Examination Malpractices Essay Sample

Examination is one of the ways through which students’ academic accomplishments are measured. It is a agency of measuring students’ academic abilities with a position to taking determination on their patterned advance on the academic ladder and finding their suitableness for place of duties ( Ogundepo. Olatayo. and Akinteye 2009 ) . A pupil would be adjudged to hold achieved proficiency in certain accomplishments after holding passed scrutiny set on classs on the accomplishments or instructions to which he has been exposed. He will be issued a certification saying his degree of command of such capable ( s ) . In Nigeria and most states of the universe. these certifications readily go meal ticket or a base on balls to travel up academically.

In position of the great importance attached to certifications. campaigners who are despairing to win in life may prosecute in unwholesome Acts of the Apostless to go through scrutiny by all agencies and at all costs. ( see Aliyu and Adeloye 1991. Adeosun. 2007. Lamidi and Adedibu. 2005. ) These unwholesome Acts of the Apostless aimed at accomplishing unmerited classs in scrutinies are known as scrutiny malpractices. The issue of scrutiny malpractices has generated serious treatment and concern in the educational sector than any other issue in Nigeria today. This is because. besides the increasing incidence of the flagellum and the agencies of rip offing in scrutinies. the qualities of people involved are causes for concern.

It is non uncommon these yearss to happen instructors. principals. staff of scrutiny organic structures. security agents and parents/ defenders involved in scrutiny malpractices. ( see Adeosun 2007. Alutu and Aluede 2006. Famiwole 1995. Fatai 2005. Jimoh 2009. Unachukwu and Onunkwo 1999. ) The dismaying rate and frequence of scrutiny abnormalities have become menaces to quality control in our educational system so much that the certifications issued are about worthless than the documents on which they are printed. It has become a pollutant which is holding a weakening consequence on the appraisal of course of study aims ( Ogundepo et al 2009. Lamidi and Adedibu 2005. Oluyeba and Daramola 1992 ) . Examination malpractice can besides be referred to as any irregular behaviour exhibited by a campaigner or anybody charged with the behavior of scrutiny before. during or after the scrutiny that contravenes the regulations and ordinances regulating the behavior of such scrutiny.

Though scrutiny malpractice is neither a recent phenomenon nor curious to Nigeria or Africa. the dismaying rate of addition in scrutiny malpractice in secondary schools in Nigeria calls for concern from all stakeholders in the instruction sector. The incidences of scrutiny malpractice has become so widespread that there is virtually no scrutiny anyplace at all degrees and outside the formal school system without any signifier of cheapjack pattern or the other. Examination malpractices are common everyplace and every scrutiny season witnesses the outgrowth of new and clever ways of rip offing. Examination malpractice Act no. 33 of 1999 stipulates a minimal penalty of 50 thousand Naira ( N50. 000. 00 ) and a upper limit of five old ages imprisonment. without option of mulct. for lawbreakers of the offenses stipulated in the Act.

The offenses are: cheating at scrutiny. larceny of inquiry documents. caricature. perturbations at scrutiny. obstructor of supervising. counterfeit of consequence faux pas. breach of responsibility. confederacy and helping etc. Some of our pupils invent assorted elusive fast ones in order to rip off during scrutiny. but the inquiry remains. who and who will eliminate scrutiny malpractices among the pupils and their patrons at big? We have many classs of internal and external scrutiny that are being undertaken in this state but believe me scrutiny malpractices occur in 80 % of them.

In 2007 for illustration. a sum of 324 schools that were identified to be involved in scrutiny malpractices were blacklisted. The so Minister of Education. Dr. ( Mrs ) Oby Ezekwesili endorsed de-recognition of the schools as Centres for scrutinies from 2007 to 2010. Public runs and enlightenment programmes embarked on by authorities and non-governmental bureaus on the demand to extinguish scrutiny malpractices have non yielded the coveted consequences. non even the debut of gaol footings for perpetrators. Whereas in the yesteryear. pupils tended to conceal the Acts of the Apostless. now they advertise them with foolhardy wantonness. The incidence of scrutiny malpractices in Nigeria has spread to virtually both urban and rural countries.

Some secondary schools are now labeled “miracle centres‟ where pupils indulge in assorted scrutiny malpractices and came up with first-class consequence at the terminal of the twenty-four hours. In the past scrutiny malpractice was regarded as a recoil of urbanization and civilisation. At that clip scrutiny jobs were thought to be limited to the turning Centres of Western civilisation. Today nevertheless. every nook and crevice of the state has its gustatory sensation of the disease. Entreaties are being made to Obas. Obis and Emirs to assist WAEC and NECO in its war against scrutiny malpractices. It seems so that the job of rip offing in scrutinies is a national issue necessitating incorporate attending. Possibly faced with the turning incidence of scrutiny malpractice the Nigerian Military Government in 1984 issued decree 20 stipulating 20 one old ages of imprisonment for people tested and convicted for scrutiny malpractices and related jobs.

However. Examination Malpractice Act 33 of 1999 reversed the above edict but stipulates punishment runing from a mulct of N50. 000. 00 to N100. 000. 00 and imprisonment for a term of three to four old ages with or without option of mulct. Even with the positive steps in topographic point. it is dubious if there had been a decrease in the incidence of scrutiny jobs in the state. Today. the job continues to intensify in its assorted signifiers and in dismaying proportions. In a typical scrutiny twenty-four hours. pupils have gone to the extent of delivery prepared replies into scrutiny halls. That is. after paying extortionate fees to purchase inquiry documents from unscrupulous sellers and WAEC functionaries. It is alleged that holding had chance of entree to populate inquiries. some campaigners simply come in to subject their prepared replies.

ALSO READ  Science Investigatory Project Essay Sample

This is said to be easy through the collusion of Centre supervisors and scrutiny invigilators. It is the instance today. that even when a campaigner is absent from a peculiar examination/subject. that is non an indicant he would neglect the scrutiny. It may be the contrary. peculiarly when a more superb imposter had taken his topographic point in the scrutiny hall. His absence could ensue in a differentiation class in the topic: On scrutiny yearss. inquiries are smuggled out to commissioned authors who stay in nearby schoolrooms or shrubs to compose replies direct from text editions. Such prepared replies are smuggled back through a web of paid agents into the scrutiny battalion.

Possibly. one needs to set the construct scrutiny malpractices in proper position. Fagbemiye ( 1998 ) sees examination malpractices as efforts by the testees or their agents or confederates to act upon the results of scrutiny below the belt. Harmonizing to him such agents could be either people within the school system or outside the school system. They could be pupils. instructors. invigilators. parents and defenders. Adeosun ( 2007 ) defines scrutiny malpractices as the employment of foul or bastard agencies to rip off before. during and after an scrutiny. Confirming this position. Oluyeba and Daramola ( 1992 ) ( cited in Alutu and Aluede. 2006 ) remarked that scrutiny malpractices is any irregular behaviour exhibited by a campaigner or anybody charged with the behavior of scrutinies before. during or after the scrutiny that contravenes the regulations and ordinances regulating the behavior of such scrutiny.

To Onakoya and Alarape ( 2003 ) . it is any aberrant behaviour that is seen as a misdemeanor and evildoing of laid down regulations and ordinances by an authorization during an scrutiny. In a similar vena. Egbededia ( 2000 ) describes scrutiny malpractices as illegal. unacceptable or improper behaviour or activity that is perpetrated by a campaigner to hold personal advantage of excellence in an scrutiny over his couples that are viing in the same scrutiny. Further. Ogundepo. Olatayo and Akinteye ( 2009 ) position it as any act engaged in earlier or during scrutinies to derive an undue or unmerited wages.

They argue farther that it is a deceitful manner of obtaining recognition that one does non merit. The Examination Malpractices Act ( 1999 ) definition seems to capture the construct more competently. It explains scrutiny malpractices as any act of skip or committee by a individual who in expectancy of. before. during. or after any scrutiny fraudulently secure any unjust advantages for himself or any other individual in such a mode that contravenes the regulations and ordinances to the extent of sabotaging the cogency. dependability. genuineness of the scrutiny and finally the unity of the certification issued.

Examination malpractices come in assorted signifiers and by diverse names. These include exhibition. descrying. giraffing. nicknaming from books. caricature and certification racketeering ( Adeosun 2007 ) . He submits that rip offing in scrutinies can be categorized into two wide divisions. viz. ; rip offing activities limited to campaigners and rip offing activities affecting other individuals in and/or outside the scrutiny hall. Harmonizing to him under the first class are: preplanned teaming up of two or more campaigners to pass on reply to each other or one another during scrutinies ; taking unauthorised stuffs into the scrutiny hall ; descrying on other campaigners work with or without their permission ; interchanging written information in the scrutiny hall ; usage of GSM French telephones. organisers. beeper. etc. to hive away information for downloads in scrutiny halls ; composing information on parts of the organic structure. furniture and wall of the scrutiny hall.

The 2nd class comprises of such activities as: scrutiny leakages i. e. illegal release of scrutiny ; acquiring soldier of fortunes to work out supposed hard inquiries ; using other individuals to sit in one’s position for an scrutiny while one continues with other activities outside the scrutiny hall ; bring oning the scrutiny functionary with money to overlook all abnormalities in the scrutiny hall ; fiscal incentive to lecturers/teachers to obtain unmerited tonss ; leting the scrutiny to travel on beyond the allocated clip for the topic ; presenting high Markss for grounds other than virtue.

The common stating that charity begins at place is a truism that applies to all domains of the life of a kid. The impacts of the places and school on an individual’s life can non be over emphatic. The two establishments. place and school. to a big extent. find the hereafter of a kid. The place is the first and ageless school of a kid. Every indulgence given to a kid and the manner he is pampered have negative and positive effects on the child’s hereafter. Alutu and Aluede. 2006 submitted that parents travel to the extent of corrupting their manner through to guarantee that their wards get unearned classs while instructors encourage scrutiny malpractice because they lack the ardor to work but desire to be praised for occupation non done. Some parents/guardians and other important in the household besides aid pupils to rip off during scrutinies. The parents become mobs in perpetuating scrutiny malpractice because they are the exclusive moneymans of some of the malpractice activities.

They provide monies to their children/wards for payment to different individuals and agents of scrutiny malpractice. Often times. some parents travel outright to negociate with functionaries at scrutiny centres to look the other manner. and let their wards to rip off in scrutiny halls. or assist in directing unauthorised stuffs to them. Some go straight to the scrutiny organic structures to negociate higher tonss for their children/wards. As noted by Onyechere ( 2004 ) . it is about a modus operandi for pupils to rip off in both internal and external scrutinies. What makes the affair intractable is the function played by grownup agents or confederates. Among them are instructors. school principals. higher establishment pupils. touts or soldier of fortunes who invade centres to do speedy money. Parents are said to supply money excessively. There are besides particular coaching schools or centres which assistance and abet scrutiny malpractice for popularity and net income. Harmonizing to Grissmer ( 2003 ) . parents’ degree of instruction is the most of import factor impacting students’ academic accomplishment.

ALSO READ  Bullying Essay Sample

Taiwo ( 1993 ) submits that parents’ educational background influence the academic accomplishment of pupils. Musgrave ( 2000 ) states that a kid that comes from an educated place would wish to follow the stairss of his/her household and by this. work actively in his/her surveies. Similar consequences were found by Teese ( 2004 ) . in his analysis of the students’ public presentation where he found clear and consistent tendencies for kids from lower socio-economic background. Coleman ( 1998 ) province that the relationship between socio-economic disadvantage and larning results has been accepted about as an article of religion by pedagogues. In most instances. campaigners who cheat do non move entirely. Sooze ( 2004 ) and Onyechere ( 2004 ) listed capable instructors. invigilators. supervisors. principals and parents as agents of scrutiny malpractice.

There are besides examination ‘mercenaries’ assisting some pupils every bit good as pupils who have been caught red-handed. There were besides rumours about community’s engagement through part of money to corrupt supervisors and invigilators to look the other manner. Where they could non provide the money. they dug trenches on the route taking to their community so that the supervisor would non make the school while the scrutiny was in advancement. It is in position of the above that this survey sets out to analyze the functions of gender and place related variables on scrutiny malpractices. Such place related variables include spiritual disposition. moral/religious instructions at place. matrimony and household type. household size. socio economic background and individual with whom the kid stays. For the intent of this research spiritual disposition. household type. socio economic background and the individual with whom the kid stay ( parent or defender ) will be of great involvement. The survey intends to set up how these variables shape pupils attitude towards scrutiny malpractices.

Statement of the job
Examination malpractice has a figure of effects on assorted sectors of our national life. One of these is its menace to quality confidence. Peoples have started to doubt the genuineness of certifications issued to campaigners by scrutiny organic structures and higher establishments. Normally. the presentation of a certification should be adequate to take determination on the suitableness of a campaigner for assignments or his eligibility for admittance. Unfortunately. this is no longer the instance. Most employers now capable appliers to strict scrutiny and series of interviews to find their suitableness. Universities now have to carry on a station JAMB trial to find candidates’ eligibility for admittance. Malpractices in JAMB have eroded the assurance hitherto reposed in the organisation by universities. This is because scrutiny malpractices make it possible for campaigners to obtain certifications that are in struggle with their abilities. The aforesaid. underscores the demand to carry on a survey of this nature which sets to happen out if engagement in this pattern is a map of the gender of the campaigner or that of place related variables.

As a measure towards cut downing. if non wholly eliminating incidence of scrutiny malpractices. this survey sets out to analyze factors that are likely to predispose pupils to involvement in scrutiny malpractices. Factors of involvements include gender. household type. household size. SES of the household. faith and who the kid stays with.

Significance of the survey.
This survey will help in educating parents. schools’ decision makers. pupils. authorities and all stakeholders in instruction industry on the variables that could cut down malpractices and what could be done to set the threat in cheque.

It will supply empirical informations on place variables that are positively related to attitudes to examination malpractices in secondary schools pupils. It will besides place the immediate causes of scrutiny malpractices stressing the functions of gender and some place related variables in the publicity of the flagellum. This will supply a footing for suggestion on how to minimise if non wholly eradicated scrutiny malpractices.

Abdulkareem A. Y. & A ; Alabi T. 2011. Cubing scrutiny malpractices in the University System: A Management Perspectives. Adamolekun B. O. ( 1998 ) test-taking behavior. Pattern of N. C. E. Students in M. A. Adegboye. O. Olutoye and S. J. O. Adetunbery ( Eds. ) Issues on Examination Malpractives in Nigeria: A book of Readings. Ikere- ekiti: Ondo State College of Education. Adegboye. A 1998 Examination malpratices in Nig. third establishments: Problems and

solution. In M. A Adegboye. O. Olutoye. S. J. O Adetunberu ( Eds ) . Issues on Examination Malpractice in Nigeria ; A book of readings. Ikere – Ekiti: Ondo StateCollege of Education.

Adeosun. A. A. ( 2007 ) “Tackling the Menace of Examinaton Malpractives” Paper Presented at 2nd Annual National Conference of College of Education Academic Staff Union COEASU at Federal College of Education ( Technical ) Akoka Lagos 12th – 16th Nov. Agulanna. G. G. 1999. Family Structure and Prevalence of Behavioural Problems among Nigerian Adolescents. The Counselor. 17 ( 1 ) 154-159. Ajila and Olutola 2007. The Effects of Family Structure and Parenthood on the Academic Performance of Nigerian University Students. International Journal of Psychology in Africa Vol. 12 ( 2 ) pp 120-129. Akinteye S. A and Ogundepo A. O 2011 An probe of effects of countenances on pupils involved inexamination malpractices. A survey of Emmanuel Alayande College of Education. Oyo Lanlate Campus. A paper presented at the first one-year national conference. school of instruction. EACOED Oyo. Lanlate Campus ( 7th March )

Aliyu J. S. and Adeloye J. A. ( 1991 ) Examination Cheating among College Studnets: A Case Study of Advanced Teachers’ College A. M. I Kano. The Nigerian Teacher 1 ( I ) Kaduna: NCCE. Alutu A. N. G. And Aluede O. 2006.
Secondary Schools Students’ perceptual experience of Examination Malpractices and Examination Ethics. Journal of Human Ecology. India: Karalar-Ray Enterprises 20 ( 4 ) . Arab. Shuaibu 2011 Impacts of scrutiny malpractices in Nigeria Secondary Schools Cannata M. 2008 The Impact of Religion on Human Behaviour. Posted on

hypertext transfer protocol: //www. He. com/items/124986-religion-and-its impact retrieved on 16th
July. 2011
Coleman. L. J. 1998. The Ability of African Children to Absorb the Teaching of Science. Journal of Science instruction in Africa 3492 ) 77-86. Coukline J. 1996. Introduction to Criminology. New York: Macmillan. Dore R. 1978. The Diploma Disease Union Educational. George Allens Union. Egbegbedia E. A. 2010. Examination Malpractices: The Hydra-headed Monster endangering the Standard of Education in Nigeria. Ilorin Journal of Teacher Education 1 ( I ) . Fagbamiye 1987. The Nigerian Teacher in the 1980. University of Lagos Series in Education Vol. 2. 101 – 105.

ALSO READ  Girls’ education: towards a better future for all Essay Sample

Fasasi Y. A. 2006 Quality Assurance: a practical solution to scrutiny malpractices in Nigerian secondary schools. International Journal of African & A ; African Studies Vol. V No. 2

Garnefski. N and Okma S 1996 Addiction hazard and aggressive/criminal behavior in adolescence: Influence of household. school and equals. Journal of Adolescence 19.

Grissmer. R. H. 2003. Beyond Helping with Homework: parents and Children Doing Mathematics at Home. Teaching Children Mathematics 14. 120-131. Jimoh B. O. 2009 Probe of the Factors that Predispose Secondary School instructors tro Examination Malpractices in Edo State. Unpublishged Ph. D. Dissertation. Amrose Alli University. Ekpoma

Hiko. M. A 2008 Examination malpractices. causes and deductions. A paper presented at the juncture of 2007/2008 session orientation for 100 degree pupils. College of Education Jalingo on 11th March.

Holmes. S. E. Slaughder JR & A ; Kashani J. 2001 Hazard factors in childhood that lead to the development of behavior upset and antisocial personality upset. Child Psychiatry and Human Development. 31

Ijaiya. Y. 2001 From quality control to quality confidence: a Panacea for quality instruction in Nigerian schools. In N. A. Nwagu. E. T. Eliametalor & A ; M. Nwadiani ( Eds ) Current Issues in Educational Management in Nigeria. Benin City ; Nigerian Association for Educational Administration and Planning.

Jones. Caittin M. 2005 Genetic and environmental influences on condemnable behavior Posted on
hypertext transfer protocol: //www. personalityresearch. org/papers/jones. hypertext markup language retrieved on 16th July. 2011.

Joseph. J. 2001 Is offense in the cistrons? A critical reappraisal of twin and acceptance surveies of criminalism and antisocial behaviour. The diary of head and behaviour. 22.

Kayode Gbenga 2010 Exam abnormalities in Nigeria secondary schools posted on Aluka Digital Library retrieved on 21 July. 2011. Lamidi S. O. and Adedibu M. B. 2005. Examination Malpractices: The Real Threat to Educational Progress in the state. Akoka Journal of Education 2 ( 1 & A ; 2 ) Loweinstein. . F. 2003 The familial facets of criminalism. Journal of Human Behaviour in the


Maliki. A. E. . 2009. “Parental Socio-economic Status and Attitude of Towards Cultism in Niger Delta University. Bayelsa: Deduction for Counseling” . Journal of Human Ecology. 26 ( 1 ) . pp. 1-5 Malther. F. 2010 The impacts of faith on human behavior. Posted on

hypertext transfer protocol: //www. He. com/items/1992865-the-impact-of-religion-onhuman-behaviour. Retrieved on 16th July. 2011.

Morley. K. and Hall. W. 2003 Is there a familial susceptibleness to prosecute in
condemnable Acts of the Apostless? Australian Institute of Criminology. Tendencies and issues in offense and condemnable justness 263.

Musgrave. F. 1984 The household instruction and society. London: Rontledge and Kegal Paul Ltd.

Nwana O. C. 2000. Aberrance in the Nigerian Schools. UNESCO. Abuja Office. Nigeria. Nzewunah. P. N. 1995. The Effects of Single Parenthood on the Academic Performance of Students. Unpublished M. Ed. Undertaking. University of Lagos. Okebukola. F. O. ( 2004 ) “Reading: key to Lifelong Development” . A cardinal note reference delivered at the workshop on leading publicity run organised by the National Library of Nigeria. Obe E. O. 1996. Redresss for Mass Failure and Examination Malpractices in E. O. Obe ( Ed. ) . School Discipline and Remedies. Lagos: Premier Press & A ; Publishers. Oduwaiye. R. O. . 2005. “Students’ perceptual experience of factors and solutions to examination malpractices in Nigeria Universities: A instance survey of University of Ilorin” . Ilorin Journal of Education. 1 ( 24 ) . pp. 41-45

Offorma. G. C. . 2009. Girl-Child Education in Africa. A Keynote Address Presented at the Conference of the Federation of the University Women of Africa Held in Lagos-Nigeria on 16th-19th of July.

Ogundepo. A. O. Olatayo O. F. and Akinteye S. A. 2009 Quality confidence in Nigerian instruction system: scrutiny malpractice as a menace. ASEJ Vol 4 No 1. Ojikutu D. E. 1987. Administration of Examination in Nigeria: Problems and Solutions in University System. OAU Experiment. A Paper delivered at the WAEC monthly seminar. University of Lagos.

Olakojo. O. A & A ; Adebayo. M. A. 2012 Religious Counseling and Behavioural Therapy in Handling Crises Confronting The Nigerian Democracy. A conference paper presented as the 10th National Association for the Promoter of Studies in Religious instruction Language and General Studies held at Federal College of Education Osiele. Abeokuta. Ogun State. pg 16 -20

Olaseinde. A. O. 1993 Cheating in scrutiny in the University of Ilorin:
manners. causes and redresss. Nigerian Journal of Educational Foundations 4. ( 1 ) .

Olatunji S. A. 1988 Standards in Nigerian Education in Crucial Issues in Education: The Case of Nigeria Pg. 23-27. Olayinka. M. S. 1993 Guidance and reding as a method of extenuating scrutiny malpractices. Examination Malpractices Causes. Implication and Remedies. University of Benin: Benin City Olumero. S. O. 1882. Crisis of Examination Misconduct in Nigeria Secondary and Tertiary Institutions: Typologic techniques and Students’ Collaborators. A paper Presented at the National Workshop on Examination Malpractices held at the University of Benin. Oluyeba W. F. and Daramola S. O. 1992. Incidence and Detection of Examination Malpractices in Nigeria Public Examinations. A Paper Presented aat University of Benin National Workshop on Examination Malpractices. Oluwatimilehin. T. 1997 Essentials of Psychology. Ibadan: Demilade Omotayo Publishers.

Omonijo. D. O. . 2008. Forms of Corruption in Power Holding Company of Nigeria. An Unpublished M Sc Thesis. Department of Sociology / Anthropology. Nnamdi Azikiwe
University. Awka

Onah Okanume. Amaka Victoria 2010 The reding deductions of scrutiny malpractices in College of Education Jalingo. Nigerian Journal of Science Technology and Environmental Education ( NIJOSTEE ) Vol. 3 No 1.

Onakoya A. Y. . and Alarape A. I. 2003. Correlates of Examination Cheating Behaviour among University Studnets. Ife Psychologia II ( I ) .

Onyechere. I 2004. Cheat: A global job. In ‘Comes At Least 33 Ways’ All Africa. com. March 4. 2004

Ozor. F. 2004. Controversy trails exam fraud workshop. Daily independency Online. Monday. April 5. 2004

Rani. E. O. 2004. Reding pupils of the Faculty of Education at the
University of Maiduguri against scrutiny malpractice Online Nigeria. May 29. 2004.

Rhee. S. H. & A ; Waldman. I. D. 2002 Genetic and environment influence on antisocial behavior: A meta –analysis of twin and acceptance surveies. Psychological Bulletin 128.