Embedded System Essay Sample

The universe of today has high become a topographic point with really high security but there are hackers ( codification surfs ) and stealers who are seeking to convey down this security system. So we need maintain updating our security system. Here one of the system which is soon in map could be more secured utilizing Biometricss and Embedded System. In this paper we have used the biometries ( finger publish acknowledgment ) for security intent and embedded system to automatize the complete procedure. There many methods in supplying security utilizing biometries we have gone for the finger print acknowledgment. In embedded system we have gone for PIC micro accountant ( PIC16F877 ) . Here our undertaking is assisting the banking sector to safe maintain the recognition cards so called the plastic money. ATM cards and the bank cabinets. We have taken into consideration all factors that affect the security of the present system in those sectors and hold given an updated version of security for them.

The biometries have been used as the lock in supplying security and the embedded system has been interface that connect the user and the machine-controlled system. We hope to give an better security for the society which needs to be a secured topographic point live for us. We believe that our thought provides better security than the bing system. EXTENDED SECURITY FOR BANKING SECTOR Exploitation


As the name signifies. an embedded system is defined as the system into which the user’s logic or thoughts are embedded. Embedded systems include a assortment of hardware and package constituents. which perform specific maps in host system. for illustration orbiters. Washing machine. hand-held telephones and cars. Embedded systems have become increasing digital with a non-digital peripheral ( linear power ) and hence both Hardware and package cryptography marks are relevant. We are traveling for micro accountant called the PIC micro accountant. The PIC micro accountant has the undermentioned advantages. ➢ Cost effectivity

➢ Low power
➢ Highly user interactive
➢ A High degree of system integrating


The PIC16F877 Micro accountant belongs to the midrange PIC. ThePIC16F87X Micro accountant ( MCU ) Family provides a migration way from OTP to FLASH in 28 to 44-pin bundles. with a broad scope of peripheral integrating options. This household features a 14-bit direction set. 5 to 8 channels of 10-bit Analog-to-Digital Converters. disrupt managing capableness. assorted consecutive interface capablenesss. Capture/Compare/PWM. Brown-out Detection and an 8-level deep stack. The PIC16F87X household provides public presentation and versatility to run into the most demanding demands of today’s cost-sensitive parallel designs. Plus. with FLASH plan memory. PIC16F87X devices can be reprogrammed over the full operating electromotive force scope. The PIC16F87X household is ideally suited for high-velocity applications. The PIC16F8 is a 40-pin bundle and the pin inside informations are shown. FIG. 1

Some of the nucleus characteristics of PIC micro accountant is as follows.

High-Performance RISC CPU:

• Merely 35 instructions are at that place to implement the user’s logic. • All instructions are individual rhythm ( 200 N ) except subdivision instructions which requires two-cycles. • 128 to 368 bytes of user RAM.

• Up to 256 bytes of informations EEPROM memory ( internal ) . but we can interface soap of 512KB of memory externally. • Erase/write endurance.
• 14-bit broad instructions.
• 8-level deep hardware stack.
• Direct. indirect and comparative addressing manners.
• 22 to 33 I/O pins.
• Processor read/write entree to plan memory.

Peripheral Features:

• Includes 3 timers – Timer 0. Timer 1 and Timer 2.
• Capture/Compare/PWM ( CCP ) faculties
• 10-bit multi-channel Analog-to-Digital Converter
• Synchronous Serial Port ( SSP ) with I2C ( Master/Slave ) • Universal Synchronous Asynchronous Receiver
• Transmitter ( USART ) with 9-bit reference sensing.

Particular Micro accountant Features:

• Power-on Reset ( POR ) . Power-up Timer ( PWRT ) and
Oscillator Start-up Timer ( OST ) .
• Watchdog Timer ( WDT ) with its ain on-chip RC oscillator for dependable operation. • Programmable codification protection
• Power salvaging SLEEP manner
• Selectable oscillator options.
• Crosstalk: Standard crystal/resonator
• HS: High-speed crystal/resonator
• LP: Power salvaging. low frequence crystal

Biometricss is defined as an machine-controlled method of placing or authenticating the individuality of a populating individual based on the physiological features. It offers inherently stronger security than any other methods like flag. face and voice acknowledgment. Basic stairss involved in acknowledgment systems are as follows: • A mechanism to scan and capture

• Compression. Processing and Comparison
• Interfacing with the application system.

In order to hold safety over the belongings. the people populating in all parts of a state travel for “Fully Secured Banking system” . But there are hackers and stealers who steel out of our ain recognition cards and debit cards People chiefly look for the protective steps provided by the bankers. So to beef up this system. we had chosen fingerprint of the user as the recognition and debit cards along with an watchword for better security. Since. the fingerprints of all the human existences are alone in nature. we had prescribed it as cardinal factor. But there are other factors. which are alone like that of fingerprint. They are face. flag. signature and voice. Iris acknowledgment system has the highest truth in happening the deceitful individuals and to hold the lowest mistake rate. But it has a disadvantage of high cost. Hence we selected the following better factor ( fingerprint ) . as it has moderate cost and high truth. The statistics of assorted acknowledgment techniques used are as follows:

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FIG. 2

Assorted Recognition Systems- Comparison:
Here harmonizing to the statistic we can see from the graph that iris acknowledgment has the maximal security but we have chosen the fingerprint technique. Since finger print acknowledgment has the following best security system to the iris acknowledgment. The cost of the finger print acknowledgment system is comparably less and most dependable among the assorted acknowledgment system The above grounds that have made us travel for fingerprint alternatively of the other biometries technique for security system. This security techniques have made the recognition or debit cards. ATM cards and bank cabinets more secured. As per the above statistics. finger print acknowledgment technique additions advantage than any other acknowledgment techniques specified above. The basic characteristics of fingerprint are as follows.

➢ Singularity
➢ Permanence


The five ports of the PIC micro accountant which are interfaced to five different faculty [ movie ] FIG. 3
The blocks are
1. LCD show faculty
2. CCD scanner faculty
3. Keypad faculty
4. Memory cards faculty

➢ Two line liquid crystal display-each line can keep 16 characters ➢ Displays the characters with a bright background ( xanthous ) . ➢ A potentiometer is varied to set the brightness of characters. ➢ LCD consists of 16 pins to supply interfacing with PIC.

FIG. 4
The LCD is interfaced through the PORT B of the PIC MCU. The port pins are connected to the information lines of a two row LCD. The three control pins ENABLE. READ/WRITE & A ; READ SELECT are connected to the port pins RE0. RE1. RE2 of the PIC MCU.


This faculty is used to scan the user fingerprint. Then the user is asked for the certain watchword that has been provided by the bank. Here the watchword is used as file name which holds the information of the card holder and their fingerprint. The fingerprint obtain from the user is compared with fingerprint for that corresponding watchword codification which is stored in the computing machine. The information comparing is done by certain techniques utilizing MATLAB for simulation.


The jinx computer keyboard consists of 16 keys to input the alphabets and numbers. This 4 X 4 matrix computer keyboard is formed by utilizing the D port of the PIC MCU 16F877. Here the port pins RD0. RD1. RD2. RD3 act as input pins and RD4. RD5. RD6. RD7 act as end product pins. The pins are connected to the power supply and when both the pins become high i. e. . when the switch corresponding to both the pins is pressed so the matching letters ( that are pre assigned in the plan ) are read from the plan and input to two row LCD through the information lines. At the same clip these letters are besides got for processing.

The diagrammatic position of the jinx computer keyboard is shown below followed by the maps of each particular keys.

➢ our system each key ( switch ) is programmed to input multiple characters. ➢ This can be explained by taking an illustration of the first key ( i. e. . ) the switch provided at the intersection of the pins RD0 & A ; RD4. ➢ So on the first imperativeness of this cardinal ‘A’ would be input to the system. And on pressing it once more a ‘B’ would be input and the following imperativeness would input a ‘0’ . ➢ The following imperativeness would once more infix an ‘A’ and so on.

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This faculty has memory card reader and informations editor. Every bank are provided with separate memory cards where rhenium sum that have been credited or debited utilizing Bankss recognition or debit card is stored. This memory card holds the database as the history figure and the sum debited or credited for the card. At the terminal of the twenty-four hours these memory cards are given to the corresponding Bankss the sum for the cards can be collected by the tradesmans.

We are supplying the same security system for the bank cabinets here the fingerprints are compared to the bing the file. The comparing consequences in put to deathing a serious of actions like opening the chief door and besides there single cabinets

FIG. 5
From the above block diagram we can see the assorted blocks of the cabinet bomber system. the blocks are 1. Keypad and expose unit ( Entry subsystem )
2. The PIC MCU controlled Locker.
3. The fingerprint matching system ( simulation )

But some of the faculties are already discussed supra. So we are discoursing merely the cabinet accessing bomber system below

This system is made up of two subsystems. They are The PIC MCU controlled 1 ) Electronic lock
2 ) The dismay subsystem.

Electronic Lock:

This electronic lock is controlled by the PIC MCU port pin RC0. Whenever the lock ( matching to the history figure ) is to be opened so the high signal is given through this pin ( RC0 ) . If the lock is to be opened so a high signal is given through this pin and this energizes the solenoid spiral.

This solenoid is placed in a way such that the current flowing through it causes the Fe rod go throughing through the centre of the solenoid spiral to travel in a way that releases the lock. Therefore as shown in the figure the spring is now compressed and it is under tenseness.

After the user has completed accessing the cabinet he presses the close button. This in bend cuts of the supply given through the port pin ( RC0 ) . now the solenoid spiral is de-energized and the Fe rod is pushed in the opposite way so that the spring gets released of the tenseness. Thus the cabinet is now closed.

Solenoid Coil
FIG. 6
The dismay subsystem sounds a doorbell if there is any abuse of the system. This is used to forestall any malpractices. The dismay is sounded for two grounds
1 ) If the client makes any error in come ining his inside informations.
2 ) If a individual accesses the cabinet more than a specified clip.
This subsystem is controlled utilizing the pic’s port pin ( ra2 ) . If any of the above two instances is met so a high signal is given through this pin. The dismay sound is stopped merely after pressing the specified key. Here the enter key is used to halt the dismay in the first instance and for the 2nd instance a close key demands to be pressed.


An algorithm is defined as the step-by measure process of instructions involved in the processing. We had used MATLAB to compare two fingerprint images. We had employed this fingerprint acknowledgment system by simulation. In our existent system. we have planned to utilize a CCD camera to acquire the fingerprint from the user. But we have non implemented that portion. since high preciseness cameras are excessively expensive. As already mentioned. we have developed two algorithms for comparing fingerprint feelings. They are as follows: ➢ Direct Comparison Of Pixels

➢ Rotational Algorithm

In the former method. the pels of two images are compared straight based on the place of pels. In the 2nd method. the image is rotated either to clockwise or anti-clockwise way depending on the joust of input image.


In this algorithm. we are traveling to compare the pel ( grey values ) of the two images. straight. The consequence of this algorithm is based on figure of pels that are matched. The algorithm is given below.


1. Get the input from the user.
2. Recover the already stored fingerprint image from the database. matching to the history figure. 3. Pre-process the two images.
4. Modify the two images by cutting the boundary lines.
5. For the first 10 pels in Y-axis of both the images. number the figure of pels matched and unmatched. Let they be ‘M’ ( matched ) and ‘UM’ ( odd ) . 6. Find the difference between M and UM.

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7. Repeat the procedure for following 10 pels in y-axis and so on for full image. 8. Expose the ‘differences’ obtained from comparing of each block. 9. If the figure of negative difference is greater than or equal to TWO ( & gt ; =2 ) . so display that the two images are non fiting. ( At the same clip give the dismay signal to the dismay circuit ) . 10. Else show that the images are fiting and supply the control signal to debit or recognition the sum from the history. For the undermentioned two fingerprints ( one from the database and other from the user ) the consequence is “Finger Prints Are Matched” . since they are precisely. same. Image from the Database Input Image

Direct Comparison of Pixels FIG. 7


The chief advantage of this algorithm is its simpleness in comparing the images. The plan is really simple to implement and to understand.


Since we are comparing the images straight. this algorithm has a disadvantage that if the input image of the user is tilted. so the consequence displayed may be faulty. For illustration. see the following two images ( one of which is tilted ) to be compared. The consequence of the comparing is “Finger prints are non matching” . Image from the Database Input Image from user

Direct Comparison of Pixels
FIG. 8
In order to get the better of this trouble. we have developed another algorithm called ROTATIONAL algorithm. which is as follows


In this algorithm. the images are modified in such a manner that the boundary lines are besides tilted ( rotated ) in the way of input image’s joust. The algorithm is as follows. Assume that the fingerprint of the user has been tilted in clockwise way.

1. Get the input from the user.
2. Get the already stored fingerprint image

from the database matching to the history figure. 3. Pre-process the two images.
4. Take the first image ( already stored ) and modify it by cutting the
boundary lines. 5. Take the 2nd image ( input image ) and cut the boundary lines in such a manner that all the four boundary line are tilted towards the clockwise way. Now the full image is rotated in CW way. 6. Following count the figure of black and white pels in both the images. 7. Calculate the difference in the entire black and white pels. Let it be ‘B_diff’ and ‘W_diff’ . 8. If the W_diff is greater than B_diff. so display that the images are non fiting. Supply an alarm signal to the dismay circuit. Since we are happening the differences and we are chiefly concerned with the black pels. the above status is developed. 9. Else display the images are fiting and so supply the control signal to open the cabinet. Advantage:

As already mentioned this algorithm gives extra security in avoiding the entry of deceitful individuals and to let the right user to entree his/her cabinet. even when the user’s fingerprint image is tilted. The Efficiency of this algorithm is “NEARLY 80 % ” . If we combine the two above-named algorithms. we can hold the efficiency of “NEARLY 90 % “

In this algorithm. there is a disadvantage that attention should be taken in happening whether the image is tilted in clockwise or in anti clock way


As already mentioned before. Embedded System is the field which has been developing more quickly than any other Fieldss. There are many micro accountants which help the user to implant his/her logic. Many real-time systems in our twenty-four hours today life are using embedded systems. One such system is our thought which is taking to better the recognition and debit card strategy.

Since we have provided an machine-controlled system utilizing embedded system. it can function the people up to its maximal ability.

The purpose of our undertaking is to supply this society by agencies of a safe recognition or debit card with high security utilizing fingerprint acknowledgment system. We tried to bring forth 24 hours working system that is really compatible in its construction. Since we had used computing machine for fingerprint hallmark. we can non supply a compatible system. But. we had reduced adult male power required as in conventional banking systems.