Examining The Knowledge Of Working With Vulnerable Adults Social Work Essay

Within my assignment I will show my cognition and apprehension of safeguarding and critically research safeguarding and what this means in the context of working in societal attention today, and the impact on my function as a freshly qualified societal worker. I will mention to grownups with a larning disablement in order to analyze some of the issues and quandaries that may happen. I will analyze these countries within Thompsons PCS theoretical account ( Thompson,1997 ) in order to reflect the elaboratenesss and quandary with safeguarding grownups.

Although anti prejudiced pattern and anti oppressive pattern are frequently interchanged with each other, Braye and Preston- Shoot ( 2005 ) maintain that they are really different. Anti prejudiced pattern challenges favoritism within a really clearly defined model whereas anti oppressive pattern is about disputing values and beliefs. Harmonizing to Thompson ( 1997 ) subjugation can be examined utilizing a theoretical account that considers ( P ) personal ( C ) cultural and ( S ) structural, the PCS Model. This theoretical account examines subjugation on 3 degrees. Personal is sing and single, their positions, beliefs and actions. Cultural is the community degree and structural is sing the socio-political and institutional degree. Merely by understanding power and control can we pattern in anti oppressive manner, by disputing the power constructions on all degrees personal, cultural and structural.

Peoples with larning disablements have been a marginalised and laden group who have invariably struggled for their voices to be heard. Pam Evans cited by Swain et Al ( 1993 ) identified premises made by non handicapped people which included thoughts that disabled people “ want to accomplish normal behavior ” ; “ resent able bodied people ” and “ ne’er give up hope of a remedy ” ( p.102 ) .These premises are based on personal beliefs, borne out of cultural thoughts of disablement and structurally based doctrines of disablement. The medical theoretical account of disablement has been the prevailing theoretical account in understanding disablement ( Swain el al,2003 ) from captivity in infirmaries and in some respects to services proviso today. These responses have merely served to re-inforce beliefs of disablement such as those Pam Evans discovered. Although there was turning concern amongst civil rights motions sing the medical theoretical account, Mike Oliver ( 1983 ) coined the phrase societal theoretical account of disablement. This societal theoretical account of disablement led to a displacement in believing about disablements, that it was social attitudes that were disenabling instead than affairs associating to the single capablenesss ( Swain et al,1993 ) . Although the societal theoretical account of disablement is the recognized theoretical account peculiarly within societal public assistance the philosophy of the medical theoretical account is non easy to unlearn. Although on a structural degree there have been alterations in statute law and policy such as Disability Discrimination Act 1995 ; Community Care ( Direct Payments ) Act 1996 ; Human Rights Act 1998 ; Mental Capacity Act 2005 and Valuing Peoples 2001.Putting these alterations in to pattern from a personal and cultural position is more complex and this is typified in safeguarding.

. The term “ vulnerable ” has become synonymous with safeguarding. The immediate intensions when utilizing the word “ vulnerable ” are blunt. It instantly suggests failing, weakness and the individual is at danger or at hazard ( Williams,2006 ) . Crawford and Walker ( 2008 ) besides recognised that there are important hazard factors when researching exposure – the individual is normally socially stray, the individual has antecedently been at hazard of maltreatment and requires practical and / or emotional support. In the policy papers No Secrets ( DOH,2000 ) there was an initial acknowledgment that some groups of grownups were more likely to see maltreatment and the term “ vulnerable grownup ” was used as a definition of the groups potentially at greater hazard.

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Although there has been a displacement to seek to better understand the term “ vulnerable grownup ” The Association of Directors of Social Care ( 2005 ) wrote in their policy model papers “ they include grownups with physical, centripetal and mental damages and larning disablements… ” ( p.4 ) they continue.. ” when an grownup in this group is sing maltreatment or disregard this will hold a important impact on their independency, wellness and well-being. “ ( ADSS,2005, p.4 ) .Yet I would reason anyone who experiences maltreatment or disregard, there would be important impact on their wellness and good being and we should be endeavoring to guarantee all person ‘s safety. Martin ( REFERENCE ) besides suggests that this nexus with safeguarding and exposure and illustrates this well. Often the nexus with safeguarding and vulnerable grownups, is with specific groups of persons – people with disablements, older grownups etc. increasing the stereotyped position of groups and so increasing favoritism and subjugation ( Williams,2006 ) . Whilst the displacement in policy paperss is from protection to safeguarding exposure and its usage is still debated.

In October 2008 the Government launched a reappraisal of the No Secrets counsel. This counsel originally came in, in an effort to “ give counsel to local bureaus who have a duty to look into and take action when a vulnerable grownup is believed to be enduring maltreatment. “ ( DOH,2000 p.7 ) It was intended to use good pattern locally and nationally and offer a construction for the betterment of inter-agency policies, processs and joint protocols. There are a scope of barriers which impede good interagency working – Different nucleus maps ; civilizations and patterns between bureaus ; deficiency of lucidity in lines of authorization and decision-making ; historical or current competitions between bureaus ; different and conflicting societal policy or statute law ; deficiency of lucidity about why bureaus are involved and hapless communicating ( Edwards et al, 2009 ) .The repeated lost chances of inter bureau working have resulted in black results for many persons, despite the perennial findings of probes ( Flynn,2007 ; Bichard Report 2004 ; Lord Laming Report, 2009 ) , inter bureau working has been a changeless blight in societal public assistance. As a practician I acutely cognizant of the challenges and the importance of partnership working, every bit good as the lay waste toing impact ensuing in deceases and tattered lives if we fail in this sphere.

Some consider that there is a deficiency of statute law which straight covers safeguarding grownups ( Action on Elder Abuse,2009 and The Law Society,2009 ) . In an article in Community Care ( July,2009 ) Despite legislative reform being highlighted as a cardinal country by respondents of the No Secrets reexamine the Government have failed to implement specific statute law sing safeguarding and the protection of grownups. Some would reason there is a turning demand for specific statute law sing safeguarding. The recent study from Action on Elder Abuse ( 2009 ) to the audience reappraisal of No Secrets ( DOH,2000 ) there was an overpowering petition for statute law particular to safeguarding. Whilst others feel there is a lesser demand than in kids ‘s statute law, which is specific about statutory responsibilities and duties of local governments sing safeguarding, another arm of the argument is at that place have been missed chances to associate and utilize current statute law efficaciously ( Pritchard,2008 ) .

Legislative reform has universally followed from kid protection and kid safeguarding. In recent old ages, the authorities has taken stairss to increasingly fasten up the jurisprudence in this country. The jurisprudence in this country has frequently been introduced as a reaction to events and as a consequence is viewed by some to miss coherency ( The Law Society, 2009 ) . Recent alterations have occurred in order to turn to some of the spreads perceived. The recent debut of the Safeguarding Vulnerable Groups Act 2006 is an illustration of legislative alteration that was a direct consequence of the slayings of Holly Wells and Jessica Chapman. The culprit, Ian Huntley had a history of contact with constabularies but a catalogue of system broad communicating mistakes and intelligence sharing mistakes were identified ( Bichard,2004 ) .But as with any system, it is merely every bit good as those who use it, and frequently probes find it is non the process or system but those who use it who are at mistake. Sir Michael Bichard ( 2004 ) who headed the enquiry into the Soham slayings stated there were defects in the system for making records every bit good as the counsel and preparation offered to those inputting and canceling information. Cornwall hit the headlines with the instance of Steven Hoskin who was murdered in 2006.Flynn ( 2008 ) described systemic failures of bureaus to recognize Steven Hoskin as vulnerable grownup and portion information for a coordinated attack of intercession.

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In 2006 the authorities introduced the Safeguarding Vulnerable Groups Act 2006, which laid the foundation for the new Independent Safeguarding Authority, which has enabled the debut of the vetting and excluding strategy ( H.M Government, 2006 ) . The new vetting and excluding strategy may to some extent be rendered uneffective as a consequence of the recent enlargement of the European Union. Unrestricted working rights means a more nomadic work force and for some there are no formal processs to necessitate presentment or enrollment of affairs happening in persons place states, that would hold required presentment to the Independent Safeguarding Authority had they occurred in the UK ( Soret,2009 ) .

In Scotland in 2007 specific statute law was introduced but this is still yet to be proved as bettering safeguarding. Some professionals in Scotland believe there are still those quandaries about rights and hazards ( REFERENCE ) that some in England feel would be addressed with statute law. Interestingly it is n’t merely the professionals that feel the legislative alterations do n’t travel far plenty. Advocacy groups such as Action on Elder Abuse and The National Autistic Society are merely two of the administrations naming for tighter statute law on safeguarding. Action on Elder Abuse refers to some cardinal issues sing the No Secrets reexamine sing timescales ; sharing information ; cardinal duties and acknowledgment of some of the complexnesss and fortunes environing maltreatment and call for a system which recognised these complexnesss ( REFERENCE ) .

The newest dimension to safeguarding grownups has been the eruption of personalisation. Duffy and Gillespie ( 2009 ) maintain that personalisation will do people safer. They maintain by beef uping citizenship and cut downing societal isolation will cut down hazard and by authorising people to take control of their lives enables people to increase their resiliency. Personalisation besides challenges the cultural and structural constructs, peculiarly misconceptions of groups of persons such as people with learning disablements. Rather than keeping the medical theoretical account of disablement where it is perceived a individual with a acquisition disablement has troubles merely because of their cognitive operation, it highlights the societal theoretical account of disablement where a individual ‘s demands are non good catered for by social constructions ( William, 2006 ) .

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This is likely the country which is presently taking to much argument and treatment peculiarly in the country of support for grownups with larning disablements as this is where the ethos of ego directed support was born ( REFERENCE ) .There are legion statements presently being circulated sing the sensed hazards of persons and households being in control of their service proviso in whatever format they choose ( REFERENCE ) and the determinations people can do sing look intoing and hence cut downing the influence and control from statutory servicers.

I believe that the current tenseness is borne out of a deceit of personalisation. Fitzgerald ( 2009 ) cited in Community Care magazine ( 2009 ) that personalisation has been viewed merely as “ hard currency for attention ” , instead than from the rule of seeking to guarantee that an person is in control of their life, every bit much as anyone can be. This coupled with the position that safeguarding and personalisation are opposing point of views is doing the quandary of personalisation. The narrow focal point on ‘cash for attention ‘ theoretical accounts is forestalling the much wider argument about citizenship rights in the context of societal and wellness attention. Consequently, we must get down from the premiss that any support bundle or service must be every bit safe as possible, constructed with a full apprehension of the nature of maltreatment, its kineticss, and the factors that may give rise to it. That is non the same as taking hazard, because to make so would do life impossible.

If we are committed to safeguarding so hazard decrease is critical. We must forbear from individualistic constructs of hazard through the impression of ‘vulnerability ‘ . Alternatively of concentrating entirely on the protection of ‘vulnerable ‘ persons, we must see beyond ‘vulnerability ‘ and purpose to extinguish conditions that create hazard. Interventions should be enabling and widespread, aiming societal procedures that are responsible for the creative activity of hazard ( REFERENCE ) . The focal point on damage as the chief hazard factor to mistreat entails elements of a medical theoretical account attack to disablement. This is excessively narrow a focal point, but an ecological attack, takes into history both the person and societal causes of hazard and of the interactions between them. Social theoretical account research workers and practicians suggest that the safest manner of protecting people with larning disablements is to enable them to increase their self finding ( McCarthy, 1999 ; McCarthy and Thompson, 1996 ; Hingsburger,1995 ) . Self finding is shaped through societal interactions and citizenship supplying a tool for placing countries for effectual hazard bar intercessions. We need to be clear that rights to pick and control are non unreconcilable with a right to protection. After all each citizen has rights, picks and control and every bit have recourse within the jurisprudence should protection be required. It is parlous to connote that safeguarding and personalisation are opposed or in struggle. Peoples can non organize their ain attention and support, or accept such attention and support, if they do non experience safe and accordingly a personalisation attack must hold safeguarding as an built-in portion of its operation. Not because a individual is classified as vulnerable, or because a individual requires community attention services, or has a learning disablement but because ethically and morally for the interest of societal justness it is the right thing to make.