Guidance History Essay Sample

The demand for vocational counsel has long been felt in Malta where. as it has been stated over and over once more. there are no natural resources except human resources. The optimum usage of accomplishments and abilities has historically been identified as the best. if non merely scheme to guarantee national and economic development. and as Sultana ( 1992 ) has pointed out. ‘human capital theory’ ( now besides referred to as ‘human resource development’ ) has been the guiding model for several authoritiess. irrespective of their partizan coloring material or political political orientation. Vocational counsel and reding constitutes one of the services in a scope of schemes that can be used in order to ‘ensure’ a better tantrum between instruction and the economic system. a scope which includes

‘man’power planning. foremost introduced in Malta at about the same clip as the counsel and reding unit of the Education Department was established ( Sultana 1992. p. 176 ) . Calls for some signifier of vocational counsel and reding travel back at least to the bend of the century. Clearly. the discourse and vocabulary linked to the formal field of counsel had non yet developed. but we do happen looks of concern about the deficiency of reactivity of the educational sector to the demands of the labour market. A instance in point is the critical place adopted by Casolani. the overseer of out-migration between 1918 and 1930.

Who frequently took the Education Department to task for bring forthing nil but “clerks’ . giving no attending at all lo the demands of the local economic system. or to those of the host states having Maltese migrators. As he noted in one study. 100s of immature people were ‘unloaded every twelvemonth by our schools’ . and while a minority of these did follow a University calling to come in a profession. and a few others succeeded in acquiring a station with the authorities. “the majority. whose literary and concern preparation is most uncomplete – are thrown upon a market that is already overstocked with their kind’ ( Reports of the Working of Government Departments. 1924-5. C2. parity. 9. cited by Sultana. 1992. pp. 130-131 ) .

This chapter sets out to show a brief synthesis of the beginnings and development. of school counsel and reding services from 1968 to 1987. A more elaborate history is available in DeGiovanni ( 1987 ) . In this context. I have opted to depict the chief landmarks in the development of counsel – and peculiarly vocational counsel supplying information about the cardinal histrions advancing the field. the constructions that were established in order to present services. and the vicissitudes that marked the Guidance Unit since this was set up within the Department of Education in 1968. While accent will be placed on the part made to guidance and reding by the Unit. it is however of import to see. albeit briefly. the activities of a big figure of administrations and groups. since these generated a consensus about the demand for a national counsel service. structured within and delivered through the school system.

Prior to 1968. counsel and guidance was provided informally within the context of voluntary young person administrations ( such as the Teenagers’ Correspondence Club. the Young Christian Workers. and the Malta Youth Consultative Council ) . non-governmental organic structures and brotherhoods ( such as the Cana Movement. the Malta Union of Teachers. and the General Workers Union ) . and some work topographic points ( peculiarly the Malta Drydocks ) . Within the formal instruction sector. persons working for the Parents’ and Students’ Associations and the Education Department besides declared the demand for educational and vocational counsel and advocate Trapa bicornis. and organized activities in order to advance such services.

A brief word about each of these organic structures and administrations. every bit good as a note about how their several activities served as a accelerator in the puting up of formal counsel and guidance services. will supply the reader with a sense of the beginnings and development of the field in the

Maltese islands. Given the local context. and peculiarly given the clip frame that is being considered. it is of import to indicate out the extent to which faith and civilization were so even more closely intertwined than they are soon. Personal guidance was chiefly a inquiry of supplying pastoral and religious way. while young person work was frequently carried out by priests or profoundly committed ballad voluntaries. frequently under the way of the clergy. This is the instance of the Teenagers’ Correspondence Club. for case. which was founded in 1963 by the Rev C. Fenech. Teachers. societal workers. head-shrinkers. attorneies and parents worked ” together to offer aid to youth through correspondence. telephone conversations and personal interviews. and a sub-committee was finally set up to advocate young person on issues related to vocational counsel.

The latter group published booklets. organised talks and classs. introduced aptitude trials. and provided a callings counsel serviceAnother dynamic Church administration. the Young Christian Workers. took a farther measure frontward by organizing a study among 4000 young persons in 1966. A chief decision from this early research showed that a big figure of pupils were go forthing school without any readying for life. and that there was a felt demand for vocational counsel. The YCW urged immediate action. and there was consensus that the duty for supplying such a service ballad with the Education Department.

The Y CW recommended that officers be trained to offer a quality vocational counsel service in all schools. that counsel and guidance be introduced in the course of study of instructor preparation colleges. and that visits to mills and other work topographic points should be organised to assist immature people become familiar with industrial scenes. Five old ages after the completion of the study. a national workshop about ‘Adolescent Problems in Malta’ was organised by the Cana Movement. a voluntary Church administration set up in 1959 in order to educate and fix immature engaged twosomes for matrimony. The workshop reiterated the findings of the YCW research. and farther alerted the populace about the importance of vocational counsel for a successful interpolation into the universe of work.

Similar positions were expressed by members of Parents’ and Students’ Associations. concerned as these were by the deficiency of counsel that pupils had at school. particularly where this concerned calling chances. Likewise. the Malta Union of Teachers argued for a comprehensive counsel and guidance service for all pupils. and in a study which it presented to Professor Lewis in 1967. listed a figure of points which it felt needed to be considered now that educational planning and secondary instruction for all were being placed on a solid terms. The MUT noted the demand for trained forces who would assist place the abilities and aptitudes of single pupils. and steer them to allow educational and vocational paths.

The motion in favor of counsel and guidance services within schools came to a caput when a Council of Europe Swedish expert on pupil counsel visited Malta in 1968. The recommendations drawn up by Ms Margherita Vestin will he cover with in item in a ulterior subdivision of this chapter. given that her visit was instrumental in the development of counsel and guidance in schools. At this phase. it is of import to indicate out that several administrations which have already been referred to. and which were involved in working with immature people. exploited Ms Vestin’s presence in order to do a figure of proposals. The Malta Youth Consultative Council. for case. submitted a memoranda to Ms Vestin showing its concern about the deficiency of vocational counsel in Malta. a concern it had been showing since its foundation in 1949. The MYCC’s memoranda contained mention 10 the importance of set uping a sound educational and vocational counsel system led by professionally trained forces. and to the demand for emphasizing equality between the genders in the passage between school and work.

The Malta Drydocks excessively was acute on doing its set of recommendations and proposals to Ms Vestin. The Malta Drydocks had late reintroduced its ain apprenticeship strategy ; closely patterning on the English system. the strategy offered proficient classs of a really high quality. and registered an impressive one-year success rate. pulling some of the most promising young persons on the island. During treatments held with Ms Vestin. Drydocks functionaries pointed out that at that place existed a demand of greater consciousness in schools with respects to career chances. Such positions reflected concerns that had long been expressed by the General Workers Union ; given its consciousness of the jobs of immature workers. and peculiarly so those employed in the proficient sector. it had striven for the debut of apprenticeship strategies and had stressed the demand for an effectual national young person employment service which would offer. among other things. a sound vocational counsel service.

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While the Education Department had non established systematic counsel and guidance services in its schools prior to 1968. it had however developed a close coaction with the Department of Labour through the services of the Youth Employment Officer of the clip. Joseph J. Portelli. Portelli. who is likely the first Maltese to hold obtained a formal making in the field of vocational counsel. was responsible for the administration of negotiations on calling orientation with Standard VI pupils. Such seminars were held individually with parents and pupils in Malta and Gozo. and focused chiefly on employment chances. Portelli besides published the first two books related to counsel and guidance in Malta.

The first was intended for pupils who wanted to foster their surveies in order to hold entree to better options later on in life. and was entitled From School to Work A Guide to Careers. The 2nd book. written in Maltese. was meant for pupils who opted to take up a occupation on attaini ng the mandatory school go forthing age. and was entitled Ghajnuna ghall-Ghazia talKarriera ghat-Tfal fifty-one Ghalqu t-Tlettax-il Sena ( i. e. Choosing a Career A Guide for 13 twelvemonth olds ) . Portelli’s lavish attempts earned the grasp of several parents and administrations. and so Ms Vestin acknowledged the importance of a close relationship between the Education Department and the Department of Labour – the foundations of which had already been laid by Portelli – reasoning that they should jointly put up a Standing Committee in order ‘to facilitate the necessary frequent co-operation concerning programs. actions. rating. stuff and other AIDSs. etc. ( Vestin. 1969. p. 79 parity. 216 ) .


The enterprises that have been briefly outlined in the old subdivision can be considered to be ‘grass-roots’ motions in favor of counsel services for immature people. articulated by different groups working at the chalk face and in different capacities with Maltese young person. Their activities. studies and proposals prepared the land for – and led to the constitution of a formal system of counsel and guidance within the instruction sector. This development was facilitated by a figure of foreign instruction experts who visited Malta after the acquisition of political independency in 1964. and who were sent over by UNESCO to function as advisers to the authorities in the effort to beef up and spread out Malta’s educational substructure and services. Among the more of import of these advisers was J. LLewis. who’s study on educational planning made a clear statement about the demand for the development of counsel and reding installations in the school system ( Lewis 1967. parity. 70 ) .

The recommendations made by Professor Lewis were taken up. and on the 13th of August 1968. two male instructors. Martin Vella Haber and Abel Giglio. were relieved of all teaching responsibilities and were assigned the undertaking of puting up an Educational Guidance Unit within the Department of Education. Both instructors had been awarded a Commonwealth Bursary and had successfully completed a class in Education Guidance in U. K. the old twelvemonth. They were ab initio assisted by Mr V. Cancio. but this latter officer left the Unit in March 1969 on being appointed Inspector of Science.

Vella Haber and Giglio sought the co-operation of Mr J. Cameron. a UNESCO expert. who was in Malta working on the followup of the Lewis study. The two officers were besides informed that the Government of Malta had sought aid from the Council of Europe and that. as a consequence. Ms Margherita Vestin. an expert in Pupil Guidance at Primary and Secondary Level was shortly to come on a consultancy visit to Malta. Vestin in fact visited Malta on two occasions. from the 21 st October to the 2nd November 1968 and from the 11th June to the 2nd July 1969. Her footings of mention were:

To reexamine any bing counsel services in Malta.

To analyze the demand of an organized educational and vocational counsel service. taking into consideration the recommendations of the Lewis study on educational planning.

To see the puting up of a Guidance and Counselling
Unit of measurement within the Department of Education.

To rede the Minister of Education. Culture and Tourism on the stairss necessary to accomplish this purpose. educational and vocational

Vestin’s brief besides included visits to schools to keep treatments with principals and to offer advice as to how such a unit for pupil counsel could be set up and as to what its maps were to be. She was besides expected to province how instructors could be trained for this intent and what makings they were expected to obtain in order to go pupil counsel officers. Vestin’s findings were published in a study entitled Memorandum on Pupil Guidance in November 1969. She made a list of recommendations covering four cardinal countries. viz. those refering ends and waies. those refering the different actions that needed to be taken. those refering disposal. cardinal organic structures. and their several responsibilities. and those refering the preparation of staff and instructors.

Initially. the Guidance Unit’s chief undertaking was the creative activity of an substructure for the proper operation of counsel in the province instruction system. A strategy for the puting up of an Educational Guidance Unit within the Department of Education was finalised in October 196S. The strategy was approved in toto by the so Director of Education. Chev. S. Gatt. Unfortunately. several efforts to obtain a transcript of the proposed program proved bootless. but interviews with the establishing officers of the Unit revealed that the purpose of the strategy was to set up counsel as an built-in instead than as a peripheral activity within the instruction system. It was besides planned that counsel and guidance services would be offered by professional forces who had been trained in the relevant subjects for the intent.

The program submitted by the freshly established Guidance Unit was given full support by the Education Department. A round issued in December 1968 ( Circ. No. 288/68 – Educ. 967/67 ) by the Director of Education requested all Heads of Schools to afford Messrs Vella Haber. Cancio. and Giglio every aid they might necessitate while transporting out responsibilities connected with Educational Guidance.

1968 besides saw the visit of another UNESCO expert to Malta. J. Cameron. His undertaking was to carry on a survey refering the debut of secondary instruction for all. His brief included the working out of inside informations for a new school construction. instruction and support staff. edifices and installations. costs. and so on. Naturally. all this was of peculiar involvement and concern to the freshly set up Guidance Unit. since Carneron’s recommendations would hold deductions for the counsel programme. Indeed. one of the issues that was to hold an impact on the pattern of vocational and educational counsel and guidance was the fact that secondary instruction for all was introduced on the footing of a three-party construction. This meant that counsel officers were obliged to transport out appraisal and rating work linked to the cyclosis and channelling of pupils towards peculiar schools. and watercourses and classs within schools. Vestin ( 1969. p. 20 ) had so issued a strong warning about this. reasoning that:

‘…one thing is apparent: from the facet of counsel it is most of import that the cyclosis of students does non get down excessively early. All excessively easy. the arrangement in a watercourse fixes the kid in a way where its capacities can non be all-around development. The label ‘grammar’ or ‘technical’ or ‘general’ could so be fatal. Not because the instruction itself should non be good in each watercourse. but because of the really difficult conquered. settled attitudes among students. parents and instructors. ranking the watercourse possibly unconsciously’ .

One of the Guidance Unit’s major undertaking shortly after its constitution was the debut of cumulative record cards in all schools. This was an of import enterprise. since it lay the foundation for the recording of information about pupils in such a manner as to ease the bringing of individualized counsel and educational support. Before make up one’s minding on the concluding bill of exchange of the record cards. the Guidance Unit studied assorted systems which had been adopted abroad. held pilot undertakings in local schools. and discussed assorted bill of exchanges with Heads of Schools. School Inspectors. and with the Assistant Director and Director of Education.

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Primary Schools Cumulative Record Cards were introduced in 1969/70. Card games for Secondary Schools were ready to be introduced in 1971/72 and those for Infant Classs were finalised in 1971/72. Accumulative Record Card games were designed in a manner that would clearly portray the child’s educational and personality development twelvemonth by twelvemonth. The Infant Record Card was meant to supply a footing for observation in order to help in the physical. psychological and societal development of the kid. The Primary School Record Card was meant to supply the caput of school with an nonsubjective footing for the pulling up of a study when pupils left the primary and went to the secondary degree of instruction. In the latter sector. the Accumulative Record Card provided a comprehensive appraisal of academic accomplishment and personality development. and such information was used to steer pupils in their consideration of farther instruction and work chances.

TEACHER Training
Clearly. the constitution of a Guidance Unit and the increasing attending given to guidance services within schools meant that pedagogues. peculiarly instructors. had to be made cognizant of the nature of counsel and its anticipated effects. In add-on. the Guidance Unit required instructors in schools to be in a place to join forces with what can be referred to as a ‘guidance approach’ to instruction. Towards this terminal. Mr Vella Haber and Mr Giglio launched a series of talks in May 1969 for instructors assigned responsibilities in Educational Guidance. Among the subjects discussed were ‘the significance of guidance’ . ‘adolescents and their problems’ . ‘basic rules of evaluation’ . and ‘guidance services in schools’ .

The in-service preparation of instructors was besides accompanied by the publicity of consciousness of the counsel field among pre-service student-teachers at the Teacher Training Colleges of Education. Indeed. October 1969 saw a squad of four – Mr M. Vella Haber. Mr A. Giglio. Mr S. Debono and Ms L. Rizzo -commence lectures on the topic of student counsel. The latter two officers had been seconded to the Guidance Unit in September 1969. holding successfully completed a year’s preparation in the U. K. taking to the award of a Diploma in Educational Guidance.

During that same twelvemonth. negotiations on guidance-related issues were organised for students in the Primary and Secondary Sectors in both State and private schools. The negotiations were delivered by counsel officers and covered assorted subjects including calling planning and personal development.


The three-party construction of secondary instruction. and the attendant preoccupation with choice and channelling. led to a concern with educational appraisal as a agency of feeding pupils into a differentiated system. In 1969 the Education Department acquired the services of another Unesco expert. CJ. S. Tuppen. who was to move as a adviser on the development of a policy for educational assessmentUp to this clip. the choice process used in the transportation of students from the primary to the Secondary Sector consisted of a written trial in English and Arithmetic open to pupils between 10s and 14 old ages of age.

Tuppen carried out pilot surveies of standardized trials which could be utilised for choice every bit good as for educational counsel. He was assisted in his work by officers from the Guidance Unit. In his concluding study Tuppen ( 1970 ) drew up a program by which the traditional scrutiny could be replaced by a four-part appraisal of the student based on trials of English. Arithmetic and Verbal Ability and appraisals of school work conducted by the headteacher. The counsel unit was really much interested in the proposed new choice processs as they would be of great aid in the passage of

students from the Primary to the Secondary sector. The debut of secondary instruction for all in 1970 therefore brought with it new admittance processs. The counsel unit was actively involved in the whole procedure and was responsible for the aggregation and redistribution of all record cards. The cards were discussed with caputs of secondary schools where the students had now been transferred. therefore making a critical nexus between the two sectors.

Another UNESCO expert who had visited Malta to help in choice processs was Dr. R. B. Cluff. Cluff drew up a study in 1971. sketching schemes for educational testing and measuring. and reasoning that counsel officers had a important function to play in the passage of pupils from the primary to the secondary school sector. Cluff ( 1. 971. p. 182 ) in fact recommended that: ‘… . a new system of counsel and rating [ should ] replace the bing arbitrary selective written scrutiny for entry to secondary instruction. This will be achieved by Cumulative Record Cards. Standardised Trials and Teachers’

Appraisals. ’
Following the Tuppen and Cluff studies. a new focal point was placed by the Education Department on the development of modem methods of appraisal. This required a study of the bing system of scrutinies and proving at Primary and Secondary degree. including the admittance scrutinies to secondary schools and proficient institutes ; the debut of standardized trials: the acceptance of a unvarying system of grading/marking by caputs of schools ; and the alteration of admittance processs. Cluff ( 1971. p. ) 68 ) had recommended that the ‘official duty for scrutinies and proving be removed from the Guidance Unit and vested in the Examinations Unit. ’

Such a service was so set up in 1971. The Test Construction Unit. as it was called. worked in close coaction with the Guidance Unit. and was engaged in the building of assorted standardized trials and in the pulling up of studies on appraisal and testing. The TCU developed two advancement trials in English and Arithmetic. and these were used by all caput instructors in both province and private schools in order to do a more nonsubjective appraisal of students. The first-ever standardized trials to be held in Malta consisted of an English Word Reading Test. a Maltese Word Reading Test. and an Arithmetic Skills Test. These trials were constructed and standardised by J. M. Falzon. a member of the TCU. and who was to finally go the first Professor of Educational Psychology at the University of Malta. Falzon constructed another three standardised trials. viz. English Reading Comprehension Tests A and B. and a Maltese Group Reading Test.

These were standardised for Year 6 students. and used for the concluding appraisal of Primary school kids and for the appraisal and designation of slow scholars in Secondary schools. In 1975. the TCU was entrusted with the scene of Year 6 Primary and all Secondary school scrutinies at a national degree. and in 1981 the TCU was given the duty of puting of entryway scrutiny documents for the freshly established Junior Lyceums. Examinations were set for entryway into signifiers I to V. As from 1985 entryway scrutinies were limited to organize I. With consequence from 1982 the TCU was besides entrusted with the scene of national one-year scrutinies for Junior Lyceums for signifiers I through V. Besides in the same twelvemonth Primary schools scrutinies from Year 3 upwards were nationalised.

The TCU besides carried out research on all tests. Another service given by the TCU was a Mean and Standard Deviation exercising of each topic in each Form or Year at a national and school degree. The focal point of the TCU on appraisal patterns freed up counsel officers to put their energies more straight in the development and strengthening of vocational. educational and personal guidance services within schools.

At a minute when counsel and guidance appeared to be traveling from strength to strength. a determination was made by the instruction governments to fade out the Guidance Unit. This determination was communicated to the Unit’s members on 12th October by agencies of a missive transporting the signature of Mr A. Raimondo. the moving Director of Education. All members of the Unit. now including S. Debono. L. Rizzo. A. Sammut. J. Sammut and J. Farrugia besides M. Vella Haber and A. Giglio. were assigned learning responsibilities in Secondary schools with immediate consequence.

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The work carried out by the Unit during the period 1968-72 had laid the foundations of a much needed service that had become really popular among students. Great benefit was being reaped and the service had left an impact on the instruction sector. Notwithstanding the disintegration of the Unit. counsel work in schools continued to be offered. albeit on the side. by dedicated officers who were giving their free clip to help all those who were in demand and so as non to allow the service dwindle off.

The following three old ages ( 1972-75 ) were old ages of dialogues between the Government and the Malta Union of Teachers. A re-organisation understanding was being negotiated and the MUT. conscious of the sterling work that the Guidance Unit had done since its puting up in 196S. included commissariats in the understanding by which a Guidance and Counselling Service was one time once more put up. The Agreement was concluded in 1975. Subsequent to the Agreement. stations of counsel instructors. Counselors and Education Officer ( Guidance and Counselling ) were created.

Guidance instructors were to be assigned a decreased instruction burden equivalent to half the normal burden. so that they could give the other half to guidance responsibilities. The complement of counsel instructors was to be regulated by the ratio of 300 students per counsel instructor. Ten stations of Counselors were set up. Further treatments between the governments and the MUT led to the pulling up of lists of responsibilities to be performed by counsel instructors. Counselors and the Education Officer. These were communicated to officers concerned through Education Circulars 38/75. 245/75/7 and 266/75/12 severally. M. Vella Haber was appointed Education Officer ( Guidance and Counselling ) in 1976 following the publication of a call for applications in conformity with the commissariats of the Agreement. Vella Haber was assisted in his work by a group of officers who had received developing abroad. These officers were: A. Giglio. S. Debono. Ms L. Rizzo. A.

Sammut. J. Sammut. J. Farrugia. Ms M’Anne Agius. G. Xuereb. P. Sultana Trevisan. Ms. J. Baldacchino. P. Bartolo. R. Sultana. P. Fava. Ms L Calleja and R. Zammit. Many of these had been trained at the University of Reading or of Keele in the U. K. . but some of the counselors had gone to Universities in the U. S. A. . Canada. New Zealand and Australia.

The complement of counsel instructors was made up of 58 instructors. 47 in the Secondary sector and 11 in the Technical sector. There was a considerable wastage of trained forces who opted to take up administrative responsibilities in schools. In 1987 this amounted to 62 % . The Guidance and Counselling Unit organised assorted in-service classs of short continuance in order to keep a pool of trained counsel instructors. but the demand for more qualified forces was recognised. In response to this demand. the Faculty of Education of the University of Malta organised its first Diploma Course in Educational Guidance and Counselling in 1985. This was a portion -time flushing class aimed at staff desiring to go counsel instructors. and was made up of 30 units of 16 hours each. In July 1987 a sum of 16 instructors and teachers were awarded the Diploma in Educational Guidance and Counselling. This was besides the first clip that a group of teachers attended such a class and their successful completion of the Diploma class augured good for the administration of a good service in Trade Schools.

The 1975 Agreement contained no commissariats for the assignment of counsel instructors in Primary schools and this blank was referred to by the Education Officer in his memoranda to the Advisory Council for Education. Vella Haber ( 1978. parity. 3. 1 ) . noted that ‘…The deficiency of an organized counsel service at Primary degree frequently consequences in deficiency of of import information on the educational and societal background of the kid which is of critical involvement when he begins his Secondary instruction. ’

In the Secondary Sector the service was non considered to be equal on history that instructors were assigned responsibilities in counsel on a twelvemonth to twelvemonth footing and. on many occasions. their blessing was communicated in the 2nd term of the school twelvemonth. The job was worse in Trade Schools. which had been introduced in 1972 and which had non yet benefited from the proviso of a counsel and reding service. In this respect. Vella Haber ( 1978. parity. 3. 2 ) pointed out that ‘At nowadays over 2000 pupils proceed to Trade schools every twelvemonth

There is no individual responsible to steer these pupils and to see the Cumulative Record Cards that accompany them from Secondary schools are unbroken up-to-date so that good usage be made of them during their stay in these schools or for vocational counsel before they leave school. ’ This peculiar job was merely addressed eight old ages subsequently. when teachers reading for a Diploma in Educational Guidance and Counselling at the University of Malta were assigned counsel responsibilities in Trade schools in 1986. Even so. no such service was made available in Girls’ Trade Schools.

The demand of holding an established service at the New Lyceum and Higher Secondary schools was besides felt and finally Mr P. Sultana Trevisan was appointed Education Officer I ( Guidance ) responsible for this sector.

While callings and vocational counsel was now being catered for by counsel instructors in schools. the Guidance and Counselling Unit besides attempted to farther develop this country by organizing negotiations and seminars for school departers ; . It besides built on the accomplishments of its Careers Information Service. which had been set up in April 1972. in order to establish a national one-year Careers Convention as a vehicle for the publicity of information about the different occupational chances available in Malta.

The Guidance and Counselling Unit had. by 1987. developed several of import services. In the infinite of about 20 old ages. it had built up a squad of qualified staff whose responsibilities included:

Regular counsel and reding Sessionss in schools

Reding single pupils referred by Heads of Schools

Organizing negotiations and seminars for school-leavers

Fixing calling orientation conventions

Roll uping information about different callings and go throughing on this information to interested pupils

Supplying information educational chances

Supporting the Heads of schools in the exercising of streaming. and student pick of optional classs

Organizing orientation visits to establishments of higher and farther instruction. industries and other work topographic points

Meeting parents in order to ease apprehension of school policy sing capable option picks

Interceding with other authorities sections and assisting bureaus ( including the Department of Labour. the Department of Social Welfare. the Youth Service Organisation. the Forensic Department. the Particular Education Section. the Health Education Unit. the Child Guidance Clinic. the Youth Employment Service and Caritas ) . and counsel regarding

On the footing of such accomplishments. the Guidance and Counselling Services could look frontward to increased committedness to the demands of pupils. in response to alterations in the educational system. in societal mores and values. and in the construction of chances in Malta’s employment market.

Cameron. J. ( 1968 ) Educational Planning in Malta. Paris: UNESCO.

Cluff. R. B. ( 1971 ) Malta: Educational Testing and Measurement. Paris: UNESCO.
Degiovanni. J. P. ( 1987 ) . Guidance and Counselling in Malta: The Development of Guidance & A ; Counselling Services in the Education Department of Malta. Unpublished Diploma in Guidance & A ; Counselling thesis. University of Malta.

Lewis. J. L. ( 1967 ) Education Planing Malta: Preparatory Mission. Paris: UNESCO.
Tuppen. CJ. S. ( 1970 ) Malta: Educational Assessment in Schools. Paris: UNESCO.
Vella Haber. M. ( 1978 ) ‘Guidance and Counselling in schools” . Memorandum to the Advisory Council for Education. Roneo.
Vestin. M. ( 1969 ) Memorandum on Pupil Guidance. Paris: UNESCO.

* ( This article is dependably reproduced from the book: “CAREERS EDUCATION AND GUIDANCE IN MALTA Issues and Challenges” edited by Ronald G. Sultana and Joseph M. Sammut ( 1997 ) published by Publishers Enterprises Group ( PEG ) Ltd. Malta. )