Factors that contributed to the origin and development of cities Essay Sample

In many signifiers of colonies the position of the metropoliss have been determined by factors and assorted other influences ; these are known as urban signifier determiners. There are three different beginnings of determiners. First. are the geographical ‘natural world’ determiners. These include the clime. topography and the handiness of building stuffs. The 2nd are known as ‘man made’ determiners which are comprised of many things such as economic. political. spiritual. defense mechanism. Third are ‘location’ determiners. which make up organic growing colonies and planned urban colonies ( Morris [ 1 ] . 1994 )

As discussed. ’Natural world’ determiners are made up of topography. clime and building stuffs. These determiners were properties to the location of a colony. They played a portion in the defining of all historic urban signifier. both organic growing and planned colonies. These chiefly contributed to the beginning of metropoliss. ( Morris [ 1 ] . 1994 ) .

The topography is the description or representation on a map of the surface characteristics of any country. including land signifiers and other objects. and facets of natural beginning ( Readers Digest. 1964 ) . The colonies are determined by the terrain on which people settle. Morris ( 1. 1994 ) describes the different types of terrain such as brow. seaboard. river side and prairie countries. It is highly hard to construct a colony on land with a gradient ( such as a hillside ) and so set down should be level wherever possible. this is because of clay slides and steep inclines. This should non be confused. as it frequently is. with low-lying land: so the top of a high hill or tableland may besides be level. However. it is possible to construct a colony on a gradient. though this is well more clip consuming and expensive. This tends to be done merely where there is limited infinite ( Dilley. Earle. Euston-Brown. Keats. Ravenscroft. 2001 ) . This explains why early colonists ever looked for degree land to settle on.

The birthrate of the dirt is a lending factor to the beginning of a metropolis. as people migrate towards metropoliss with fertile dirt in order to turn harvests. An illustration of this is in Greece where the land is really fertile. but it is a really cragged country with limited land available. This resulted in many little independent provinces which each had a cragged urban karyon. surrounded by countryside. Morris ( 1. 1994 ) considers how natural characteristics contributed to the form of the colonies by finding the boundaries between them.

Climate is the complex in norm of atmospheric phenomena which includes temperature. rainfall. humidness and air current. This happens near the earths surface over a period of old ages ( Reader’s Digest Association. 1964 ) . The construction of the architecture of the edifices in the early colonies was influenced by the climatic conditions of the country in which they settled. The demand for adult male to shelter himself against the climatic conditions was of great importance in the constitution of metropoliss. For illustration. in Greece. people were forced to construct houses integrating much airing. due to the country’s high temperatures and the deficiency of rainfall during the summer. This in bend encouraged a life style of unfastened air life. which forged democracy and free idea as a manner of life ( Morris [ 1 ] . 1994 ) .

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Construction stuffs refers to the local handiness of stuffs used to build metropoliss ( Reader’s Digest. 1964 ) . The copiousness of local stuffs determined the medium of which the edifices were to be preponderantly built. Either wood or rock was needed to construct early colonies. therefore a wood. wood or hillside with crags was required to beginning the stuffs ( Morris [ 1 ] . 1994 ) . It would therefore. be critical that these were readily available. Today. more picks are of class available ; whereas in these earlier times colonies would necessitate wood for fuel. therefore an country dumbly populated with trees would be chosen as the colony site. In Greece there was an copiousness of marble so their architecture and sculpture was chiefly made of this medium. Similarly. this deciding made people look to settle near to the supply of this building stuff. The easy handiness made it economically feasible because it eliminated transit costs if the stuffs were locally and geographically available ( Morris [ 1 ] . 1994 )

There are many ‘man made’ determiners. but merely economic. political. spiritual and defense mechanism will be discussed. The figure of ‘man made’ determiners has been increasing and continues to make so. This determiner was. as the name suggests. brought about by adult male. These determiners have played a major function in the urban formation and growing of colonies. These chiefly contributed to the development of metropoliss ( Morris [ 1 ] . 1994 )

An economic factor in a metropolis is a market topographic point that is cardinal for people to entree. besides the devising and merchandising of goods occur here ( Morris [ 1 ] . 1994 ) . Peoples would barter with goods in order to obtain different basic necessities required for day-to-day life. In some mediaeval towns the full metropolis was a market topographic point or topographic point of trade ( Morris [ 2 ] . Grant. Isenman. Martell. McRae. Malam. Pollard. 2001 ) . An illustration of a economic system with such a colony is that of Jericho. Though the economic system of Jericho was based chiefly upon the agriculture of wheat and barley. there is considerable grounds of trust on both hunting and trade. Domesticated caprine animals provided meat and milk. while gazelles and assorted fen birds were hunted for their flesh. fells. and plumes. The town was close to big supplies of salt. S. and pitch. These stuffs. which were in great demand in this epoch. were traded for obsidian – dark. glasslike volcanic stone – semiprecious rocks from Anatolia. turquoise from the Sinai. and cowrie shells from the Red Sea. ( World Wide Web. wikipedia. org. ) .

A political determiner is illustrated in the metropolis province of classical Greece. Ancient Greece was the birth topographic point of democracy where the people ruled. All male citizens met at the acropolis to partake in determination devising where each talker was given clip to voice his political sentiment. The term ‘democracy’ comes from two Grecian words. ‘demos’ significance people and ‘kratos’ significance regulation. In mention to ancient Greece. Pericles was considered the most powerful swayer in Athens. During his leading. office carriers. including poorer citizens. were paid to lend to the administration. He besides rebuilt Athens following the Persian wars which resulted in the development of Piraeus. the port of Greece ( Morris [ 2 ] eral. 2001 ) ( Hooker. 1996 ) .

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Religion was the footing of people’s beliefs. The topographic point where people gave devotedness or spiritual beliefs was non ever the biggest edifice in the metropolis. although it had something extraordinary about it. For illustration it was the tallest or most visually attractive edifice. These were constructions such as towers and dome skylining elements. The church was the biggest proprietor of urban land. This has remained throughout clip. up until today. The building of spiritual edifices was high in labor costs and really expensive. Religious edifices include the Pyramids in Egypt and the Catholic church which was exemplified by Santiago de Compostela ( Morris [ 1 ] . 1994 ) .

There are different types of defense mechanism ; such as defense mechanism against enemies and defense mechanism from the conditions. From the beginning of early colonies. people have had to support their land from enemies who have tried to take it for themselves. This started and led to wars. Peoples would try to occupy other colonies in order to take control of the land and resources. Because of this. in the present twenty-four hours when sing old colonies. it can be observed that they are good fortified so as to support themselves from external onslaughts. They would construct long. high walls or palisades around the colonies ( Morris [ 2 ] eral. 2001 ) .

There was besides defense mechanism against the conditions. It is of import the way that the colony faces ; this is geographically known as facet. In early colonies. it was of import that agricultural land faced south so that the Sun shone straight on the land. If land faces south in the southern hemisphere. it ever has the Sun reflecting straight on it. Shelter from the conditions. particularly in winter was indispensable for endurance. Constructing a colony in a vale was a utile manner of avoiding rough air currents. Today. a consideration of facet is made as a everyday portion of most colony planning ( Dilley eral. 2001 ) .

‘Locational’ determiners are the implicit in grounds for the nowadayss on where the colonies are situated. These are organic growing and planned urban colony.

Organic growing is the handiness of clean H2O and the uninterrupted supply or beginning of one or more necessities for the colony. for illustration nutrient. These are known as primary location determiners ( Morris [ 1 ] . 1994 ) . Rivers can be utile supply of H2O in themselves. or adversely as agents of implosion therapy. However. an of import fact about rivers as a site factor is that they can be crossed. either by span or Ford. A river that couldn’t be crossed would hold been a major job for early colonies. peculiarly if they couldn’t escape across it during an onslaught. Rivers can now be crossed by edifice Bridgess. Washing. imbibing and cookery activities all require H2O. and it was critical to hold an equal supply particularly during the summer. Springs. Wellss and rivers provided supplies. though it was of import besides to take into consideration avoiding extra H2O. to forestall implosion therapy and harm. Nowadays. colonies have H2O piped to them. but it is still a consideration to be sited near to the brinies supply or in a part that really has equal rainfall to prolong a supply. It was of import so and is still of import to guarantee that colonies are non built on countries that will deluge. or are boggy ( as the colony will drop ) .

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This isn’t ever possible to see. peculiarly if the inundations merely occur every few old ages. or there isn’t a inundation whilst constructing the colony. Many colonies flood each twelvemonth for these grounds and in fact some colonies in many poorer parts of the universe are built on inundation countries – this is because deluging provides fertile alluvial sediment to agricultural land ( Dilley eral. 2001 ) .

Planned urban colonies are divided into two different types of determiners ; the first is that of immediate locational standards. the 2nd being the societal. political and economic grounds for the regional or national siting. Immediate locational standard was the method of taking the site for a planned new town. and this included factors such as immediate entree to imbibing H2O and a nutrient beginning. In all kernel it is similar to the organic growing with the small town beginning added in. The societal political and economic grounds are illustrated in a figure of lending factors. These factors influenced the creative activity of planned urban colonies. The demand arose from a military return over. a commercial and/or agricultural chance. development of mineral wealth. the demand to scatter overcrowding making settlements and the demand to immigrate. Religious and mystical beliefs which resulted in pilgrim’s journeies. besides played a important function in these colonies.

Decision

From the grounds given in the above essay. the beginning and development of metropoliss was determined by ‘natural world’ . ‘man made’ and ‘locational’ determiners. These determiners have shaped and moulded the metropoliss that we live in today. Where the ‘natural determiners have given us the beginning to our civilization and has evolved from a simple small town into sophisticated urban metropolis. The ‘man made’ determiners have developed and will maintain on developing what we are and will go.