A leader is defined as a individual with the ability to influence and steer a group of people to carry through a common end. In simple words. a leader is person who is followed by the people. There are different types of leaders and assorted leading theories which may assist to understand the features of a leader and besides the leading procedure. Therefore. the most basic and normally asked inquiry that arises is- Are leaders born or made?
Harmonizing to trait theories. effectual leaders portion a figure of common features or ‘traits’ . Early trait theories follow a Darwinian attack and suggest that leading and these traits are unconditioned and natural that you either have or don’t have. Research has now proven that certain traits can be developed within one’s ego. Trait theories help us to place the traits and qualities required to be a good leader. such as unity. honestness. and many more. However. ownership of these traits or a combination of them does non ever warrant success.
Behaviour theories are established on the behavior of effectual leaders in the work topographic point. It is based on how the leaders decide what is of import and non of import for their squad and besides. on how the leaders treat the members of their squad.
In the 1930s. Kurt Lewin developed a model on the footing of behaviour theories and categorised leaders into 3 wide leading types: 1. Autocratic leaders – An bossy leader is a leader with complete power and confidence to get at decisions. They influence others and enforce their will and no 1 challenges them. This type of leading Acts of the Apostless as a hinderance for originative people. as they are unable to lend towards the procedure of decision-making and therefore. are unable to achieve occupation satisfaction.
2. Democratic leaders- This leader follows a democratic signifier of leading where the leader listens to and surveies the team’s thoughts. but
holds the duty to take the concluding determination. Team participants can give to the concluding determination. This increases the people satisfaction and ownership. as the squad members feel that their thoughts are considered before taking the concluding determination. This type of leading besides fosters the decision-making procedure as the leader is able to garner information from more beginnings. A major disadvantage of democratic leading is that it leads to decelerate decision-making and hence. can non be used when the determination is required in a short period.
3. Individualistic leaders – The individualistic manner of leading is a nonauthoritarian manner of leading. The leader does non give uninterrupted guidelines or supervising to the squad members. as it is believed that the employees are extremely qualified and experient and do non necessitate much supervising to run into the needed ends. The leader tries to act upon the squad through less obvious agencies. This manner of leading is for the leaders who do non believe in acquiring involved in the working of the squad. Therefore. this leads to none or really small control over the squad. which finally consequences in high costs. ends being seldom achieved and the squad neglecting to run into the deadlines.
The behavior of the leader affects how the squad performs. Research workers have proven that different leading types are proper at different state of affairss. The best leaders analyze the state of affairs and utilize the right leading behavior for the state of affairs.
Since no type of leader was deemed right. new theories started taking form. These theories emphasized that the best leading manner depends on the state of affairss. Therefore. the analysis of the fortunes became indispensable to foretell the best manner of leading.
The eventuality theories address the jobs of taking the right manner of leading for different state of affairss such as. which manner is required to do speedy determinations. or which leading manner leads to full support of the squad to accomplish ends efficaciously. or whether the leader should put accent on the people or the undertaking.
Popular contingency-based theories of leading include ‘The HerseyBlanchard Situational Leadership Theory’ . ‘House’s Path-Goal Theory’ and ‘Fiedler’s Contingency Model’ . which link leading manner with the adulthood of each members of the leader’s squad.
Power and Influence Theories
Power and influence theories of leading discuss the ways by which leaders get things answered. i. e. . by using power and influence and so. they look at the ensuing leading manners. The most popular of these theories is ‘French and Raven’s Five Forms of Power’ . This theoretical account categorizes positional power into three types – legitimate. wages. and coercive. and discusses two major beginnings of personal power – expert and referent ( personal entreaty and appeal ) . The theoretical account suggests that utilizing personal power is the more honorable option. and that one should turn on edifice expert power ( the power that comes with being an expert in the occupation ) because it is the most logical beginning of personal ability.
Another leading manner that uses power and influence is ‘transactional leadership’ . This attack suggests that all occupations are done for wagess and for no other ground. Therefore. it emphasizes on the design of the undertaking and the wages structures. However. it may non be considered as an appropriate leading scheme to set up relationships and make a motivative work environment. But. it frequently works and is hence used by leaders on a day-to-day footing to acquire things done. Similarly. ‘leading by example’ is besides considered as an illustration of power and influence theories.
Leaderships are Born
When we discuss the Trait theory of leading. we identify certain traits or features required to be an efficient leader. These traits or features may be unconditioned and by birth. It may be difficult for organisations to happen the ‘right people’ with the ‘right characteristics’ to take. This thought is based on the Darwinian attack. which suggests that some forces have natural qualities. which help them to last and presume functions as leaders. This attack regulations out the political orientation that people can be developed to be effectual leaders. If we consider the behavior of a leader. it is composed of a combination of different traits. Since the traits of a leader may be unconditioned. therefore. the attendant behaviour may organize the leading manner followed by the leader.
Recently. a genotype called ‘rs4950’ was discovered by the squad of University College London which proved that leading could be an familial trait.
““We have identified a genotype. called rs4950. which appears to be associated with the passing of leading ability down through coevalss. ” said lead writer Dr. Jan-Emmanuel De Neve ( UCL School of Public Policy ) . “The conventional wisdom – that leading is a skill – remains mostly true. but we show it is besides. in portion. a familial trait. “”
Over the old ages. great adult male theories have defined that the mental ability for leading is built-in. that great leaders are born. non made. These theories have portrayed leaders as heroic. mythic and destined to lift to leading when required. The belief was that the great leaders will lift when confronted with the appropriate state of affairs. The term ‘great man’ was used in earlier times as leading was thought of as a manfully tone. peculiarly in footings of military leaders.
In earlier times. leading was on the footing of hierarchy. Kings would go through on their regulation to their inheritors and hence. the inheritor of the male monarch would go a leader by birth. An illustration of a leader who inherited leading would be Genghis Khan. He became an emperor by inheriting his father’s throne and led his state. Thus. leading as a trait can be passed through coevalss. but it may be a affair of opportunity to inherit leading and besides an environment that structures a leader. Therefore. everyone acquires certain leading qualities by birth. Those qualities may non be outstanding in a bulk of the people. but all human existences do possess leading qualities by birth.
Leaderships are made
Even if the traits are unconditioned. their development depends on the milieus. the environment and the leading chances. The researches responsible for the find of ‘rs4950 genotype’ province that the presence of the genotype does non ever warrant that the individual will be a good leader. It is therefore possible that leading qualities may develop in a individual. Eventuality theories have proven that the best leading manner depends on the state of affairs. The ability to take the right leading manner comes from experience. and that experience comes from adulthood and cognition.
Similarly. if we study power and influence theories. one comes to cognize that it takes clip and attempt to set up a certain sum of power and
influence over person else. The really being of Business Schools is proof that leading does non come by birth. but is a accomplishment that is nurtured in pupils. by learning them about the assorted direction and leading constructs. There are many illustrations of people who became leaders when they had to turn to a certain state of affairs. Common illustrations being Napoleon Bonaparte. Barack Obama. and Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi.
There are besides many research workers working on this subject. Harmonizing to them. leading qualities and development of these qualities basically comes from the environment and the state of affairss in which the individual grows and learns.
We have discussed that all people possess some leading features by birth. but it is our interaction with the environment that determines whether the individual will be a leader or non. We are in ageless interaction with others. we may attach existent and sustained esteem to some and others where esteem is punctual. From these interactions we may reconstitute our values and behavior positively. taking to an addition in the frequence of the behavior or negatively. which will ensue in a lessening in the frequence of the behaviour. We meet different people with different values. thought procedure. personalities. sentiments. beliefs. ends. cultural backgrounds. aspirations. work wonts and dreams and as we interact with others we adopt and portion different behavior traits from them.
We discuss in the trait theory that a individual may or may non possess leading accomplishments from birth but. simply the ownership of leading traits is non plenty. For illustration. if in a household concern. the member possesses leading accomplishments but is non willing to take employee or to develop his/her accomplishments. so the leading traits turn out to be of no usage. Therefore. ownership of leading traits becomes useless if one does non hold the will or courage to develop and use these accomplishments in the given environment.
Similarly. there may be instances where a individual from a non-leadership trait household may go a leader by developing the needed leading accomplishments. Therefore. will power of a individual may develop leading accomplishments. Decision
Understanding the nature of leading and developing strong leading accomplishments is the of import thing. Traits or features of leading are inherited in nature. which are already mapped in the cistron. However. the environment. such as feedback and societal interaction. play an of import function in the development of a leading accomplishment. which can hold a immense impact. A individual who is a good leader possesses the right combination of traits. which have been developed through clip. and applies them with an appropriate manner of leading in every different state of affairs. It is really hard to make up one’s mind if a leader is born or made as both of the statements can be proved right.
The find of the leading genotype does turn out that leaders are born but. it is besides true that leading accomplishments can be developed in a individual. If we analyze the leading theories. it is non clear if a leader is born or made because. the first two theories i. e. . the trait theory and the behaviour theory suggest that leaders are born whereas the 2nd and the 3rd theories i. e. . the eventuality and the power and influence theory suggest that leading qualities depend on the environment. Since the environment is dynamic. leading besides has to be dynamic. Therefore. ownership of leading qualities does non ever warrant success. success depends on how the qualities are developed and put to utilize. Therefore. it would be incorrect to state that leaders are born and non made.
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