to clip. Whites were involved in the slave opposition. “

37 Zinn says merely one fright was greater than the fright of black rebellion in the new American settlements: the fright that discontented Whites would fall in black slaves to subvert the bing order.