Examination is one of the ways through which students’ academic accomplishments are measured. It is a agency of measuring students’ academic abilities with a position to taking determination on their patterned advance on the academic ladder and finding their suitableness for place of duties ( Ogundepo. Olatayo. and Akinteye 2009 ) . A pupil would be adjudged to hold achieved proficiency in certain accomplishments after holding passed scrutiny set on classs on the accomplishments or instructions to which he has been exposed. He will be issued a certification saying his degree of command of such capable ( s ) . In Nigeria and most states of the universe. these certifications readily go meal ticket or a base on balls to travel up academically.
In position of the great importance attached to certifications. campaigners who are despairing to win in life may prosecute in unwholesome Acts of the Apostless to go through scrutiny by all agencies and at all costs. ( see Aliyu and Adeloye 1991. Adeosun. 2007. Lamidi and Adedibu. 2005. ) These unwholesome Acts of the Apostless aimed at accomplishing unmerited classs in scrutinies are known as scrutiny malpractices. The issue of scrutiny malpractices has generated serious treatment and concern in the educational sector than any other issue in Nigeria today. This is because. besides the increasing incidence of the flagellum and the agencies of rip offing in scrutinies. the qualities of people involved are causes for concern.
It is non uncommon these yearss to happen instructors. principals. staff of scrutiny organic structures. security agents and parents/ defenders involved in scrutiny malpractices. ( see Adeosun 2007. Alutu and Aluede 2006. Famiwole 1995. Fatai 2005. Jimoh 2009. Unachukwu and Onunkwo 1999. ) The dismaying rate and frequence of scrutiny abnormalities have become menaces to quality control in our educational system so much that the certifications issued are about worthless than the documents on which they are printed. It has become a pollutant which is holding a weakening consequence on the appraisal of course of study aims ( Ogundepo et al 2009. Lamidi and Adedibu 2005. Oluyeba and Daramola 1992 ) . Examination malpractice can besides be referred to as any irregular behaviour exhibited by a campaigner or anybody charged with the behavior of scrutiny before. during or after the scrutiny that contravenes the regulations and ordinances regulating the behavior of such scrutiny.
Though scrutiny malpractice is neither a recent phenomenon nor curious to Nigeria or Africa. the dismaying rate of addition in scrutiny malpractice in secondary schools in Nigeria calls for concern from all stakeholders in the instruction sector. The incidences of scrutiny malpractice has become so widespread that there is virtually no scrutiny anyplace at all degrees and outside the formal school system without any signifier of cheapjack pattern or the other. Examination malpractices are common everyplace and every scrutiny season witnesses the outgrowth of new and clever ways of rip offing. Examination malpractice Act no. 33 of 1999 stipulates a minimal penalty of 50 thousand Naira ( N50. 000. 00 ) and a upper limit of five old ages imprisonment. without option of mulct. for lawbreakers of the offenses stipulated in the Act.
The offenses are: cheating at scrutiny. larceny of inquiry documents. caricature. perturbations at scrutiny. obstructor of supervising. counterfeit of consequence faux pas. breach of responsibility. confederacy and helping etc. Some of our pupils invent assorted elusive fast ones in order to rip off during scrutiny. but the inquiry remains. who and who will eliminate scrutiny malpractices among the pupils and their patrons at big? We have many classs of internal and external scrutiny that are being undertaken in this state but believe me scrutiny malpractices occur in 80 % of them.
In 2007 for illustration. a sum of 324 schools that were identified to be involved in scrutiny malpractices were blacklisted. The so Minister of Education. Dr. ( Mrs ) Oby Ezekwesili endorsed de-recognition of the schools as Centres for scrutinies from 2007 to 2010. Public runs and enlightenment programmes embarked on by authorities and non-governmental bureaus on the demand to extinguish scrutiny malpractices have non yielded the coveted consequences. non even the debut of gaol footings for perpetrators. Whereas in the yesteryear. pupils tended to conceal the Acts of the Apostless. now they advertise them with foolhardy wantonness. The incidence of scrutiny malpractices in Nigeria has spread to virtually both urban and rural countries.
Some secondary schools are now labeled “miracle centres‟ where pupils indulge in assorted scrutiny malpractices and came up with first-class consequence at the terminal of the twenty-four hours. In the past scrutiny malpractice was regarded as a recoil of urbanization and civilisation. At that clip scrutiny jobs were thought to be limited to the turning Centres of Western civilisation. Today nevertheless. every nook and crevice of the state has its gustatory sensation of the disease. Entreaties are being made to Obas. Obis and Emirs to assist WAEC and NECO in its war against scrutiny malpractices. It seems so that the job of rip offing in scrutinies is a national issue necessitating incorporate attending. Possibly faced with the turning incidence of scrutiny malpractice the Nigerian Military Government in 1984 issued decree 20 stipulating 20 one old ages of imprisonment for people tested and convicted for scrutiny malpractices and related jobs.
However. Examination Malpractice Act 33 of 1999 reversed the above edict but stipulates punishment runing from a mulct of N50. 000. 00 to N100. 000. 00 and imprisonment for a term of three to four old ages with or without option of mulct. Even with the positive steps in topographic point. it is dubious if there had been a decrease in the incidence of scrutiny jobs in the state. Today. the job continues to intensify in its assorted signifiers and in dismaying proportions. In a typical scrutiny twenty-four hours. pupils have gone to the extent of delivery prepared replies into scrutiny halls. That is. after paying extortionate fees to purchase inquiry documents from unscrupulous sellers and WAEC functionaries. It is alleged that holding had chance of entree to populate inquiries. some campaigners simply come in to subject their prepared replies.
This is said to be easy through the collusion of Centre supervisors and scrutiny invigilators. It is the instance today. that even when a campaigner is absent from a peculiar examination/subject. that is non an indicant he would neglect the scrutiny. It may be the contrary. peculiarly when a more superb imposter had taken his topographic point in the scrutiny hall. His absence could ensue in a differentiation class in the topic: On scrutiny yearss. inquiries are smuggled out to commissioned authors who stay in nearby schoolrooms or shrubs to compose replies direct from text editions. Such prepared replies are smuggled back through a web of paid agents into the scrutiny battalion.
Possibly. one needs to set the construct scrutiny malpractices in proper position. Fagbemiye ( 1998 ) sees examination malpractices as efforts by the testees or their agents or confederates to act upon the results of scrutiny below the belt. Harmonizing to him such agents could be either people within the school system or outside the school system. They could be pupils. instructors. invigilators. parents and defenders. Adeosun ( 2007 ) defines scrutiny malpractices as the employment of foul or bastard agencies to rip off before. during and after an scrutiny. Confirming this position. Oluyeba and Daramola ( 1992 ) ( cited in Alutu and Aluede. 2006 ) remarked that scrutiny malpractices is any irregular behaviour exhibited by a campaigner or anybody charged with the behavior of scrutinies before. during or after the scrutiny that contravenes the regulations and ordinances regulating the behavior of such scrutiny.
To Onakoya and Alarape ( 2003 ) . it is any aberrant behaviour that is seen as a misdemeanor and evildoing of laid down regulations and ordinances by an authorization during an scrutiny. In a similar vena. Egbededia ( 2000 ) describes scrutiny malpractices as illegal. unacceptable or improper behaviour or activity that is perpetrated by a campaigner to hold personal advantage of excellence in an scrutiny over his couples that are viing in the same scrutiny. Further. Ogundepo. Olatayo and Akinteye ( 2009 ) position it as any act engaged in earlier or during scrutinies to derive an undue or unmerited wages.
They argue farther that it is a deceitful manner of obtaining recognition that one does non merit. The Examination Malpractices Act ( 1999 ) definition seems to capture the construct more competently. It explains scrutiny malpractices as any act of skip or committee by a individual who in expectancy of. before. during. or after any scrutiny fraudulently secure any unjust advantages for himself or any other individual in such a mode that contravenes the regulations and ordinances to the extent of sabotaging the cogency. dependability. genuineness of the scrutiny and finally the unity of the certification issued.
Examination malpractices come in assorted signifiers and by diverse names. These include exhibition. descrying. giraffing. nicknaming from books. caricature and certification racketeering ( Adeosun 2007 ) . He submits that rip offing in scrutinies can be categorized into two wide divisions. viz. ; rip offing activities limited to campaigners and rip offing activities affecting other individuals in and/or outside the scrutiny hall. Harmonizing to him under the first class are: preplanned teaming up of two or more campaigners to pass on reply to each other or one another during scrutinies ; taking unauthorised stuffs into the scrutiny hall ; descrying on other campaigners work with or without their permission ; interchanging written information in the scrutiny hall ; usage of GSM French telephones. organisers. beeper. etc. to hive away information for downloads in scrutiny halls ; composing information on parts of the organic structure. furniture and wall of the scrutiny hall.
The 2nd class comprises of such activities as: scrutiny leakages i. e. illegal release of scrutiny ; acquiring soldier of fortunes to work out supposed hard inquiries ; using other individuals to sit in one’s position for an scrutiny while one continues with other activities outside the scrutiny hall ; bring oning the scrutiny functionary with money to overlook all abnormalities in the scrutiny hall ; fiscal incentive to lecturers/teachers to obtain unmerited tonss ; leting the scrutiny to travel on beyond the allocated clip for the topic ; presenting high Markss for grounds other than virtue.
The common stating that charity begins at place is a truism that applies to all domains of the life of a kid. The impacts of the places and school on an individual’s life can non be over emphatic. The two establishments. place and school. to a big extent. find the hereafter of a kid. The place is the first and ageless school of a kid. Every indulgence given to a kid and the manner he is pampered have negative and positive effects on the child’s hereafter. Alutu and Aluede. 2006 submitted that parents travel to the extent of corrupting their manner through to guarantee that their wards get unearned classs while instructors encourage scrutiny malpractice because they lack the ardor to work but desire to be praised for occupation non done. Some parents/guardians and other important in the household besides aid pupils to rip off during scrutinies. The parents become mobs in perpetuating scrutiny malpractice because they are the exclusive moneymans of some of the malpractice activities.
They provide monies to their children/wards for payment to different individuals and agents of scrutiny malpractice. Often times. some parents travel outright to negociate with functionaries at scrutiny centres to look the other manner. and let their wards to rip off in scrutiny halls. or assist in directing unauthorised stuffs to them. Some go straight to the scrutiny organic structures to negociate higher tonss for their children/wards. As noted by Onyechere ( 2004 ) . it is about a modus operandi for pupils to rip off in both internal and external scrutinies. What makes the affair intractable is the function played by grownup agents or confederates. Among them are instructors. school principals. higher establishment pupils. touts or soldier of fortunes who invade centres to do speedy money. Parents are said to supply money excessively. There are besides particular coaching schools or centres which assistance and abet scrutiny malpractice for popularity and net income. Harmonizing to Grissmer ( 2003 ) . parents’ degree of instruction is the most of import factor impacting students’ academic accomplishment.
Taiwo ( 1993 ) submits that parents’ educational background influence the academic accomplishment of pupils. Musgrave ( 2000 ) states that a kid that comes from an educated place would wish to follow the stairss of his/her household and by this. work actively in his/her surveies. Similar consequences were found by Teese ( 2004 ) . in his analysis of the students’ public presentation where he found clear and consistent tendencies for kids from lower socio-economic background. Coleman ( 1998 ) province that the relationship between socio-economic disadvantage and larning results has been accepted about as an article of religion by pedagogues. In most instances. campaigners who cheat do non move entirely. Sooze ( 2004 ) and Onyechere ( 2004 ) listed capable instructors. invigilators. supervisors. principals and parents as agents of scrutiny malpractice.
There are besides examination ‘mercenaries’ assisting some pupils every bit good as pupils who have been caught red-handed. There were besides rumours about community’s engagement through part of money to corrupt supervisors and invigilators to look the other manner. Where they could non provide the money. they dug trenches on the route taking to their community so that the supervisor would non make the school while the scrutiny was in advancement. It is in position of the above that this survey sets out to analyze the functions of gender and place related variables on scrutiny malpractices. Such place related variables include spiritual disposition. moral/religious instructions at place. matrimony and household type. household size. socio economic background and individual with whom the kid stays. For the intent of this research spiritual disposition. household type. socio economic background and the individual with whom the kid stay ( parent or defender ) will be of great involvement. The survey intends to set up how these variables shape pupils attitude towards scrutiny malpractices.
Statement of the job
Examination malpractice has a figure of effects on assorted sectors of our national life. One of these is its menace to quality confidence. Peoples have started to doubt the genuineness of certifications issued to campaigners by scrutiny organic structures and higher establishments. Normally. the presentation of a certification should be adequate to take determination on the suitableness of a campaigner for assignments or his eligibility for admittance. Unfortunately. this is no longer the instance. Most employers now capable appliers to strict scrutiny and series of interviews to find their suitableness. Universities now have to carry on a station JAMB trial to find candidates’ eligibility for admittance. Malpractices in JAMB have eroded the assurance hitherto reposed in the organisation by universities. This is because scrutiny malpractices make it possible for campaigners to obtain certifications that are in struggle with their abilities. The aforesaid. underscores the demand to carry on a survey of this nature which sets to happen out if engagement in this pattern is a map of the gender of the campaigner or that of place related variables.
As a measure towards cut downing. if non wholly eliminating incidence of scrutiny malpractices. this survey sets out to analyze factors that are likely to predispose pupils to involvement in scrutiny malpractices. Factors of involvements include gender. household type. household size. SES of the household. faith and who the kid stays with.
Significance of the survey.
This survey will help in educating parents. schools’ decision makers. pupils. authorities and all stakeholders in instruction industry on the variables that could cut down malpractices and what could be done to set the threat in cheque.
It will supply empirical informations on place variables that are positively related to attitudes to examination malpractices in secondary schools pupils. It will besides place the immediate causes of scrutiny malpractices stressing the functions of gender and some place related variables in the publicity of the flagellum. This will supply a footing for suggestion on how to minimise if non wholly eradicated scrutiny malpractices.
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