Employment Among Peoples With Disabilities Social Work Essay

Companies determinations to engage and retain employee can be influence of assortment of factors. The survey examines factors that influence companies ‘ determination to engage a individual with disablements in Kota Kinabalu, Sabah. While non denying the fact that there are legion factors lending to the companies ‘ determinations to engage handicapped people. Harmonizing to the Department of Social Welfare Malaysia, individuals with disablement is any individual who is unable to obtain for himself/herself, to the full or partly, the normal demands of an person and / or is unable to take part to the full in the community due to defects either physically or mentally and whether it occurred since birth or subsequently in life. There are six classs of disablements that are identify and registered in the section that is first hearing disablement including deaf and deaf-and-dumb person, 2nd is vision disablement including blind that is eyesight less than 3/60 for the good oculus even with vision support equipment ( oculus spectacless ) and low vision/partially sighted that is eyesight less 6/18 but equal or better than 3/60 for the good oculus even with vision support equipment ( oculus spectacless ) , 3rd is physical disablement such as Polio, Amputee, Muscular Dystrophy, Myopathy, Neuropathy, Osteogenesis Imperfecta and others, 4th is Cerebral Palsy such as Hemiplegia that is Cerebral paralysis that affect half of the organic structure, Diplegia that is Cerebral paralysis that affect both legs and Quadriplegia that is Cerebral paralysis that affect all limbs, fifth is larning disablement that is Global Development Delay ( for kids age & lt ; 3 ) , Down Syndrome Autism, attending shortage overactive upset and specific larning disablements such as dyslexia, dysgraphia, dyscalculia and others, sixth is other disablements ‘ class that non stated above.

Peoples with disablements are frequently being socially excluded in our Malayan Society ( Malaysian Care Organisation ) . Negative attitudes towards individuals with disablements has been identified as a barrier them to particiapte to the full in society ( Hasnah Toran et al. , 2009 ) . Without a conjunct attempt and consciousness from companies and public every bit good, there is no betterment for this people to take part to the full in society.

Malaysia passed the Person with Disability Act ( PWDA ) in 2008 as portion of its duties under the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities ( UN convention ) . Harmonizing to this Act, those individuals with disablements shall hold equal entree to public installations, comfortss, services and edifices, public conveyance, instruction, employment, information, communicating and engineering, cultural life, diversion, leisure and athletics ( www.thenutgraph.com ) . This Act as a footing for equalisation of chances for individual with disablements, to extinguish favoritism and harrasment against them and to advance their full engagement as equal citizens of this state ( Zulfikri Osman, 2003 ) .


There are 15,409 PWDs registered with the State Welfare Services Department in Kota Kinabalu, Sabah as at July 2010, including those with physical or mental disablements, hearing and vision damage, intellectual paralysis every bit good as intellectually challenged harmonizing to Community Development and Consumer Affairs Minister Datuk Azizah Mohd Dun in the Daily Express ( 10 October 2010 ) . Harmonizing to her, there are many other PWDs out at that place have non registered to the section and impulses to make so and the society must accommodate to their demands and harmonize them the same right. There are some attacks and run done by authorities to better the criterion of life handicapped individuals.

In general, the reaction of the private sector towards employment of handicapped people may be due to misperception about people with disablements. Hooi ( 2000a, p. 4 ) quotes Bathmavathi Krishnan, a senior handicapped bibliothec in Kuala Lumpur: ‘Most employers are loath to use the handicapped because of concerns sing safety ordinances, the demand to modify premises such as put ining inclines, disabled-friendly lavatories and excess medical costs ‘ . Mariah Abdul Rahman ( Hooi 2000a, p. 4 ) a web-lab director in MIMOS Bhd, cites bias and the fright of uncertainness among employers as the chief grounds why people with disablements find it hard to seek employment.

In this epoch of globalisation and digitisation where competitory force per unit areas of the new economic system spill over into the lives of the rich, hapless and handicapped people, the demand for a nice occupation is even more cardinal to a life of dignified being: “ The work that we do has a important impact on our societal and material wellbeing, in footings of income, category, position, influence, societal relationships and personal individuality ” ( Barnes, Mercer & A ; Shakespeare 1999, p.1 10 ) .

The intent of this survey is to look into companies ‘ attitudes towards employment of individuals with disablements in Kota Kinabalu, Sabah.


1 ) The aim of this survey is to look into factor that influence companies ‘ attitudes toward the employment of individuals with disablements.

2 ) To urge suited employee for the private company.


The range of the survey covers a few selected Private companies in Kota Kinabalu, Sabah ( Sembulan, Tanjung Aru, Lintas, Inanam and Likas ) .


This survey is important because it seek to mensurate the companies ‘ sentiments and position in engaging individuals with disablements. This survey will profit the authorities, handicapped people, employers and local universities as there were few empirical surveies in this country. Hence the findings from this survey can be used by the authorities and employers to develop better attempt in developing handicapped people to populate in better life conditions and in the workplace.

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The footings used in the survey are defined for easiness of understanding

1.6.1 Disability individual

Those who have long term physical, mental, rational or centripetal damages which in interaction with assorted barriers may impede their full and effectual engagement in society ( Social Welfare Department of Malaysia ) .

Disability is defined harmonizing to the American Disability Act: “ 1 ) A individual who has a physical of mental damage, which well limits a major life activity, 2 ) Has record of that damage that is used by the employer to know apart against the person, and 3 ) Is regarded by others as holding such an damage, whether impaired or non ( this class includes AIDS/HIV ) ” ( Fersh & A ; Thomas, 1993 ; Spechler, 1996 ; President ‘s Committee on Employment of People with Disabilities, 1993 ) .

1.6.2 Private Company

Business house in the private ( non-public ) sector of an economic system, controlled and operated by private persons ( and non by civil retainers or government-employees ) ( retrieved from businessdictionary on 18 October 2010 ) .

1.6.3 Attitude`

An attitude is a erudite sensitivity to act in a consistent favourable or unfavourable manner with regard to a given object ( Schiffman & A ; Kanuk, 1994 ) .

Attitude is a combination of beliefs and feelings that influence behaviour ( Brostrand, 2006 ) . writer ( Brostrand, 2006 ) . While Triandis, Adampoulus, and Brinberg ( 1984 ) besides defines attitude as an thought or belief is driven by feelings and bring forth a certain behaviour in a societal state of affairs.

Chapter 2


Hiring Peoples with Disabilities

A 1994 survey by Ford attempted to find where employers received information about the ADA and their preparation in engaging people with disablements. Participants were besides asked what services they needed to use people with terrible disablements and in what countries they were missing information. Responses included deficiency of information about supported employment, disablement, edifice alterations, employer benefits, Torahs, support, rehabilitation engineering devices and services, and service suppliers. When participants were asked whether they were able to supply the rehabilitation engineering necessary to use an person with a disablement, 74 % said they were non. When asked to province why, 23 % said deficiency of financess, 22 % indicated deficiency of expertness, 19 % did non cognize where to travel for preparation, and 14 % stated it was due to low precedence, deficiency of clip, deficiency of feedback, or personal restraints. Twenty-six per centum of employers surveyed said they had ne’er made a referral to a vocational rehabilitation bureau for an employee with a disablement. When asked why, 36 % said they did non even cognize it was possible, 24 % did non cognize where to mention to, 26 % said it was non their occupation, and the staying 14 % stated it was non in their best involvements or in the best involvements of the employee with the disablement ( Ford, 13 1994 ) . The consequences of this survey indicate that employers need more information and aid in using people with disablements.

Employers Attitudes

While some surveies have explored the demand employers have for information, other surveies have investigated employers ‘ attitudes towards engaging people with disablements. One survey on employers ‘ attitudes made usage of a graduated table developed by Kregel and Tomiyasu ( 1994 ) This graduated table measured the attitudes of 170 employers toward workers with disablements and towards the ADA. The consequences of this survey found that while 96 % of the 170 employers interviewed knew of the ADA, merely 36 % said they would back up mandated quotas for engaging people with disablements. The employers were asked about their satisfaction and old experience with people with disablements in the workplace ; 73 % had old experience. Of that 73 % , 78 % were satisfied with the public presentation of the worker with a disablement, 11 % were slightly satisfied.

Overall, this survey found employers to hold a positive attitude towards people with disablements. The employers did admit that in order for the passage into the work force to be successful they needed to supply a good attempt. On the other manus, employers did non experience they had to make occupations or employ individuals with disablements themselves. They did experience aid would be necessary to engage a individual with a disablement, but few felt it would be excessively expensive. In add-on, although these employers saw people with disablements favourably, they believed the hiring of a individual with a disablement would depend on the extent or badness of the disablement. The employers besides expressed some personal concerns, which included frights of non being able to pass on with the employee and fright of the employee with a disablement doing particular demands ( Kregel & A ; Tomiyasu, 1994 ) .

Constructing Relationships

Developing relationships between vocational rehabilitation bureaus and employers will increase communicating and profit both. Employers will have aid in the logistics of engaging an person with a disablement and VR will more successfully place clients into unfastened places within those companies. Accommodation is one country where employers struggle to cognize what is necessary and how to implement it. When suiting workers with disablements it is of import for companies to recognize that they do non hold to make it on their ain. It is suggested that companies take a proactive attack. Some suggested guidelines are:

1 ) Designate a company representative to supervise ADA conformity.

2 ) Create and keep concerted relationships with other companies and community resources.

3 ) Ensure that all company policies are compatible with ADA prescriptions… 4 ) Consult rehabilitation professionals to help in the preparation and reappraisal of adjustment options, and readying of work and non-work environments. ( Mullins, Rumrill, & A ; Roessler, 1994, p. 16 )

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Attitudes of Society and Employers

Due to attitudes or society and, more specifically, employers, occupation arrangement and occupation development for persons with a mental disablement can be disputing in itself ; add the construct of occupation development, and you have an even more complicated state of affairs. In occupation arrangement, the occupation placement specializer plants with persons with mental unwellness in assorted types of vocational environments, finds out that they may be more like a ‘salesperson ‘ trying to sell a ‘product ‘ to community employers. The ‘product ‘ that the occupation placement specializer is advancing to community employers is his or her clients ‘ abilities and accomplishments. The motive for this action is that community employers have what rehabilitation professionals and their consumers want-a occupation in an integrated community puting. However, geting this vocational end is non every bit easy as it sounds-‘get the occupation ‘ ( University of Wisconsin-Stout, 1983 ) . The arrangement to specialist demands to be persuasive, because if he or she is non able to advance their clients to employers in the community, the unemployment rate may remain the same or even worsen ( Fabian & A ; Waterworth, 1993 ) . In order for this event to take topographic point, the occupation placement specializer must make a working relationship with the employer in order to make a positive working environment for his or her client.

Malayan empployers ‘ attitude

A survey by Zulfikri Osman ( 2003 ) on Malayan employers ‘ attitudes toward engaging individuals with disablements found that Malayan employers are found to be discriminatory in engaging handicapped workers. Jobs offered to handicapped workers are usually for lower place. The Ministry of National Unity and Social Development thhrough its working group on statute law had drafted a proposed Act to be called Person with Disabilities Act. However, these federal enterprises, every bit of import as they are, have non changed the manner many employers feel about engaging the handicapped people. The survey besides found that, those surveyed perceived their organisations had been unjust in offering occupations while at the same clip make non supply particular preparation plans tailored for handicapped workers. On the positive side though, organisations gave the same benefits and salary strategies, equal chance for promotion and are socially responsible in term of employment oppotunity given to handicapped workers. However, employers do non truly care about handicapped people engagement in edifice. Furthermore, organisations seemed to prefer normal prospective employees, during choice and enlisting, to handicapped people. The cross tabular matters revealed that the private sector ‘s employment of handicapped workers declined aggressively. The three hypotheses were so tested and found that preparation and development policy and the legal and ethical environment were proven to hold important relationships with employers ‘ attitude separately. However, an organisation alone workplace environment was non. Although the strengths of each relationship were non established the significance of two out of three, are thought to be good for future research and anticipation on employers ‘ attitude. Finally, the findings raised the demand for a reappraisal of bing legal commissariats to guarantee equal employment chance for all.

A survey by Noraini Mohd Salleh, Khalid Abdullah and Nor Aishah Buang ( 2001 ) on Job Opportunities for Special Needs Poplulation in Malaysia found that the particular needs population ‘s short approachs or their handicapping factors were non the faltering blocks of their calling development and instruction has played a major function towards their success. Seven hundred fourthy six particular demands persons ( blind, low vision, deaf, mentally retarded, intellectual paralysis, down syndrome, epileptic, stammer, physically handicapped, spastic, and with speech jobs ) with occupations were identified and some of the occupations undertaken by the particular demands population are classified as: professional, semi-professional ; skilled non-professional and unskilled non-professional. Hundred fourty authorities bureaus and private companies were located. These employers or possible employers ‘ suggestions for their clients or possible clients ‘ preparation to be more specific and suited for the occupation market ; in line with the state ‘s demands ; concern prejudice ; disposition towards industrialisation: electronic, information engineering ; nutrient and tailoring.

A survey by Prabha Ramakrishnan ( 2007 ) on Critical Factors Influencing Employment of Disabled Persons in Malaysia. There are four factors covered by the survey that are viz. , the organizational committedness to employment of handicapped people, attitude attitude towards disabled workers, the organizational policies on disablement, and the employment chances for the handicapped people. The first three factors constitute the independent variables, and the last one, the dependant variable. The first variable organizational committedness to employment of handicapped people. The 2nd variable is attitude towards disabled workers. The 3rd variable organizational policies on disablement. Overall, these three independent variables significantly explain the discrepancy in the dependant variable, i.e. employment chances for the handicapped individuals. The findings of this survey show that the organizational committedness to the employment of handicapped people is reasonably favorable. This is indicated by a higher organisational committedness by companies that employ handicapped workers ; it is besides shown by a higher accent for developing employees towards disablement issues. However, there is no important difference in the enlisting of handicapped workers between administrations that employ no handicapped individuals and those that employ handicapped individuals. The overall attitude towards employment of handicapped people is non really favorable, although the colleagues perceptual experience of handicapped staff is reasonably favorable. While the organizational perceptual experience on the demand for supervising of handicapped employees is slightly favorable, the administrations that presently employ handicapped individuals are of the sentiment that greater supervising is needed. The general perceptual experience on the current organizational policy for employment of handicapped individuals is non truly favorable, although administrations that employ handicapped people perceive themselves to hold a more favorable policy. Findingss on the barriers to employment of handicapped people indicate that Malayan administrations perceive the deficiency of related experience in pull offing disablement issues as the most important barrier. Other barriers, in falling order, are the deficiency of instruction on disablement subjects, deficiency of required accomplishment and preparation, cost of supervising of handicapped workers, attitude towards and stereotyping of handicapped workers, deficiency of cognition about adjustment issues, cost of developing for handicapped employees, and the cost of adjustment for the handicapped workers. Although the Malayan authorities has provided inducements to the private sector and put quota for the populace sector to better the employment rate of handicapped individuals, overall research findings show that disablement employment and chances for such employment is low in Malaysia.

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Ganapathy ( Jayasooria 2000 ) in 1992 identified five grounds for low hiring of handicapped individuals in Malaysia ; first ground is the absence of a nation-wide registry of occupation searchers among handicapped individuals because the Government and voluntary bureaus were non good coordinated, the 2nd ground is the bias bing against handicapped people, the 3rd is the hapless entree to public installations, the 4th ground is the restricted location of employment – more concentrated than distributed, and, the 5th ground is reluctance of employers to modify or accommodate machinery and installations for handicapped workers.


Independent variables Dependent variable

Colleagues ‘ perceptual experience

Companies ‘ attitudes

Work public presentation

Management ‘s perceptual experience on the demand for supervising

Figure 1

Independent Variables:

Colleagues ‘ perceptual experience

Colleagues ‘ perceptual experience towards disabled workers either favourably or non-favorably that affect on companies ‘ attitudes in engaging them.

Work public presentation

Work public presentation of handicapped workers such as their accomplishments and abilities in executing their undertaking that affect on Companies ‘ attitudes.

Management ‘s perceptual experience on the demand for supervising

Management ‘s perceptual experience on the demand for supervising of handicapped workers after engaging them that either favourably or non-favorably.


Companies ‘ attitude is mentioning to their sentiments and positions and what factors that influence them in engaging individuals with disablements.

Chapter 3


3.1 Research Design

For the intent of this survey, the research design will be sample study. The research demands for information from people in five topographic points in Kota Kinabalu which are Sembulan, Likas and Tanjung Aru. It means the disposal of questionnaires will be distributed to try of selected company. Types of attacks being used is by a questionnaire study.

3.2 Unit of Analysis

As this survey will turn to the companies ‘ attitudes towards employment individuals with disablements, unit analysis will be the employer and employee of the selected private companies.

3.3 Sample size

The sample size for the intent of this survey is 50 respondents which taken indiscriminately in that five topographic points of selected private companies.

3.4 Sampling Technique

Five topographic points in selected country will be selected for closer analysis of companies ‘ attitudes towards employment of individuals with disablements. The type of sampling is random trying technique to choose the sample. The sampling frame for this survey was produced by a digest of names of corporations and smaller concerns from telephone directories and from the Labour Department List. A list of administrations was tabulated and a figure was assigned to each administration. The administrations were selected utilizing the statistical random Numberss tabular array.

3.5 Research Measurement/instrument

The variables and their measuring are outlined in the undermentioned subdivisions.

Colleagues ‘ perceptual experience

Colleagues ‘ perceptual experience towards disabled workers either favourably or non-favorably that affect on companies ‘ attitudes in engaging them. It is interval graduated table ; a set of statement can be developed to measure respondent ‘s perceptual experiences. The respondent ‘s can hold or differ utilizing five-point Likert graduated table: strongly disagree= 1, disagree=2, neutral= 3, agree=4, strongly agree=5.

Work public presentation

Work public presentation of handicapped workers such as their accomplishments and abilities in executing their undertaking that affect on Companies ‘ attitudes. The respondent ‘s can hold or differ utilizing five-point Likert graduated table: strongly disagree= 1, disagree=2, neutral= 3, agree=4, strongly agree=5.

Management ‘s perceptual experience on the demand for supervising

Management ‘s perceptual experience on the demand for supervising of handicapped workers after engaging them that either favourably or non-favorably that affect on companies ‘ attitudes. strongly disagree= 1, disagree=2, neutral= 3, agree=4, strongly agree=5.

3.6 Data aggregation

The information for this survey will be collected thorough study questionnaire. This method was chosen because it easier to present and collected.

3.7 Data Analysis

For this survey, informations analysis was done by quantitative methods where statistical analysis was conducted in descriptive of statistic. Descriptive statistics methods were used to calculate frequences, steps of cardinal inclination such as the mean, average and the manner and scattering such as the scope, the discrepancy and the standard divergence. The informations collected from the study questionnaire were analysed utilizing Statistical package tool ( SPSS 17.0 ) .