Giving the best you’ve got-and assisting your fellow work to his best-that’s teamwork.
-James Cash Penney
Endowment wins games. but teamwork and intelligence wins titles.
Human Interaction is a complex procedure to understand. And it becomes further complex when the interaction takes topographic point between people belonging to the same group. Normally a group goes through 3 stages as depicted by following figure
A General Model of Group Dynamics
Overview of Groups and Group Dynamics
Work groups consist of people working together who are seeking to do their life. It is frequently the primary beginning of societal individuality for people. The nature of group can impact the public presentation of people at work every bit good as their relationship outside the organisation.
Groups can be defined in footings of perceptual experience. motive. organisation. mutualities and interactions. In footings of interaction it can be defined as two or more individuals who interact with one another such that each individual influences and is influenced by each other individual. The construct of interaction is indispensable to this definition. Two people who are physically together don’t signifier a group unless they interact with each other. Coworkers may work side by side on related undertakings. but if they don’t interact they are non a group. The presence of others may act upon the public presentation of a group. but they don’t go the portion of the group unless interaction occurs.
Groups frequently have ends. but the definition in footings of interaction doesn’t province that members must portion a common end or motive. A individual can be portion of a group and bask the benefits of rank without desiring to prosecute any group end. But the quality of interactions and public presentation may be affected by members’ deficiency of involvement in group end.
This definition in footings of interaction besides puts a limitation on the size of a group. A big aggregation of people who are non able interact with each other won’t signifier a group harmonizing to this definition. The kineticss of big aggregation of people differ significantly from those of little groups. The focal point of this study is little groups in which the members interact with and influences one another.
The Importance of Analyzing Groups
To understand organisation behavior we must analyze the behaviour of people in group scenes. Groups are present in our society in several signifiers: household. bowling squad. church group. fraternity. work group at office etc. Some of these groups are officially established in work or societal organisation and some are more slackly knit association of people.
To understand the behaviour of people in organisations. we must understand the forces that affect persons and besides how persons affect the organisation. The behaviour of an single affects and is besides affected by the group. which he is a portion of. The achievements of groups are strongly affected by the behaviour of single members.
From the position of a director. work group is the primary agencies by which directors coordinate individuals’ behaviour to run into the organisation ends. Directors must be cognizant of single demands and interpersonal kineticss to pull off groups efficaciously.
Groups are formed to fulfill single and organisational demands. Organizations form groups because they expect people working together to be better able to finish and organize organisation undertakings.
Persons join groups to fulfill a demand. They expect that they will acquire something in return for their rank. They join a work group to acquire or maintain a occupation. They join other informal groups because of several grounds: attractive force to people in the group. to its activities or to its ends. Some people join groups merely to hold company or to be identified as member of the group.
Understanding why groups signifier is of import in understanding single behaviour. One must understand the different grounds why each individual joined the group to be able to decide the struggles that may originate. Because each individual has a different motivation in fall ining the group. their behaviours will be different. A director will be better equipped to pull off a group and the struggles if he understands why groups signifier.
Types of Groups
Groups are formed to fulfill both organisational and single demands. They are formed in organisations so that people working together in groups are better able to finish and co-ordinate organisational undertakings. Persons can may organize an informal group or fall in an bing one for many grounds: attractive force to people in the group. to its activities or to its ends. All groups may be slackly categorized harmonizing to their grade of formalisation ( formal or informal ) and permanency ( comparatively lasting or comparatively impermanent )
Formal groups are established by the organisation to make its work. It includes bid group. undertaking group and affinity groups.
Command groups: A bid group is comparatively lasting. formal group with functional coverage relationships and is normally included in the organisation chart
Task group: Relatively impermanent. formal group established to make a particular undertaking
Affinity group: Collection of employees from the same degree in the organisation who meet on a regular footing to portion information. gaining control emerging chances and work out jobs.
In concern organisations most employees work in bid groups as typically specified on an official organisation chart. The size. form and organisation of a company’s bid group can change well. Typical illustrations in an organisation of a bid group are the cost -accounting section. forces section etc
Undertaking groups are formed to work out a peculiar job. People typically remain the member of their bid groups. or functional sections. while at the same time functioning in the undertaking group. Depending on the demands of the undertaking group a member may necessitate to reschedule his work in his bid group. These groups are impermanent and are dissolved once the work or occupation is accomplished. They exist in all types of organisations.
Affinity groups are particular types of formal groups which are formed by the organisations yet they are non a portion of the formal organisation construction. They are groups of employees who portion functions. duties. responsibilities. and involvements. and which represent normal pieces of the organisational hierarchy. They are different from undertaking groups because they stay in being for a longer period. Affinity groups meet on a regular basis and members have assigned functions. The regulations followed are besides simple and members are supportive of each other. The greatest benefit of affinity groups is that they facilitate better communicating among diverse sections and divisions across the organisation.
Whereas formal groups are established by the organisation informal groups are formed by their members and consist of friendly relationship groups and informal groups.
A friendly relationship group is comparatively lasting and informal and draws its benefits from the societal relationships among its members.
An involvement group is comparatively impermanent and informal and is organized around a common activity or involvement of its members.
Phases of group development:
All groups develop through four phase procedures which are as follows:
– Mutual credence
– Communication and determination devising
– Motivation and productiveness
– Control and organisation
This phase is characterized by members sharing information about each other and acquiring to cognize each other good. Members try to prove each others sentiment by discoursing approximately topics that have small to make with the group. such as conditions. athleticss. political relations etc. As because the members of the group are unfamiliar to one another and do non cognize how to measure one another’s remark any treatment on the formal aims of the group will non be really productive. With clip as the members get to cognize each other the treatment may turn to more sensitive issues such as the organisational policies or recent controversial determinations. When the treatment becomes serious. the group is traveling to the following phase of development i. e. communicating and determination devising
Communication and determination devising:
In this phase the members discuss their feelings more openly and hold on group ends and single functions in the group. Members now tend to demo more tolerance for resistance position points and research different thoughts to convey about a sensible solution or determination.
Motivation and productiveness:
In this phase members cooperate. assist each other. and work towards carry throughing undertakings. The accent moves off from personal concerns and point of views to activities that are in the involvement of the group. The members are extremely motivated and may transport out their undertakings creatively. In this phase the group is carry throughing its work and traveling towards the concluding phase of development.
Control and organisation:
In this phase the group works efficaciously towards carry throughing its ends. The group at this point is mature ; members work together and are flexible. adaptative. and self correcting. Undertakings are assigned by common understanding and harmonizing to ability.
Not all groups go through all the four phases. Some disband before making the concluding phase while there are others who may jump the first phase and acquire on with the work instead than blowing clip on cognizing each other and developing a sense of trust but group productiveness depends on the successful development at each and every phase. A group that evolves to the full through the four phases normally becomes a mature effectual group. The comparative importance of the phases involved in-group formation may besides depend on the on the job conditions and relationships alteration.
Group Performance Factors
There are several factors that affect the public presentation of any group and may account for its accelerated public presentation. The four basic group public presentation factors are composing. size. norms. and coherence
The composing of a group plays a critical function in finding group productiveness. It can be described in two footings ;
a ) Homogeneous: A group is homogenous if the members are similar in one or several ways that are critical to the work of the group. such as in age. work-experience. instruction. proficient forte. or cultural background.
These are created in organisations when people are assigned to command groups based on their similar proficient forte. These people may differ in some ways such as age or work-experience. So. they are homogenous in proficient forte which is the critical work public presentation variable.
A homogenous group tends to hold less struggle. fewer differences of sentiment. smoother communicating. and more interactions. When the undertaking requires cooperation and velocity. a homogenous group is more desirable.
B ) Heterogeneous: These types of groups constitute of members who are different in more than one facet that are critical to the work of the group.
A Heterogeneous group probably to be more productive when the undertaking is complex. requires a corporate attempt ( that is each member does a different undertaking. and the amount of these attempts constitutes the group end product ) . and demands creativeness. and when velocity is less of import than through deliberations.
Group composing becomes particularly of import as organisations become progressively more diverse. Cultures differ in the importance they place on group rank and in how they view authorization. uncertainness. and other of import factors. Increasing attending is being focused on how to cover with groups made up of people from different civilizations. First. members likely distrust each-other. Pigeonholing besides will show a job. and communicating jobs will about surely arise. Frankincense directors need to acknowledge that such groups will seldom map swimmingly. at least at first. Directors may hence necessitate to pass more clip assisting a culturally diverse group through the unsmooth musca volitanss as it matures. and they should let a longer-than-normal clip before anticipating it to transport out its assigned undertaking. Different states groups besides exhibit different behaviours like group-oriented behaviours are more normally found in Chinese directors and single behaviour is more seen in United States directors.
A group can hold every bit low as 2 members and every bit high as 15 members for a group to work efficaciously. But the effectual group size is 3 or 4 in some state of affairss. Group size can hold an of import consequence on public presentation. The most effectual size of a group is determined by the group member’s ability to interact and act upon each-other efficaciously. A group with many members has more resources available and may be able to finish a big figure of comparatively independent undertakings. In group established to bring forth thoughts. those with more members tend to bring forth more thoughts. although the rate of addition in the figure of thoughts diminishes quickly as the group grows. Beyond a certain point. the greater complexness of interaction and communicating may do it more hard for a big group to accomplish understanding.
Interaction and communicating are much more likely to be formalized in larger group. Larger groups tend to put dockets for meetings and to follow a protocol or parliamentary process to command treatment. As a consequence. sometime that otherwise might be available to work on undertakings is taken up in the administrative responsibilities such as forming and structuring the interactions and communications within the group. Besides. the big size may suppress engagement of some people and increase absenteeism ; some people may free-ride and halt seeking to do meaningful part and may even halt coming to group meetings if their repeated efforts to lend or take part are thwarted by the sheer figure of similar attempts by other members. Further more. big groups present more chances for interpersonal attractive force. taking to more societal interactions and fewer undertaking interactions.
Social Loafing is the inclination of some members of groups non to set away every bit much attempt in a group state of affairs as they would work entirely. It besides consequences from the premise by some members that if they do non work hard. other members will pick up the slack. How much large job this becomes depends on the nature of the undertaking. the features of the people involved. and does something about it.
It is a criterion against which the rightness of a behaviour is judged. Therefore. norms determine the behaviour expected in a certain state of affairs. Group norms normally are established during the 2nd phase of group development ( communicating and determination devising ) and carried frontward into the adulthood phase. By supplying a footing for foretelling others’ behaviours. norms enable people to act in a mode consistent with and acceptable to the group. Without norms. the activities in a group would be helter-skelter.
Lack of conformance to group norms may ensue in verbal maltreatment. physical menaces. banishment. or expulsion from the group. Group norms are enforced. nevertheless merely for actions that are critical to group members. Members may believe one thing and make another to keep rank in a group.
It is the extent to which a group is committed to staying together ; it consequences from forces moving on the members to stay in the group. The forces that create coherence are attractive force to the group. opposition to go forthing the group. and the motive to stay a member of the group. As shown in figure below. group coherence is related to many facets of group kineticss that have been already discussed- adulthood. homogeneousness. manageable size. and frequence of interactions.
The figure below besides gives us an thought that group coherence can be increased by competition or by presence of an external menace. Successfully making ends frequently increases the coherence of a group because people are proud to be group because people are proud to be identified with a victor and to be thought of as competent and successful.
Highly cohesive groups appear to be more effectual at accomplishing their ends than groups that are low in coherence. particularly in research and development groups in U. S. companies.
A group’s part to an organisation depends on its interactions with other groups every bit good as on its ain productiveness. Many organisations are spread outing their usage of cross-functional squads to turn to more complex and progressively more of import organisational issues. The consequence has been heightened accent on the teams’ interactions with other groups. As shown in the theoretical account below there are three primary factors that influence inter-group interactions: group features. organisational scene. and undertaking and situational bases of interaction. The organisational construction. regulations and processs. decision-making procedures. and ends and reward systems all affect interactions. There are five factors impacting inter group interactions: location. resources. clip and end mutuality.
Group Decision devising is non ever better
A Camel is a race horse designed by a commission. This apothegm highlights the insufficiencies of groups as determination shapers. But in malice of these insufficiencies in all domains of life commissions continue to do many determinations. This is because they offer the advantages in footings of comprehensiveness of experience. varied cognition. soaking up of hostility and common support.
Shaw contended that group may be an advantage where being right or avoiding mistakes is of greater importance than velocity. Webber’s research to compare single versus group public presentation supported it. The findings were:
– 5 individual research groups take 50 % more clip to finish a undertaking than the norm of persons working entirely.
– Over three-quarterss of the groups produced better public presentation. On an mean 30 % better.
The public presentation of groups depends on anterior experience and preparation. Hall conducted research which yielded following consequences:
– Mean person mark was lower than that of mean mark for groups.
– The public presentation of the groups improved further after reading a one-page press release on developing group consensus.
– Of the instructed groups 75 % produced determinations which surpassed even the best single determinations. In the unenlightened groups merely 25 % could make this.
The undermentioned decisions can be drawn from these researches:
– The best persons are normally better than groups in footings of truth. velocity and efficiency.
– The mean single is faster and more efficient than most groups. but he is prone to doing more mistakes.
– Groups are more accurate but slower than most persons.
– Training on group kineticss improves group public presentation.
Age and place are other factors which influence group public presentation. Webber’s research found that the difference between group public presentation and mean single public presentation decreased with increasing age and degree. So younger people seem to be more effectual in using groups for determination devising than older and higher-level directors. Time and age seem to weaken the ability to work jointly with others. The grounds might include less sensitiveness to position. more personal flexibleness. greater willingness to show sentiments and more “team spirit” . Still all age groups offered advantages and disadvantages compared to most persons – more right replies. fewer mistakes. but slower advancement.
So there are importance differences in determination devising by persons and by groups. Groups offer advantages on certain sorts of jobs when conditions are favourable. Training. experience. age. degree and personality affect group effectivity. Groups tend to do fewer mistakes. are willing to take higher hazards. and better the public presentation of mean persons – but non ever of the best group members.
Whether the advantages of group determination doing warrant the excess clip required depends on three critical factors:
– Whether velocity is indispensable?
– Whether an wrong determination can be tolerated?
– Whether the organisation has exceeding persons whose public presentation may be hindered by a group?
Decision devising by consensus
Consensus is defined fundamentally as understanding by all parties involved in some group determination or action ; it occurs merely after deliberation and treatment of profs and cons of the issues. and when all ( non a bulk ) of the directors are in understanding. Each member is in understanding. Each member of the group must be satisfied as to the ultimate class of action to be taken.
Decision devising by consensus has been a common pattern at Yellow Freight System Inc. since the early 1950s. particularly among the top direction group of the company. Some of the more of import variables include the leader. the followings. and the organisational construction. communications. leading manners. motive of group members. and the group itself.
The work groups are extremely motivated to act in ways consistent with the ends and values of the group in order to obtain acknowledgment. support. security. and favourable reactions. Management usage full usage of the possible capacities of its human resources merely when each member of one or more effectual operation work groups that have a high grade of group trueness. effectual accomplishments of interaction. and high public presentation ends.
Work group provides following several advantages in the determination devising procedure.
1 ) It gives more new thoughts. members become experient in effectual group working and leading.
2 ) Members of the group have ego designation with the ends.
Chairman and president discuss with each-other before taking any determination. That is complete understanding is necessary before taking any action.
Execution of participative direction for consensus determinations can be illustrated as:
1 ) Goals and aims of the following twelvemonth are decided on the footing of consensus of company officers and division director.
2 ) For any new undertaking like opening a terminus ; the determination director. vice-president of gross revenues. V. P. Operations. President and Chairman of the Board are involved in the determination devising.
3 ) For choosing a new subdivision director ; Regional Manager. Division Manager. VP Gross saless and Operationss and the president.
4 ) Regional Manager. Salesman. Office Manager and metropolis starter are involved in make up one’s minding the establishing or ending an understanding.
The company ever tries to minimise determination clip. If a consensus can non be reached by a group. than they should predate a determination at that clip. The action is deferred so that the subsequent events will do a consensus determination easier to accomplish. But there are state of affairss in which headlong determinations made without consensus have proven unprofitable e. g. in operating alterations. terminal gaps or shuttings. personal alterations and publicities. and general policy affairs.
Yellow Freight System maintain in head that when a group is made affecting all the related to the job. all must hold a say in the determination and they should besides hold to the class of action taken.
Therefore. with rapid rates of alteration and increasing growing. determinations made by consensus become really of import.