Energy efficiency and Social Housing: an probe into Government policy and its execution
This thesis examines the current Government statute law refering energy efficiency and the usage of renewable energy resources in the societal lodging sector. The local governments of Croydon, Lambeth, Sutton and Merton are considered as instance survey illustrations of the nature of the undergoing work of local governments.
A reappraisal of relevant background literature is carried out to determine what has been done over the last two decennaries refering energy efficiency, and whether the current state of affairs shows an betterment. Academic studies into conditions of societal lodging, such as fuel poorness, are reviewed, along with research into the advancement and effectivity of strategies already employed in the countries of Merton, Lambeth, Croydon, and Sutton. Further to this, an appraisal is made on the types of renewable energy resources available – such as edifice stuffs – and whether they are expeditiously employed within industries associating to the building and direction of the societal lodging sector.
A questionnaire study is used to set up the attitudes and cognition of the populace in societal lodging towards energy efficiency in the place. This helps to foreground the countries where authorities policies, and the actions of the Local Authority, can better. A 2nd questionnaire is conducted on Registered Social Landlords refering the belongingss they rent.
It is concluded that in the four boroughs there is a important degree of public consciousness refering energy efficiency. However, this consciousness is set within the context of other societal jobs such as wellness and offense, which people prioritise over the environment. Social lodging stock is non up to standard and about half is non set to run into the Decent Homes Standard by 2010. It is established that a significant investing of resources is needed if there is traveling to be any dramatic alteration over the following 10 old ages.
Chapter 1 Introduction
1.1 Definition of the subject
1.3 Key inquiries
1.4 Purposes and Aims
Chapter 2 Research Methodology
2.0 Research Methodology
2.1 Literature Review
2.2 Questionnaire study
Chapter 3 Literature Review
3.0 The Government’s place: so and now
3.1 Public Awareness
3.2 Current Schemes
3.3 Other Policies
3.4 Case Studies: Croydon, Lambeth, Merton, and Sutton
3.5 Natural Resources/Recycling
3.6 Sustainable Populating
4.0 Questionnaire design
4.1 Questionnaire analysis
Chapter 5 Presentation and treatment of consequences
5.0 Presentation of consequences
Chapter 6 Decision
6.1 Restrictions of survey
6.2 Recommendations for farther research
Chapter 1. Introduction
Over the last 10 old ages at that place has been turning force per unit area upon the authorities to follow environmentally friendly policies while still seeking to run into the demand for new lodging and an addition in place ownership. Residential edifices account for merely under a 3rd of the entire energy used in many developed states. ( Elliott 2003: 81 ) . Energy efficiency strategies have helped to cut down the sum of energy needed to heat the mean place, yet initiatives to cut down the environmental impact of homes – such as the usage of renewable building stuffs – still have possible for farther development.
The work of Local Authorities is limited due to fiscal restraints and the demand to equilibrate environmental concerns with other jobs which arise in communities – such as offense and homelessness. However, recent old ages have shown an addition in cosmopolitan engagement towards energy economy, with council’s pronunciamentos including long-run purposes towards cut downing emanations while promoting members of the populace to go actively involved.
1.1 Definition of the Topic
The subject of this work is to look into what energy salvaging strategies have been initiated by the authorities, and what steps for energy efficiency are in topographic point for the boroughs of Croydon, Lambeth, Merton, and Surrey, which form portion of the South West London Housing Partnership.
Home energy efficiency betterment is something that many people aspire to make, but non as many people realise that non a batch of money is needed to make it. Energy efficiency can intend recycling and reusing stuffs, and purchasing different visible radiation bulbs which cost merely a few lbs more. On the other manus, people are afraid to take stairss such as insularity and excess glazing because of the cost required by unquotable companies. For this ground more information demands to be made public about the true nature of some ‘improvements’ such as PVC U dual glazing, where eight metric tons of oil is needed to do one metric ton of PVC U.
This survey specifically looks into status of societal lodging and the attitudes of societal lodging renters. It is realised that this sector is under force per unit area from other societal jobs, plus in some instances, linguistic communication barriers. Thus excess attempt demands to be made on the portion of administrations to make people who could profit from energy salvaging strategies – such as Staywarm.
Chapter 2. Research Methodology
2.0 Research Methodology
The chief organic structure of research for this thesis is secondary, presented in the signifier of a literature reappraisal, while 2 questionnaire studies constitute the smaller organic structure of primary research.
2.1 Literature Review
In order to set up the advancement made refering energy efficiency – both in the UK as a whole and in London boroughs a elaborate literature reappraisal is carried out. Internet beginnings are used in order to guarantee that information is as up to day of the month as possible, and academic diaries and books are used to give a relevant background.
2.2 Questionnaire study
In the first case it was intended to put to death a door to door study in order to acquire an improved response rate and include those with hapless reading or composing accomplishments, and moreover, to guarantee that written linguistic communication barriers were overcome so that cultural communities could be certain to be included. However, concern for personal safety meant another attack had to be used. It was eventually decided to inquire people in the street in four assorted locations in South West London to take the questionnaire place, make full it in, and return in the Sae provided.
The first questionnaire was to be conducted on 60 registered Social Landlords – 15 from each borough of Merton, Croydon, Sutton, and Lambeth, who live in the country from which they rent. The local authorization was contacted straight and asked if they could post on a transcript of the study to 15 landlords who were registered with them. There was a variable response rate: 8 from Lambeth ; 6 from Croydon ; 9 from Merton ; and 10 from Sutton.
For the 2nd questionnaire, it was made clear on passing out that respondents should merely make full in and return if they were populating in societal lodging – either rented from the council or from an LHA, or probationary. 160 of the first questionnaires were handed out in entire: 40 in Lambeth during the eventide first-come-first-serve hr ; 40 in Merton in the first-come-first-serve hr ; 40 in Croydon outside the train station ; and 40 in Sutton. It was made clear on the questionnaire that even if the respondent merely understood portion of it that they should make full in what they could and still direct it back. Obviously, this method of trying fails to include those who are housebound and others with hapless reading and composing accomplishments – nevertheless, all methods of trying were expected to extinguish some people, go forthing this method looking to be the most dependable.
The questionnaires were handed out to people who covered a broad scope of age and ethnicity. Peoples were foremost asked if they lived in London and so asked if they would be happy to make full out the questionnaire and station it back. The return rate was good, with 60 of the 150 questionnaires being returned right by people populating in societal lodging. A larger per centum came back from Sutton and the smallest was Croydon, with merely 7. In entire 3 had been insufficiently/incorrectly filled in and were eliminated from the survey. Although the response rate was good it still left this survey with a little sample – significance that its ability to stand for these countries of London was questionable. Therefore, it was decided that the questionnaire study should be used as a pilot survey.
Chapter 3 Literature Review
3.0 The Government’s place: so and now
Scientific apprehension and public consciousness of the effects of energy usage on the environment has grown well during the last two decennaries. In 1977 the Labour Government recognised that the attitude of the UK to energy policy was ‘insular’ ( Woodliffe 1991: 11 ) , with resources being the chief concern. Michael Ball, in his 1988 publication commented that in the UK – which has a high population denseness and a authorities policy that promotes private place having -the attending paid to the conditions of societal lodging had been minimum over the last few decennaries compared to other European states. ( Ball et al 1988: 54 ) .
The 1890ss saw the beginning of a tendency where attending had to be paid to societal lodging. Work by faculty members such as Anne Power’sEstates on the Edgeuncover an penetration into the farinaceous urban pragmatism which was most interior cities’ incubus. This socio-political revolution took topographic point alongside a development concern about clime alteration.
In 1991 it was postulated that CO2 was responsible for more than half of planetary heating, and fossil-fuel combustion doing about three quarters of all CO2 emanations. ( Woodliffe 1991: 111 ) . Now the effects of high C emanations have been realised the authorities has produced green policies which have set marks to cut down emanations by 15 % and upwards over the following few old ages. However, these betterments have had to be set within the wider context of other societal jobs, such as offense and homelessness.
In the last decennary it has been recognised that energy preservation at the point of usage is the most effectual manner of cut downing the sum of power used, instead than roll uping emanations. ( Elliott 2003: 80 ) . Today, the consumer is encouraged to play an active function in energy efficiency within the place – such as utilizing energy-saving contraptions and visible radiation bulbs. The societal lodging sector has great possible range for cut downing the sum of energy used and the sum of energy conserved. This is because local governments are responsible for suiting out new and bing places with energy-efficient cardinal heating systems, insularity, and dual glazing. By comparing, the private place proprietor may non remain in their present place for a sufficient length of clip, or non be able to afford to put in or replace heating systems. Thus, Local Authorities have a immense portion to play – non merely in fiting places with energy efficient means, but besides through raising public consciousness of how best to utilize those agencies, and to promote the construct of energy salvaging to be seen as a sympathetic and popular challenge.
Of the 1000000s of dwellers of London 0.3 million live in societal lodging, which is the smallest per centum. However, despite being the smallest per centum, the societal sector, with the action of local governments has the most possible to advance and originate energy salvaging lodging. Merely last autumn the Government published a new White Paper, called ‘Strong and Comfortable Communities, ’ which aimed to reenforce the power of local governments. Furthermore, it included a ‘simplification of the public presentation model in order to undertake cross cutting issues such as clime alteration at a local level.’ ( hypertext transfer protocol: //www.eeph.org.uk/energy/index.cfm? mode=view & A ; news_id+748 ) .
Yet alterations in lodging term of office have influenced the effects of authorities policy upon emanations. The following tabular array shows the addition in the Numberss of homes in the societal and private sector between 1981 and 2003.
Number of homes ( 1000000s )No. of homes ( 1000000s )
Social Sector 74.5
In the societal sector the figure of homes fell from1981 by a one-fourth to under 5 million in 2003. ( Labour Force Survey 2005 ) , with 19 per cent of families being rented from societal landlords ( a Council, Housing Association or Registered Social Landlord ) and 12 per cent rented from a private proprietor. ( Census 2001 ) . The domestic sector has been targeted with strategies for energy efficiency being put into pattern by Local Authorities on a countrywide footing. However, with worsening figures for societal sector places it is hard for local governments to do contact with adequate occupants in the country and rede them on how to salvage energy. Local governments presently measure the energy efficiency of their lodging stock through HECA Audits. A broad assortment of steps are used: National Home Energy Rating ( NHER ) , Standard Assessment Procedure ( SAP ) , and Starpoint. A 1998 study by LPAC, who conduct regular borough questionnaires, found that energy efficiency had been measured in 371,963 belongingss – with 220,551 being under local authorization control. hypertext transfer protocol: //www.lho.org.uk/HIL/Determinants_Of_Health/Environment/Energy.aspx
Harmonizing to the LHO the lodging for low-income households is amongst the most inefficient:
heating utilizing electric fires at normal electricity rates may be three times every bit expensive as gas cardinal warming. Yet low income households spend less on warming, on norm, than all houses, bespeaking that they live at colder temperature degrees. Investing in upgrading lodging to be to the full insulated, every bit good as put ining energy efficient heating systems, will both cut entire costs and cut down energy usage.(Ibid) .
Other surveies have shown that people would instead be in debt due to their fuel measures than be cold:
‘We unrecorded hebdomad by hebdomad now. No vacations or new trappings, anything like that. We shrug our shoulders. The measure has to be paid, and that’s that.’ ( Dave, center aged twosome ) . ( Report on the Warm Homes Project by Heyman et Al: 2005: 262 ) .
Academic defense mechanism of lodging policy has said that it recognises that conditions such as overcrowding ; lodging in disrepair ; hapless indoor environmental quality, are associated with assorted wellness conditions, including ‘respiratory infections, asthma, lead toxic condition, hurts, and mental health.’ ( Krieger, 2002: 758 ) . However, Conway, in her 2000 survey, highlighted that in the UK, the 20th century lodging policy focal point has been bit by bit floating off from covering with hapless quality lodging towards other issues such as ownership and direction, entree and cost. ( Conway, 2000: 92 ) . Over the last few old ages the issue of energy economy has non been so high on the public wellness docket as the allotment of lodging itself in order to assist the homeless and the hapless. In 2004 the authorities introduced The White Paper, which allowed the public influence over which issues should be raised to the top of the public wellness docket. Subsequent issues which have been repeatedly raised and been proven to be demanding of policy enforcement include the attention for the aged, and more specifically, fuel proviso for aged individuals to cut down the Numberss of extra winter deceases. For illustration, National Energy Action promotes research enterprises into cut downing the effects of fuel poorness on wellness as a cardinal component of their public wellness docket. ( National Energy Action 2006: 2 ) . They are peculiarly concerned with the wellness of aged people who can non afford to heat their ain places
A study printed by EPN magazine, conducted by British Gas, found that dwellers of London are less likely to conserve energy than anyplace else in the UK, with Knowsley in the North West demoing a higher degree of energy efficiency. ( hypertext transfer protocol: //www.epnmagazine.com ) . However, London appears to be on a par with, or in front of, northern enterprises for advancing energy efficiency. For illustration, an article in theGuardian –that consults the Energy Saving Trust ; the Carbon Trust ; the Local Government Association ; and the Improvement and Development Agency – put the Greater London authorization at the top of a list of councils advancing clime alteration as portion of their policy docket. ( hypertext transfer protocol: //environment.guardian.co.uk/climate change/story/html ) . The boroughs of Merton, Sutton, and Croydon were besides listed as being in the top 20.
3.1 Public Awareness
The National Energy Association has had a London office runing since 1992. The two current major undertakings are REECH – Gaining energy efficient communities and places, and OPEN ( Older People’s Energy Needs ) .
REECH is a partnership between NEA and British Gas, taking to supply energy efficiency betterments – specifically heating and insularity – to members of cultural communities. ( hypertext transfer protocol: //www.nea.org.uk/Working_with..Local_authorities/London ) . So far REECH has extended to London, Bradford, Rochdale, Oldham, West Midlands, and Cardiff. The undertaking focuses on get the better ofing linguistic communication and cultural differences so that energy efficiency advice can be communicated efficaciously. Furthermore, it recognises that people who are already on low incomes are ‘extremely vulnerable without entree to money salvaging betterments and are losing out on their entitlements.’ (Ibid ) .Table 1 shows the services offered by REECH and the effects for cultural communities:
Servicess provided by REECHExample of results for cultural communities
Tailored energy consciousness preparation for community Allows own-language energy workers advice to be delivered to a big figure of people
Access to liberate energy efficiency measuresImproved insularity taking to take down fuel measures
Access to liberate benefits wellness cheque Maximisations of income raising many homeowners out of fuel poorness
Support for energy efficiency programmes Pulling on expertness of REECH undertaking coordinators provides
drift for local energy action
Access to new energy efficiency stuff Homeowners are made cognizant of the latest benefits and new strategies
initiated by fuel providers
Information on cardinal energy contacts Raising consciousness of other administrations allows reproduction
Of successful undertakings. The work of
NEA is frequently based on presentation undertakings that
can so be implemented on wider graduated table
Entree to REECH newssheet Community workers gain new thoughts for action
increasing involvement in the benefits for occupants
( Beginning: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.nea.org.uk )
This undertaking is designed to help older people populating in London who have mental wellness jobs and/or the beginnings of dementedness.
3.2 Current Energy Efficient Schemes
Warm Front is the Government’s main grant-funded programme for undertaking fuel poorness. Initially launched as the Home Energy Efficiency Scheme in June 2000 Warm Front has aided over 140,000 families over the last twelvemonth. ( hypertext transfer protocol: //www.defra.gov.uk/ENVIRONMENT/energy/hees/04.htm ) . Warm Front offers on-line advice and grants to consumers, advancing a guaranteed decrease in energy measures.
The Warm Front grant of Â£2,700 or Â£4,000 provides a bundle of insularity and warming tailored to each belongings. These steps include insularity, heating systems, and advice. ( ‘ hypertext transfer protocol: //www.defra.gov.uk/ENVIRONMENT/energy/hees/01.htm’ )
The Decent Homes Standard
Decided in 2000, the Decent Homes Standard is the duty of the authorities to do certain that all societal lodging meets a good criterion by 2010. This ’decent’ criterion of place has been identified as ‘one which is air current and conditions tight, warm and has modern facilities.’ ( hypertext transfer protocol: //www.swea.co.uk ) . In June 2006 the Thermal Comfort Criteria required efficient warming to be as follows:
- Any gas or oil programmable cardinal warming
- Electric storage warmers
- Warm air systems
- Underfloor systems
- Programmable LPG/solid fuel cardinal warming
- Similarly efficient heating systems which are developed in the hereafter
- Loft insularity ( higher specification for homes heated by electric storage warmers ) .
The Housing Act 2004: Summary of the Main Commissariats
‘The Housing Act 2004 is a cardinal piece of statute law that will protect the most vulnerable in society and assist make a fairer and better lodging market. It will besides beef up the Government ‘s thrust to run into its 2010 nice places mark. Measures relevant to this survey include:
Ã¯â€šÂ·New Housing Health and Safety Rating System
Ã¯â€šÂ·Increasing direction powers of Local governments hypertext transfer protocol: //www.communities.gov.uk/
The Housing Corporation, the national Government bureau that financially supports new low-cost lodging, is set to do the biggest individual investing in energy-efficient places so far in its development programs, which aim to salvage 40,000 metric tons of CO2 per twenty-four hours and 2.5 million liters of H2O each twenty-four hours. ( hypertext transfer protocol: //www.housingcorp.gov.uk ) . The Corporation provinces that in the old ages 2008-10 it will necessitate all developments to make Level 3 of their new codification – their highest lower limit criterions for C emanations and H2O ingestion so far. (Ibid ) .
3.3 Other Policies
Entirely designed for the over-60s, StayWarm offers you complete peace of head. Once you’ve joined you pay a fixed monetary value for all your energy* by monthly Direct Debit. The sum you pay is based on the figure of people who live in your place and the figure of sleeping rooms it has. We guarantee that every bit long as you remain with StayWarm, the monetary value you pay will be fixed for 12 months from when you sign up.
- Entirely for the over-60s
- One fixed regular monthly Direct Debit payment
- Monetary values guaranteed for 12 months
- Complete peace of head – no unexpected measures
hypertext transfer protocol: //www.staywarm.co.uk/pages/default.asp
Energy Efficiency Commitment
The gas and electricity Regulator Ofgem is responsible for pull offing an Energy Efficiency Commitment ( EEC ) , where electricity and gas providers are obliged to accomplish marks in domestic energy efficiency. DEFRA has described the benefits of the EEC as therefore:
‘The EEC contributes to the Climate Change Programme by cutting nursery gas emanations. At least 50 % of energy nest eggs must be focussed on a precedence group of low-income consumers in reception of certain benefits and revenue enhancement credits/pension recognition. So it is expected that the EEC will besides lend to the obliteration of fuel poverty.’ ( hypertext transfer protocol: //www.defra.gov.uk/Environment/energy/eec/ ) .
The first stage of the EEC ran from 1 April 2002 to 31 March 2005 and is expected to salvage 0.37 MtC yearly by 2010, with the 2nd stage running from 1 April 2005 to 31 March 2008 and necessitating about double the degree of activity.
Solar For London
Solar for London is actively involved in assisting lodging suppliers to put up solar energy for big developments around London. ( hypertext transfer protocol: //www.solarforlondon.org ) . The administration besides works with London boroughs to raise and procure support for the solar undertakings.
The Nottingham Declaration
In an attempt to cut down C emanations Local Governments have signed up to the Nottingham Declaration on Climate Change. Over 100 governments have signed up to hold with the undermentioned judicial admissions:
- Admiting that clime alteration is go oning
- Accepting that clime alteration will precipitate great alteration on people, topographic points, economic system, society, and environment.
- Meeting emanations marks
- Raising public consciousness
- Working with cardinal authorities to assist the bringing of the UK Climate Change Programme
- Invest in partnership
- Record advancement and publish consequences
(Ibid ) .Social Housing Brief 2.
3.4 Case Studies
Established originally as a agency to cut down the cost of energy measures for new concerns, the Merton Rule is now recognised as lending to the decrease of planetary heating. ( hypertext transfer protocol: //www.merton.gov.uk ) . This policy straight affects new development: where non-residential developments above a threshold of 1,00 sqm will include ‘renewable energy production equipment to supply at least 10 % of predicted energy requirements.’ (Ibid ) .
So effectual is the Merton Rule, non merely in its 10 % decrease, but besides in its publicity of renewable and sustainable stuffs, that it has been adopted by 80 other local governments in the UK. (Ibid ) .
Croydon has followed Merton’s regulation, taking to significantly cut down emanations from its domestic sector. Green enterprises appear to hold been successful so far with the borough winning ‘greenest place of the year’ in the Green Guardian awards.
This country of London has the 5th highest population denseness of all countries, with 24,000 people on the lodging waiting list. Half of those people have kids. Social Housing includes many different types of edifice such as big Victorian and Georgian edifices in Kennington, little workers bungalows in Clapham, and estates. ( Lambeth Community Strategy 2004-15. Lambeth First: 12 ) .
The quality of lodging is below criterion, with 43 % of the council’s places non run intoing the Decent Homes Standard. Obviously, much energy is lost through hapless insularity, constructing cloth that is in disrepair, and heating systems which are old and inefficient. In order to seek and get the better of these jobs the council aims to:
- Promote environmental consciousness and duty
- Extend scope of recycling installations, while promoting decrease and reuse
- Promote chances in local environment economic systems, with accent on entry-level occupations.
- Guaranting that future building will supply places which have better energy efficiency, usage sustainable stuffs, and last thirster.
Lambeth’s Local Authority Website has been successful in advancing their new lodging scheme, supplying elaborate information on energy salvaging with contact information for council members. The site, improved from its former province by luck cooky – an online concern development company – was named as the best council web site in England by the Society of Public Information Networks in 2006.
Practical enterprises include a regeneration of a community heating web on the William Bonney estate. The Energy Saving Trust has given a Community Energy grant of Â£10,000. Research is presently undergoing into uniting two boiler houses into one, utilizing energy from a combined heat and waste energy works, providing 8,777 dwellings.. ( hypertext transfer protocol: //www.est.org.uk/housingbuildings/casestudies/index.cfm? mode=listing & A ; audtype=2 & A ; casecat=114 ) .
Table 2 shows a relevant subdivision of The Sutton Housing Strategy in execution until 2008
Beginning: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.sutton.gov.uk/NR/rdonlyres/6C626265-1438-4D07-B28A-086836D29CC3/0/HousingStrategy200405to200809Draft9final.pdf
It is documented that Sutton Council proposes to better place energy preservation and consciousness in the private sector through the proviso of grants. For the societal sector, nevertheless, this is still under reappraisal. The undertakings being implemented include grants and developing for voluntary bureaus in order to help those in fuel poorness and who could profit from energy salvaging strategies.
Over the last few old ages Sutton’s lodging scheme has been monitored through a series of studies – the last being in 2002. The action program for 2002 included energy efficiency. However, since so important action in the societal sector has involved anti-social behavior ; regeneration ; and sheltered lodging, with an accent on accomplishing low-cost lodging with fairer rents. Home energy efficiency and fuel poorness rated 7 out of 10 on the ranking of Local Importance and it seems that marks for place energy efficiency are being set for 2010, which is the government’s mark for the Decent Homes Standard. It is clear that Sutton’s lodging scheme is set within the context of authorities policy. For case, it is mentioned that work has been put into accomplishing the guidelines set by the government’s ‘Sustainable Communities: edifice for the future’ programme, which sets about bettering life conditions, and advancing regeneration, while working towards sustainable and low-cost life. However, this means that environmental issues, although being topographic point on the docket, are taking more of a backseat behind the more urgent societal issues such as offense and homelessness.
Sutton, possibly more than any other Local Authority under treatment this paper, is enduring from a deficiency of fiscal resources and investing. There is a 76 million lb backlog of fixs to Council places, with Â£47M needed for plants over the following 10 old ages. ( http: //www.sutton.gov.uk/NR/rdonlyres/6C626265-1438-4D07-B28A-086836D29CC3/0/HousingStrategy200405to200809Draft9final.PDF ) . It is therefore hard for this borough to prosecute any extravagant or extremist agencies of reform for energy efficiency – alternatively, they are trusting on the work of voluntary bureaus, and re-launching the energy efficiency strategy which began in 2000.
However, it is exactly these standards which interested the charity Peabody ( for London’s less comfortable citizens ) to put in a multi million lb sustainable development. Bedzed, in Beddington, is an independent mix of high-density lodging and low environmental impact. 82 places have been provided, with 15 designated for societal lodging. A low proportion, but a proportion however.
3.5 Natural Resources/ Recycling
Fig 1. Beginning: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.restats.org.uk/Regional_-_Chart_2.html
Fig 1 utilizations consequences from statistics gathered in 2005, and shows London as holding the least figure of sites from which to bring forth renewable energy. This, to a certain extent is to be expected due to the deficiency of suited sites – such as unfastened land exposed to the air current. However, the sum of other biofuels generated is proportionate to that of other parts in the state, as illustrated in figure 6.
Fig 2. Sum of energy generated by part: 2005. Beginning: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.restats.org.uk/Regional_-_Chart_6.html
The largest landfill site in Greater London – at Rainham – will be full in less than five old ages. Alternate methods will progressively be used for waste direction including cut downing rubbish at beginning ( for illustration by utilizing less packaging ) , recycling, composting and incineration. New methods of waste direction, such as bring forthing energy from waste, will besides necessitate to be considered.
The Mayor ‘s Municipal Waste Management Strategy,Rethinking Rubbish in London,was published on 23 September 2003. Measures so far include:
- distribution of a Â£21.3 million London Recycling Fund, and procuring Â£3.6 million extra support from authorities
- the development of www.capitalwastefacts.com to better informations on waste in London
- the rollout of the Mayor’s Green Procurement Code to all boroughs and over 230 companies
- the development of the Capital Standard programme with the boroughs, to clean up London ‘s streets, including preparation of 120 enforcement officers, the ‘pick it up ‘ vocal for schools, and the launch of the London Schools Environment Award
- the launch of the Recycle for London run.
( quoted from hypertext transfer protocol: //www.london.gov.uk/mayor/strategies/waste/index.jsp )
A job with some of the energy efficient steps being employed in the building industry is that the procedure of doing them, and the disposing of them is turn outing to be highly dearly-won to the environment. A good illustration is UPVC Double Glazing – designed for maximal insularity but non economical on the environment in its production or disposal.
However, these effects have to be weighed against the impacts of other stuffs. For illustration, wood and aluminum – both of which have their ain impacts on the environment, such as production, and in the instance of wood – preventive intervention during usage.
The Building Research Establishment published a paper in 2000 called a ‘green’ usher to building stuffs in which Life Cycle Assessment surveies of assorted stuffs are used to bring forth a point of mention for house builders and interior decorators on what their environmental impacts are.
Energy Efficiency Best Practice in Housing have established through research that there is planetary force per unit area to guarantee that building stuffs are sustainable. An EEBPH usher to good pattern has described the Building Research Establishment Green Guide as ‘definitive [ … ] developed over 20 old ages and supported by the National House Building Council.’ ( EEBPH 2002 ) . However, seeking to guarantee that these stuffs are used in the edifice of new societal lodging is a really different affair as these places need to be low-cost to both the Local Authority who are funding them and to the prospective dwellers.
How cost effectual is energy salvaging for the consumer?
Table 3 shows how long it takes to payback the original money spending for retrofitting domestic steps from the nest eggs made in fuel costs.
Renewable or efficiency step Typical Simple
domestic nest eggs payback ( old ages )
Hot H2O armored combat vehicle jacket 10-150.5 to 3
Cardinal heating programme/thermostat 15 to 40 2 to 6
Low-energy lighting ( per compact fluorescent visible radiation ) 2 to 5 1 to 3
Loft insularity to 200mm 60 to 100 3 to 5
Cavity wall insularity 65 to 140 4 to 8
Draught-proofing 0 to 206 to 20
Condensing boiler 20 to 200 6 to 12
Solar hot H2O heating system 20 to 10012 to 40
External wall insularity 60 to 140 20 to 35
Low emissive two-base hit glazing 40 to 100 60 to 110
Photovoltaic roof tiles 90 to 180 70 to 135*
* Before authorities grants ( which cover 50 % + of installing costs )
Beginning: National Home Energy Rating Scheme/NEF Data ; Energy Saving Trust ; Quoted from: Elliott 2003: 81 ) .
A study by NCC – National Consumers Council, in 1997 found that there is a good representation of the populace who are willing to take action to assist the planet, including purchasing environmentally friendly merchandises. However, many of these merchandises were little – such as visible radiation bulbs and rugs, and did non needfully stand for energy efficient steps which would necessitate important investing. ( NCC 1997 ) .
3.6 Sustainable Populating
An article written by Jill Grant, an American professor of environmental planning, in 1996, promoted the cardinal demand to ‘protect critical resources and habitat countries from development’ stating that it was ’only one portion of the extended attempt of sustainable development.’ They emphasised the importance of employment: ‘as contrivers we seek non merely to protect landscape maps and procedures, but besides to guarantee lodging and employment for community members.’ ( Grant et al 1996: 333 ) .
Over the last 10 old ages, planning has had to see the whole country under proposal for new development, instead than insulating developments in environments which are unsustainable. The four boroughs under treatment in this undertaking are all on the job towards sustainability, with an accent on developing the community as a whole, associating occupants through community action webs and regional preparation of voluntaries from bureaus which seek to get the better of linguistic communication barriers in cultural communities.
So far the literature reviewed has helped to give an lineation of the nature of energy efficient strategies but the attitudes of those who live in societal lodging demands to be represented farther. The questionnaires used can be found in Appendix 1 and 2.
Chapter 5 Presentation of consequences
A study for the Housing Corporation, commissioned in July 2006, interviewed people populating in societal rented adjustment. It found the undermentioned information relevant to this survey:
Length of clip in Social Housing
7 % less than a twelvemonth
21 % had been in the societal sector for over 20 old ages
Prospects: Moving place
23 % of respondents wanted to travel place in the following 2 old ages
Two tierces wanted to lease from a lodging association in 10 old ages clip
Type of lodging renters wished to travel to:
56 % wished to transport on leasing from a lodging association
24 % were diffident
6 % would wish to lease from the council
14 % wanted to go proprietor residents
Fig 3 Type of Housing Tenants wished to travel to. Beginning: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.housingcorporation.co.uk/
Merely over half of respondents agreed with the undermentioned statement:
‘People by and large think that being a lodging association renter is a good term of office, when compared to having your belongings, leasing from a private landlord or leasing from the Council.’
State of lodging:
9 % found their places draughty
10 % found it hard to maintain warm.
( hypertext transfer protocol: //www.housingcorporation.co.uk/
Although this penultimate consequence – being presented as a positive statement – does propose illation from the interviewer, the informations by and large shows that respondents were content to stay in societal lodging, and that criterions were acceptable. However, the 10 % who found their adjustment hard to heat could be helped by energy efficient measures – the consequence of which would construct over clip to salvage them, and their lodging association money.
The graph below shows the proportion of energy efficient places across all term of offices in the UK, which have a SAP evaluation of under 30.
Fig 4. Beginning: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.poverty.org.uk/48b/a.gif
90 % of places in England in 2004 were classified as really energy efficient compared to 15 % in 1996. Those in the private rented sector have declined the most, with the societal rented lodging fairing merely somewhat better than the proprietor occupied sector in 1996. These figures so altered by 2001-2004, so that the societal lodging dropped below the proprietor occupied sector – stoping with an norm of 6.5 % of homes being classed as really energy efficient. The fluctuation of the per centums for the proprietor occupied sector suggests that proprietor residents are capable to the altering tendencies or popularity of energy salvaging – possibly with personal fortunes doing it hard to put clip and money in energy economy. Whereas in the other two sectors it is the duty of the authorization or the belongings proprietor to put in energy salvaging – in both instances a service is being presented to the populace and justly sets a criterion. To set societal lodging in the context of other term of offices it is possible to define that although the proportion of energy efficient places has fallen, it was non such a dramatic lessening as those of other term of offices. Furthermore the graph shows consistence over the last few old ages, proposing that any farther diminution in Numberss of energy efficient places would be negligible.
Commissioned by the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs ( DEFRA ) , the 2001 ‘Survey of public attitudes to quality of life and to the environment’ found that Health was at the top of the public docket for what the authorities should be covering with.
Issues the authorities should be covering with: 2001
Fig 5 Beginning: DEFRA
DEFRA provinces that in each of the studies carried out since 1986, environment/pollution has remained in the top five of the issues that the Government should be covering with. ( DEFRA 2002 ) . This figure ( 25 % ) has risen from 1996/7 when it was 15 % .
Number 3 of the questionnaire for RSL’S and Number 10 of the 2nd study undertaken for this survey showed the above options – Health ; Environment ; Education ; Crime ; Unemployment ; Housing – and asked respondents to circle the one which they believed should be prioritised over all others. The options were presented in a circle on the page so as non to deduce prejudice by naming them.
92 respondents in entire from both questionnaires prioritised as follows: Health: 36 %
Environment: 35 % Crime: 18 % Education: 4 % Housing: 7 % Unemployment: 0 %
In the 2003 study on the Strategic Housing Forum it was ascertained that the so population of Sutton – 180,000 – was proposed to turn to 190,000 by the twelvemonth 2016.
hypertext transfer protocol: //www.sutton.gov.uk/ . Data showed 76,000 places: 10.7 % Local Authority Housing, and 6.3 % Registered Social Landlords. 74.3 % owner-occupied, and 8.7 % in private rented.
Data relevant to this survey besides showed an increasing ageing population, set to increase by 10 % during the following five old ages.
60 % of Sutton council’s rented lodging is over 40 old ages old, with 40 % holding been built before 1945.
On April 1st2003 47 % of Sutton’s places failed to run into the government’s nice places standard. However, in most instances the RSL’s envisaged run intoing the nice places mark.
In 2001/2 the figure of new private sector homes in London constituted 73 % of all new residential homes completed in the capital over the twelvemonth. Over the last 20 old ages the one-year completion of new homes in London has about halved. ( hypertext transfer protocol: //www.statistics.gov.ac.uk ) , go forthing local authorization house-building programmes to fall from 16,300 completions in 1980/1 to merely 50 from 1995 to 2001. A major lending factor to this diminution was the government’s Right To Buy strategy, which meant council house gross revenues increased from 7,325 in 1992/3 to 9,817 in 2001/02.
Table 4 shows the per centums of Housing Stock in London – by Tenure – between 1991 and 2002
1991 199819992000 2001 2002
Rented from local authorization242019181717
Rented from private proprietors or with 13 16 16 16 1616
occupation or concern__________________________________________________
Rented from registered societal landlord 5788910
( Beginning: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.statistics.gov.ac.uk )
Right-to-Buy Gross saless
RTB gross revenues have increased from 7,325 in 1992/3 to 9,917 in 2001/2, top outing at 11,439 in 2000/01. ( hypertext transfer protocol: //www.statistics.gov.ac.uk ) .
Consequences from the appraisal of the Energy Efficiency Commitment 2002-5 found that there was a difference in the figure of steps installed in private and societal sector places. The societal sector had a higher figure of installings than the private sector by about 15 % , see Table:
Table 5 European union: Number of Energy Efficient Measures installed in 1000000s
Consequences for the EEC estimated the nominal cost per measure for EEC 2002-05 to be about Â£3.20 ( ex VAT ) public address system, around 15-20 % lower than the original estimation.
The consequences relevant to this survey have been summarised as follows:
1. For Fridgesavers the mark entirely has an uplift factor of 1.6 ( since this is an inducement for societal grounds, and does non lend to carbon nest eggs ) .
2. Datas for theCompact Fluorescent Lampsindicates that about all of the direct CFLs are 20W sticks, with really high use assumed ( 1,200 hours a twelvemonth or more ) . This consequences in one-year nest eggs estimations of around 90kWh. However, a recent study for the energy providers estimated that of the CFLs supplied straight, merely 75 % are really in usage, with 23 % in storage, and 2 % disposed of. Of the 23 % in storage, some may finally replace GLS bulbs, but it is likely that a high fraction will be used to replace CFLs when these fail.
3. It is assumed that increased comfort is valued at the same rate as existent energy nest eggs, which is reflected in the high Numberss of insularity installings. ( hypertext transfer protocol: //www.defra.gov.uk/Environment/energy/heca95/intro.htm ) . This suggests that people are more interested in maintaining warm than puting in salvaging the environment.
4. The study besides found that:
Priority Group subsidies for insularity and warming steps in owner-occupied places lay chiefly in the scope 80-100 % , with other Household proprietor resident subsidies runing between 30 % and 45 % for major insularity steps ; for boilers the subsidy averaged about 75 % . Whereas provider parts to Social Housing Landlord parts were high for insularity ( 55-75 % ) ; around 35 % for boilers ; but little for really expensive steps, e.g. around 10 % for fuel shift and solid wall insularity.
Sustainable Energy Policy Division Defra March 2006 p.11
Social Landlords are willing to pay for the most economical of steps – such as insularity – but non for the more expensive steps, such as replacing boilers.
These findings are consistent with the consequences of the study for this undertaking, that was conducted upon 5 registered societal landlords. 60 Landlords and ladies were asked which Government energy salvaging strategies they were familiar with ; how of import they considered energy salvaging to be when placed next to other concerns of the community ; and which energy efficient steps they had installed in their belongingss. The consequences are set out below with the higher per centums being broken down into per centums for each borough:
Question 1: Each energy efficient step was given a evaluation of 100 % : Internet Explorer if all landlords ticked the box for that peculiar step so it would derive the full 100 %
80 % loft insularity ( 40 % Croydon ; 25 % Sutton ; 10 % Merton ; 5 % Lambeth )
0 % visible radiation bulbs
90 % rug with carpet pad ( 25 % Croydon ; 24 % Sutton ; 22 % Lambeth ; 29 % Merton )
60 % dual glazing
40 % gas cardinal warming
2. Are you cognizant of any edifice stuffs used in the cloth of your place being renewable or environmentally friendly? If so, which?
a. Windows………………….5 %
b. Doors……………………..70 % ( 5 % Merton ; 13 % Sutton ; 5 % Croydon ; 42 % Lambeth )
c. Roofing materials………65 %
d. Flooring materials……..0 %
e. Interior/ fittings…………0 %
3. Which of the undermentioned concerns do you believe should be prioritised in your country?
Of these Crime was promoted as the highest with Environment rated beneath.
5 out of 8 respondents from Lambeth prioritised Housing, with the other 3 Environment
7 out of 9 in Merton chose offense
7 out of 10 of Sutton chose offense
3 out of 6 in Croydon chose environment
The 2nd questionnaire targeted those populating in societal lodging merely.
1.. Which of the followers does your current place have?
a. Pvc window frames…………40 %
B. Wooden Window frames. ….60 %
c. Double glazing………………45 %
d. Single Glazing……………….55 %
e. Loft insulation……………35 %
f. Hot H2O armored combat vehicle jacket………..5 %
g. Inner wall insulation……..2 %
h. Carpeting with underlay……85 %
I. Wooden flooring…………….15 %
J. Gas cardinal heating………….35 %
k. Electric heating……………..45 %
l. Night storage heating……….15 %
m. Oil cardinal heating…….5 %
n. Energy salvaging light bulbs….10 %
2. How has your Local Authority encouraged you to take portion in energy economy?
a. Through put ining you in a place with energy salvaging measures……5 %
B. Through canvassing/ advice on energy economy in the home………..20 %
c. Neither………………………..75 %
Have you experienced/or make you see fuel poorness?
a. Yes……..57 %
b. No………43 %
4. Which Energy-saving strategies are you familiar with?
B. Warm Front
c. The Merton Rule
65 % were familiar with all three
5 Respondents were shown a tabular array naming renewable or efficient steps with the sum of domestic nest eggs beside them.
Having seen how you could profit financially through energy salvaging – does this encourage you to look into going more energy efficient?
a. Yes…..50 %
b. No…….50 %
6. Make you work in the country local to where you live?
a. Yes…………67 %
b. No………….33 % ( of which two tierces were unemployed )
7 Have you considered or are you sing traveling out of the borough in which you live?
a. Yes………35 %
b. No……….65 % ( of which the proportion was every bit distributed between boroughs )
- 50 % of these said they would travel to seek better lodging and employment together
Question 8 asked respondents what they perceived to be the most of import ways to cut down and conserve the sum of energy used:
55 % said recycling
35 % said usage less H2O and electric
5 % said preventive steps in the place
5 % said they didn’t cognize
These findings suggest that people are traveling to prioritize in a similar manner in their day-to-day life. It seems that lodging is perceived to be separate from environment, with people concentrating on waste disposal and recycling, instead than on energy efficiency in the place.
6 % of respondents said that their places had energy salvaging devices which they didn’t cognize how to utilize or weren’t working decently
The response rates for the questionnaires were low so it has non been possible to generalize from such a little sample – particularly in the instance of Croydon where merely 6 were returned. The consequences suggested that RSL’S had different positions to the renters – particularly about which job should be prioritised in the local country. This statistic is interesting as it even though the RSL’s don’t live in the country their position of the community differs to that of the occupants. Most RSL respondents from Croydon prioritised offense as the pressing issue, while most renters prioritised wellness.
A higher proportion of RSL’S said they had energy efficient steps installed in their places. This suggests that Croydon might be in front of the other boroughs in footings of energy efficiency in the place.
65 % of all respondents said they were familiar with energy salvaging strategies. This suggests a good degree of public consciousness in the four boroughs. However, these consequences may non stand for plenty cultural communities who might non be so good informed because of linguistic communication barriers.
For renewable stuffs there was a higher per centum of renewable doors in Lambeth – possibly because of the figure of old edifices. Consequences suggested that there was more force per unit area upon supplying places than guaranting that the right stuffs were being used. The worsening figures of available societal sector rented places over the last 10 old ages has made the building of new energy efficient edifices exceptionally hard. Due to the fiscal restrictions of local governments and council places any new places need to be built every bit economically as possible. The effect of this is that constructing stuffs and methods need to be dependable and cost effectual – hence local governments would be less willing to put in eco-friendly strategies which were non 100 % proven. This is why more experimental undertakings – possibly funded by independent administrations or charities – demand to be put into pattern: this might promote action from societal sector governments, whose resources are minimum.
The renovation and regeneration of homes appears to be below norm for all boroughs, with Croydon being the best. If more money could be invested so more sustainability would be possible. The transition of homes into energy efficient places non merely has an impact on the natural environment, but besides on the local community. Sustainable life requires a turnover of occupations within a local country, and care and reclamation of lodging requires a well paid skilled labour force. Consequences showed that a good per centum of people did work in their local country which suggests a comparative degree of sustainability already present. However, the benefits of promoting local governments to follow environmentally friendly and sustainable