Ethical conflictions in practice

The polar experience that has arisen from my 3rd supervising session that was of significance to my farther acquisition ; was a state of affairs where I was ethically conflicted in pattern. A referral had come through to my bureau for a household – the kids were to hold one-one mentoring and go to an early intercession plan. It had been organised that I would work with the girl and my supervisor was to work with the boy in a similar context. As this was a new referral ; my supervisor and I went to run into with the miss ‘s female parent to explicate the function of our bureau. The female parent agreed to our bureau going involved and was rather excited at the chance of her kids going involved within the community. I besides organised to run into with my client two yearss after to present myself and to get down constructing our relationship. On Thursday afternoon after school I went to pick up my client for our first meeting at 3.30pm. Her female parent was imbibing intoxicant with some friends in the life room and there was besides the distinguishable odor of marihuana in the room. When we returned two hours subsequently after our session together, we were met by her visibly rummy female parent every bit good as her friend and there were a figure of other kids now in the house. Upon go forthing the house I felt concerned for my client and the other kids s safety and well- being ; as the grownups in the house were evidently under the influence of marihuana and had drunken a significant sum of intoxicant. I discussed my concerns with my supervisor the following twenty-four hours in supervising we discussed whether I perceived that what I had seen was plenty to advise a Child, Youth and Family Services ( CYFS ) . We decided that they would most likely look upon it as a low-level concern and would mention it back to us to follow up. We decided that it would be best for the clip being for us to both supervise what is traveling on within the household and discourse the state of affairs farther if more concerns arose. The polar minute for me was the ethical quandary of go forthing the kids in a place where I believed that could be in danger of being neglected. This besides was the challenge of altering my pattern model from that of a statutory kid abuse societal worker where I was mandated by jurisprudence to that of a community societal worker where I am mandated by my bureaus policies and processs.

Looking backward

My old experience of late being employed as a attention and protection societal worker for CYFS has informed my response, my premises, prejudices, and biass to this minute of acquisition. Through my experiences of working with similar households, I assumed that the female parent ‘s imbibing behavior and possible drug usage was doing these kids injury. The organisational scene I had antecedently been working in was focused on kids s safety, this informed my response. My old experience has been positive and negative for me in the state of affairs, it was positive in that it helped me place the concerns for this household, and I was able to turn to these in supervising. However, it was negative because it created a struggle within my professional ego as I am still working on altering my pattern focal point from that of a statutory societal worker to a community societal worker.

Looking inward

I experienced this minute of larning more intensely so other affairs discussed in supervising as felt that I was go forthing her the kids in a harmful environment. It made me inquiry my pattern model and helped me recognize that I needed to set to the societal work environment in which I am now working in. The feelings I am sing about this minute of larning are those of: weakness, confusion, unhappiness, and struggle. The messages from my yesteryear that were vibrating with this current experience were those that I had received from my old experienced at CYFS and the stairss I would hold taken in that function in relation to this household. The statutory position that is act uponing my pattern is impacting upon my work within the community, I believe that it is act uponing me to look deeper into household kineticss, and I am cognizant that I am coming from a risk-adverse position in that sense.

Because I have non had any experience in a community societal work puting and I have had minimum larning around community societal work from the university, I believe that this is impacting my understanding around the function of community bureaus and their worker. , I have spoken with my supervisor around this in deepness and we are working together to broaden my understanding and knowledge around this subject.

Looking outward

I justify what I pay attending to as this is what I have been taught through my experiences at

university and with my work at CYFS, although I am good cognizant that although I have been taught

to pattern in a strengths-based attack I frequently find myself practising in a risk-adverse manner

because of my experience at CYFS. As I am now working within a community scene, I need to

expression at how I can pattern in a strengths-based manner. The impact of this risk-adverse focal point on my

old and current pattern is that I may do determinations that do non take into history an

single, households or communities strengths, and concentrate on their shortages.

Looking frontward

To incorporate this new cognition into my pattern I need to develop an action program. The end of

the program is to spread out my cognition and pattern model from a statutory position to

that of a community position. To develop my pattern and accomplishments to be able to pattern from a

community development position, and to pull off ethical quandary that I am faced with. My

action program to finish by the terminal of my fieldwork arrangement:


To research literature related to societal work in a community scene and community


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To show an appropriate usage of ego in a professional societal work scene by

pull offing my ain work load. By go toing a scope of meetings and forums with

different community bureaus, and to construct my ain professional webs in the



To place and web with cardinal stakeholders in the community, and construct

relationships with these stakeholders.


Feasibility Study to web with local stakeholders in respects to their involvement in the

enlargement of the Te Roopu O Wai Ora plans, I will make this by run intoing with the

stakeholders and by easing the research procedure.


To derive a wider position of community development through researching and

composing a study on whether Te Roopu O Wai Ora s programmes can be expanded into

other countries of the North Shore.


Individual and Group Casework this will affect with working immature adult female on a

mentoring footing and in group societal work from a community position.


To show cognition of the organizational construction of Te Roopu O Wai Ora by ;

reflecting in supervising the legal and policy issues that the bureau faces, and to place

the demands, restraints and chances of societal work pattern in the

Northcote/Birkenhead community and its members.

Question building

The polar minute for me was the challenge of the ethical quandary I was faced with. As my

pattern model is that of a statutory kid abuse societal worker ; I felt that this state of affairs

needed farther probe and statutory intercession. I needed to travel off from this

position to that of a community societal worker where I am merely able to supervise the household s

fortunes and if concerns warranted it so I could makes a presentment to the statutory

governments. At what point would I be stepping over my boundaries as a community societal


Literature Review

The cardinal subjects from the literature I have reviewed around the construct of ethical quandary for

pupil societal workers are: the trouble societal workers face when confronted with an ethical

quandary, the sorts of dilemmas societal workers face, and moralss in societal work instruction. The

literature notes that there are many definitions of moralss in societal work literature but for the

intent of this assignment I have used Meacham s ( 2007 ) definition of moralss as professional

duties and regulations of behavior.

Social work at its foundation promotes values of societal justness, self finding, and client

authorization. It addresses the barriers, unfairnesss and unfairnesss that exist in society and

promotes societal alteration, job resolution in human relationships and the authorization and

release of people to heighten wellbeing ( IFSW, 2000 ) . Almost all of the issues faced by societal

workers are based in ethical principals ( Dolgoff et al, 2005, cited in Doyle et Al, 2009 ) . Becoming

aware of, and being willing to admit ethical quandary and their complexness, in pattern,

are of import stairss toward geting the accomplishments to pull off those ethical quandary ( Dolgoff et al. ,

2005, cited in Doyle et Al, 2009 ) . Even if we were able to wholly believe in and follow societal

work ethical guidelines under all fortunes and held them as portion of our personal morality

and values, there still would be dilemmas. When we express a value or set one into action,

many quandaries and paradoxes become evident. It is no easy undertaking to be good ( Aristotle,

1972, cited in Doyle et Al, 2009 ) . However it is suggested that some societal workers may non

acknowledge the ethical quandary that arise in pattern for a assortment of grounds. For illustration,

they may be uncomfortable doing ethical determinations, they may believe they know the right

reply to the ethical quandary, or they may be uneasy covering with such issues because they do

non experience they have the accomplishments to pull off ethical jobs ( Dolgoff et al. , 2005, cited in, Doyle et

Al, 2009 ) .

All of the literature I have reviewed discusses the sorts of dilemmas societal workers face.

Bellefeuille ( 2006 ) examines the quandary that student societal workers have identified through

their research in their fieldwork arrangements, they are:


Lack of Respect for Clients


Conflict of Interest


Maltreatment of Power


Uncovering Confidential Information


Bad Practice


Lack of Proper Assessment of Needs


Efficiency and Cost Savings over Best Interests of Client s Needs






Take downing Remarks Made by Workers


Dish the dirting about Colleagues


Lack of Professionalism



It is in field arrangements that pupils learn to use theory taught in the schoolroom to existent

practical state of affairss. Although the literature suggests that, in field arrangement, pupils necessarily

battle with the daily, mussy, practical ethical quandary that involve both conflicting

values and duties ( Reamer, 1982, 1992 ; Rhodes, 1986 ; Ricks & A ; Bellefeuille, 2003, as

cited in Bellefeuille, 2006 ) . Ricks ( 1989, 1992, 1997 ) makes a persuasive instance that pupils

battle in their attempts to make self-driven ethical determinations because they learn that there are

preferable accomplishments, pattern attacks, or theoretical accounts that should be applied in specific instance

fortunes. This sets up the outlook that in pattern there are comparatively clear cut, right

ways that are easy to larn and integrate into pattern ( Ricks & A ; Charlesworth, 2002, p. V ) .

Consequently, going accustomed to the uncertainnesss associated with deciding ethical

quandary is an educational end that many societal workers fail to run into ( Ricks & A ; Bellefeuille,

2003 ) . The bottom line for Ricks & A ; Bellefeuille ( 2003, p. 118 ) is that ethical pattern that relies

to a great extent on professional codifications of moralss can lull practicians to kip in affairs that require

critical contemplation and discretional judgement. ( Bellefeuille, 2006 )

This literature is relevant for the context I am working in as it addresses the ethical quandary

that societal work pupil s face whilst being on their field arrangement, the ethical quandary that I

have discussed in this minute of larning relates to the conflicting values and duties I

as a pupil clasp.


The literature suggests that there has been assorted conceptual maps and theoretical accounts to steer ethical

decision-making for pupils and practicians ( e.g. , Abramson, 1996 ; Dolgoff et al. , 2005 ; Linzer,

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1999 ; Linzer, 2004 ; Manning, 1997 ; Mattison, 2000 ; Reisch, & A ; Lowe, 2000 ; Spano & A ; Koenig, 2003

as cited in Meacham, 2007 ) . These theoretical accounts are thought to help in the application of societal work

values in the decision-making procedure. For the intent of this assignment I will concentrate on three

theoretical accounts that I have identified that could be relevant and effectual in instruction and pattern


The first theoretical account is Hartsell s ( 2006 ) proposed an attack to ethical decision-making. In its

simplest signifier, this attack has three values ; life, pick, and relationship. Together they form

the context in which an ethical determination is made, and hence supply the values necessary for

an ethical determination. In drumhead the theory behind the theoretical account is:


Life, pick, and relationship are contextual elements in which ethical determinations are



Any state of affairs that requires one component of the context to be sacrificed for another

can non be ethically resolved.


The best possible solution to a struggle among the contextual elements is to maximise

each component.


No person may ethically go against the context of another.


The nature of a relationship determines what is ethical within that relationship.


The nature of the relationship may merely be decently determined by unfastened, voluntary

dialogue ( Hartsell, 2006 ) .

Reamer ( 1999 ) offers a systematic attack to ethical determination devising for societal workers and

pupils. This attack I have found really utile as it identifies the rights of the client that

override professional moralss:

1. Protection of the necessary stipulations of single action such as life, wellness,

nutrient, shelter, mental equilibrium take precedency over protection against the injury

ensuing from lying, prosecuting in misrepresentation, of interrupting a assurance, or from menaces to

points that enhance the quality of life but are non necessary to it, such as diversion,

inordinate, and artistic artifacts.

2. An single s right to the necessary stipulations of action takes precedency over

another single s right to freedom.

3. An single s right to freedom takes precedency over his or her right to basic well-


4. The duty to obey Torahs, regulations, and ordinances to which 1 has voluntarily and

freely consented overrides one s right to prosecute voluntarily and freely in a mode that

struggles with these Torahs, regulations and ordinances.

5. In instances of struggle, persons rights to wellbeing may overrule regulations or agreements

of voluntary associations.

6. The duty to forestall basic injuries such as famishment and to advance the populace

good takes precedency over complete control of one s belongings ( Reamer, 1999, cited in,

Meacham, 2007 ) .

Lowenberg et Al ( 2000 ) suggest the undermentioned Ethical Assessment Screen that could be used for

pupil and societal worker s ethical determination devising. This screen advantages the practician as it

asks them to look into their ain personal egos non merely their professionals egos to turn to

the quandary:

1. Identify your ain relevant personal values in relation to the ethical quandary which

faces you.

2. Identify any social values relevant to the ethical determinations to be made.

3. Identify the relevant professional values and moralss.

4. Identify alternate ethical options that you may take.

5. Which of the alternate ethical actions will protect to the greatest extent possible your

client s rights and public assistance, every bit good as the rights and public assistance of others?

6. Which alternate action will protect to the greatest extent possible society s rights and


7. What can you make to minimise any struggles among 1, 2, and 3?

8. What can you make to minimise any struggles between 5 and 6?

9. Which alternate action will ensue in your making the least injury possible?

10. To what extent will alternative actions be efficient, effectual, and ethical?

11. Have you considered and weighed both the short-run and long-run ethical

effects of alternate actions? ( Lowenberg et al, 2000, cited in, Meacham, 2007 ) .

Ethical motives

The ethical quandary I have become cognizant of in relation to my minute of acquisition is the functions

and boundaries of a community societal worker as opposed to those of a statutory societal worker.

My function was to work with the immature miss in the household as a wise man on a 1 on one footing, non a

societal worker for the whole household. I was challenged by whether or non I thought the concerns I

had for my client warranted a CYFS presentment, and discussed this thoroughly with my

supervisor as per bureau policy. This relates to the subdivision of the ANZASW Code of Ethical motives that

Members have a duty to adhere to the work contracts they have entered into with

using bureaus or administrations ( ANZASW, 2003 ) .

The ethical inquiry the minute of larning raised for me was as a community societal worker at

what point do you advise the statutory governments when you are concerned for a client s well-

being? The ANZASW S Code of Ethics ( 2003 ) states that within the context of their legal

duties, members ever acknowledge that client involvements and public assistance are their first

precedence, and work consequently.

As discussed in my minute of larning it was decided that at this point in clip we would non

notify CYFS but monitor what was go oning within the household through our out instance work with

the kids. If we had chosen to advise CYFS or in the hereafter we feel we have adequate grounds

of disregard to justify a CYFS presentment my pattern would be informed by the followers

subdivisions of the ANZASW S Code of Ethics ( 2003 ) : A member may reason that the client or

person else ( such as a kid ) may be endangered or harmed by non-disclosure. In any event

where revelation of client information is critically indicated, it should merely be done after

audience with a supervisor or co-workers.

To decide the ethical issues that I have been raised by this minute of acquisition is to discourse with

my supervisor the ethical quandary that have been raised – which I have already done through

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supervising, to seek counsel through the ANZASW s Code of Ethics, to stay by my bureaus

policies and processs, and to critical reflect on this quandary and expression at how I can manage

future quandary of a similar nature.


The accomplishments I used in this pattern state of affairs that related to working with my client were that of:


Rapport edifice




Protecting kids in “ at-risk ” state of affairss holding cognition of the marks of maltreatment and



Helping to ease support groups and working within the community – e.g. the misss



Interceding with other bureaus – in relation to the referral, and if we make a presentment to



Keeping accurate records


Using ethical decision-making tools


Consulting with my supervisor in regular supervising

Community Work – work is a signifier of pattern in which people are bought together to

determine way for alteration, and to call up necessary resources to accomplish that alteration

( Cleak and Wilson, 2007 ) . Therefore community societal workers need knowledge about the

community ( Cleak and Wilson, 2007 ) they need to be populating within the community in which they

work, and need to cognize about the issues that face the community. Community societal workers

demand to hold accomplishments in doing private issues public and traveling from single to collective

response. This is the ability to do links is a nucleus community work accomplishment ( Kelly and Sewell, 1998,

in Cleak and Wilson, 2007 ) . These accomplishments are relevant to the community work context I am in

placed in as they have informed my pattern.

The preparation I have been exposed to through my surveies in the Bachelor of Social Work has

adequately prepared me to work with clients my informing me of relevant theories, edifice my

pattern accomplishments, supplying documents on relevant pattern contexts, informing me of best pattern,

supervising, and critical contemplation in this state of affairs. My old experience as a CYFS societal

worker has adequately prepared me to work with kids, immature people and their households ;

although the focal point of CYFs is on kid maltreatment and disregard. CYFS has besides given me the accomplishments to

place the marks of maltreatment and or disregard and what the appropriate stairss are to take, and the

appropriate societal work intercessions. Although I believe I have non been trained adequately in

community societal work as discussed in old subdivisions of this assignment due to now analyzing

the community development paper because of my honours undertaking.


There is a broad scope of grounds that examines societal work pupils and practician s

reactions to ethical quandary.

Bellefeuille s ( 2006 ) article describes the consequences of a co-operative enquiry undertaking that explored

4th twelvemonth societal work pupils ethical decision-making in field instruction. There research

idenditified the undermentioned grounds for why societal workers refrain from moving ethically:

What Keeps Social Workers From Acting Ethically


Not certain What to make

Fear of Talking Up for Fear of Jeopardizing arrangement

Fear of Making a Mistake

Fear of Being Disliked

Fear of Creating Conflict

Not Bing a Team Player

Uncertainty About Being Helpful and Creating


Afraid of Portraying Self as Naive

Afraid of Portraying Self as a Stickler for Detail










Bellefeuille ( 2006 ) identified through his findings that Although pupils were able to place

ethical quandary, they struggled to openly and critically analyze the personal beliefs and

values that guide their pattern or the patterns at their arrangements, and the effects

these have for ethical determination devising. Merely 95, or 75 % , of the 133 instance illustrations indicated

that they knew how to successfully work through the ethical state of affairs. Further, many of the

illustrations of perceived successful declaration involved pupils turning to their practicum

wise mans for way. Bellefeuille ( 2006 ) suggests that this may reflect a degree of rawness

on the portion of the pupils or the complexness of the issues being addressed, but it besides may

mean a reluctance to accept personal duty for their pattern.

The undermentioned statement offered by McFarlane, Ricks, and Field ( n. d. ) in Bellefeuille ( 2006 )

sheds some visible radiation on why people who know what to make frequently neglect to move. They explain that

people fail to move when: The hazard is excessively high and/or the costs are excessively great at a really personal

degree. As a consequence, they are wholly overcome by their fright and immobilized. When this

happens, the personal frights are non irrupting on doing the best pick, but are irrupting on

moving on the best pick. For illustration, fright can curtail believing about all the options. Under

the status of fright we can be reductionistic and generate merely two options: e.g. , I can lose

like this or I can lose like that. ” ( p. 7 )

Doyle et Al ( 2009 ) suggest that the Code of Ethics does non function as the primary footing for ethical

decision-making but that pattern wisdom, personal values ( Dolgoff & A ; Skolnik, 1996 ) , and

supervising ( Landau, 1999b ) are cardinal resources that inform decision-making.

From reexamining literature about ethical determination devising for societal work pupils it has

go apparent that there is no clear cut illustration of how to get the better of ethical quandary.

Because of the nature of societal work and the practicians own personal values and beliefs

ethical quandary are ever traveling to be apparent in pattern. There is besides no set theoretical account or

theory for best pattern for ethical quandary, this relates back to the nature of societal work.

For my ain best pattern in community societal work to decide the ethical issues that have

been raised by this minute of acquisition is to discourse with my supervisor the ethical quandary,

to seek counsel through the ANZASW s Code of Ethics, to stay by my bureaus policies and

processs, and to critical reflect on old quandary to look at how I can manage hereafter

quandary of a similar nature.