Effectiveness of Guidance Program in Public Secondary Schools Essay Sample

Rationale: This assignment is designed to promote you to read and understand educational research and the academic resources available in the field of educational direction ( e. g. . rating surveies. policy research. course of study. systems. schoolroom direction. institutional surveies. disposal and supervising accomplishments. etc. )

I ) You are to research and garner a lower limit of 10 ( 10 ) of the outstanding published and unpublished research surveies – in a research survey of your pick in educational direction.

II ) Prepare an lineation of the published/unpublished work following the suggested lineation below:

1. Name of Author/Date Published
2. Introduction with Thesis Statement/Purpose
3. Major Field Definition/Description
4. Major Field Periodicals
a. Academic Diaries
B. Scientific Diaries
c. Internet resources
5. Methodologies Used
6. Summary of Findingss
7. Abstract

Deadline: The paper is due on December 9. 2012

Recognition: This paper will number for 10 % towards your concluding class in the class.

ASSIGNMENT 2: Problem Identification

ASSIGNMENT 3: Published Thesis

Assignment: A thesis alumnus degree research survey related to your sanctioned rubric.

As a library /Internet research paper. you will affect yourself in an already published research consequences ; you will non be making original research in this assignment.

The paper should be outlined utilizing the format below ;
1. Thesis Title
2. Introduction
3. The Problem Statement
4. Significance of the Problem
5. Definition of Footings
6. Literature Reappraisal
7. Hypothesiss of the Study
8. The Methods Used to Collect Data
9. The Statistical Measures Used for the Analysis of the Data
10. The Summary subdivision which includes findings. decisions and recommendations.

Paper Length: This paper will incorporate no less than 10 pages and no more than 15.

Deadline: This paper will be due on _______________________ .

Recognition: This paper will number for 15 % of the concluding class for this class.

ASSIGNMENT 4: Thesis Proposal

This is a concept paper to be written following the stairss of an lineation specified in Assignment # 4. Proposals are to be orally presented on the last scheduled meeting on March 17. 2013.

Recognition: The construct paper is deserving 40 % to the student’s concluding class.


There will be two written in-class scrutinies on the class talks and studies. One is a mid-term. the other is the concluding scrutiny. The two scrutinies together will account for 10 % of the student’s concluding class in the class.

Scaling System

A1. Major Field of Periodicals. Methodologies. Abstracts 15 %
A2. Research Proposal ( Published/Unpublished ) 15 %
A3. Research Proposal ( Concept Paper40 %
A4. Mid Term and Final Examination10 %
A5. Participation. Attendance. Punctuality. Report.
Discussion. Group Relations. etc. . 20 %


• Orientation. Syllabus. Guidelines
• Assignment 1. due on December 9. 2012
• Assignment 2. Title Defense. to be rendered on January 13. 2013 • Assignment # 3. due on January 23. 2013. to be submitted on-line • Reports and Discussions. February 3 and February 24. 2013 • Assignment # 4. Proposal Defense. Submission of Written Report and Thesis Proposal. March 17. 2013


Polytechnic University of the Philippines
Sta. Mesa. Manila

RSH 631 – Research Seminar 2 ( Seminar in Thesis Writing )

Assignment # 2


1. Aim

To gestate research jobs related to the country of educational direction To place relevant research jobs that can be perchance undertaken


What are the research jobs that are needed at present in the country of educational direction that would hold national significance? What research jobs can perchance look into?


The debut of a research paper is a treatment of the principle of the survey. It should show current state of affairs. legal Torahs. handbills. memorandum and justification for the pick of the job

Background of the Study

This is a historical history on the development of the job particular to the features of the respondents from the bigger position either internationally or nationally. It should recite ascertained jobs. issues and variables and stop up with paragraph on why the research worker chooses to look into the job.

Theoretical Model

The theoretical model is a systematic treatment of the definitions. constructs or concepts and the propositions which are related to the research job. It really serves as the footing of the conceptual model of the survey and research jobs.

It reflects the researcher’s ain construct of a job after all the readings on related literature and surveies which have bearings on the job under probe. It explains theories. Consult psychological and educational theories which would give waies to the conceptual model on the subject or job being investigated.

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Conceptual Model

The conceptual model is a scheme of the research paradigm presented in the signifier of a diagram. It should demo the variables and their relationship. The paradigm should explicate the variables really good and how they interact. correlative and go the footing for the end product.

• Variables

Kerlinger ( Sevilla. 1992 ) describes the variable as the concepts or belongingss being studied. It is a characteristic that has two or more reciprocally sole values or belongingss. A concept that has merely one value or belongings can non be called a variable. It is called a invariable.

There are two types of variable. viz. : the dependant and independent variable. In a cause and consequence survey. the consequence is the dependant or standard variable. The independent variable or random variable is the belongings or characteristic that makes the result or consequence vary. An independent variable can either be manipulative or non-manipulative. Non-manipulative are those which can non be altered or alteration. as ; age. aptitude. race. etc. Manipulative variables can be changed and are hence called active variables. Examples are ; method. support. patterns. etc. A variable that is dependent in one survey may be independent in another.

Statement of the Problem

The statement of the job should get down with a general statement of the chief job. ( consistent with the rubric ) so. broken-up into sub jobs in the signifier of specific inquiries. Normally. the general job is a restatement of the rubric of the survey. The figure of specific bomber jobs or inquiries that calls for a trial of differences and/or relationships will besides depend on the range of the probe. Descriptive inquiries need no anticipations or hypotheses.

Hypothesiss of the Study

A good hypothesis should be able to give a sensible account of the relationship of the variables in the survey. A good hypothesis must besides be testable. If a hypothesis can non be statistically tested. it should non be written at all.

In a scientific research. anticipations of the results of the survey are every bit of import as the statement of jobs or inquiries. Therefore. the hypothesis has the undermentioned maps:

1. The hypothesis reflects the researcher’s construct of his survey right at the start of his research. 2. The hypothesis sets the processs or the phases of the survey. This normally serves as your usher in the choice of a good instrument to mensurate your variables. 3. The hypotheses can assist you form your presentation. analysis and reading of the informations in your survey.

Scope and Delimitations/Limitations of the Study

The range and boundary lines of the survey discusses the scene and the venue of the survey. its topics and clip frame. It sets and establishes the parametric quantities of the survey. On the other manus. there may be some facets during the probe which may adversely impact the consequence but which the research worker has no control. This should be candidly stipulated under the term restriction.

Significance and Importance of the Study

The importance of the survey is expressed in footings of the benefits that a peculiar person. groups of persons and/or other entities would deduce from the consequences of your survey. It answers who and how these benefits would accrue to a peculiar person ( s ) and/or entitiy ( Internet Explorers ) . The significance of the survey besides explains the part of a peculiar survey to the solution of an bing job. the betterment to unsatisfactory conditions and/or to the fund of cognition. It may besides discourse the principle and relevancy of the survey and its possible deductions.

Definition of Footings

Footings and constructs that are of import in the survey have to be defined. in order for the reader to understand the survey as it was intended by the research worker. There are two ways of specifying a term harmonizing to Kerlinger ( Sevilla. et. Al. . 1992 ) . These are the conceptual and the operational degrees. Conceptual definition is that which is found in lexicons whose significance is academic or cosmopolitan. and which is frequently abstract and more formal. This is the intending understood by most people. The operational or functional definition is either measured or experimental. The mensural operational definition states the manner the construct is measured in the survey. while in the experimental operational definition. the research worker describes the inside informations of the use of the variable.

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An effectual manner that can take a research worker to past theories is by manner of reexamining related literature and surveies. Harmonizing to Gay ( 1976 ) . the reappraisal of related literature involves the systematic designation. location and analysis of paperss incorporating information related to the research job under survey. Functions of the reappraisal of related literature and surveies are the undermentioned ( Sevilla. 1992 )

1. It provides the conceptual or theoretical model of the planned research 2. It provides the information about past researches. related to the survey. Unintentional duplicate of past surveies may happen since you will hold in your manus all concepts related to your survey. 3. it
gives an information about the research methods used. the population and sampling considered. the instruments used in garnering the information and the statistical intervention of informations. 4. It provides findings and decisions of past probes which you may associate to your ain. Related literature can either be conceptual or research literature. Conceptual literatures are more readily available than research literature and normally more comprehensive than the other. Good beginnings of these types of readings are encyclopedias. books. yearbooks and indexes to literatures of books and periodicals. as they provide the content and pages of books and the abstracts help the research workers in their hunt for research literature. The abstracts give a bird’s oculus position of the full thesis or thesis and saves the researcher’s clip and attempt in reading the whole manuscript. These are called related surveies.

Beginnings of stuffs can either be primary or secondary. Primary beginnings are the basic stuffs with small or no note or editorial change. such as manuscripts. journals. interviews. and laboratory studies. Secondary beginnings are derived from primary stuffs such as ; analysis. reading and commentary on primary stuffs. Examples are book reappraisals. etc.

In taking a stuff as a beginning. the making of the writer and objectiveness of the stuff should be a primary concern. By objectiveness

Methods of Research Used

There are five methods of research viz. ; descriptive. experimental. historical. ex station facto and participatory. In educational scenes nevertheless. the descriptive and experimental researches are the most normally

Whatever method of research is used. it must be described decently. It must include the process to be undertaken. and the rightness of the method to the peculiar survey. Some advantages should besides be exhaustively discussed.

Population and Sampling/Sampling Design

This subdivision discusses the population of the survey and how this was determined. Among other things. it includes the designation of the population. finding of the needed sample size. and choice of the sample.

A sample is a little group taken from an identified population. It involves taking a portion of a population. doing observations on this representative group and so generalising the findings to the bigger population ( Ary. 1981 ) .

Sampling Schemes are of two types:

A. Random Sampling. It is the procedure of choosing a sample size from a bigger population such that each member of the population has an equal opportunity to be selected.

Types of random trying include:

1. Lottery sampling/fishbowl technique

This is done by composing assigned Numberss to participants in little pieces of paper. rolled. so put in a container. As in a lottery. you pick coveted figure of participants from the container after agitating.

2. Systematic sampling

This is done by totaling the participants consequently. If you decide to take every ten percent participant. add 10 to the first figure you have picked. Example: If your first picked figure is 3. attention deficit disorder 10 and your 2nd figure is 13. your tierce is 23 and so on. until you have completed all the population size.

3. Stratified trying

To make this is to first split the population into groups. each belonging to the same stratum to avoid acquiring samples from another stratum. Participants in each stratum should be selected in random.

4. Bunch trying

It is a sampling in which groups. non persons are indiscriminately selected. It is sometimes referred to as country sampling because it is normally applied in a geographical footing. Purportedly. all members of the bunch should be included. but if the population is so big. randomisation may be resorted to for every bit long as estimate of the population is normal.

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B. Non-Random Sampling. Not all participants have equal opportunities to be selected as a sample. since certain parts in the entire population are intentionally no included. This technique is besides called judgement sampling as it is dependent on the judgement of the research worker as to what points to be put into the subgroup. Non-random sampling is classified into: 1. Purposive or consider sampling. This is trying with a intent. Samples are taken merely from a specific group or strata.

2. Quota trying. The technique is to place a set of of import features of a population and so choose samples in a non-random manner until a quota is reached.

3. Convenience trying. it is based on the convenience of the research worker.

To find the sample size of the population. the Slovin expression is
normally employed. Minimum acceptable sizes of samples would depend upon the type of research undertaken.

1. Descriptive research – 10 per centum of the population. For smaller population. 20 per centum should be taken. 2. Correlational research – 30 respondents
3. Experimental research – 15 respondents per group. Some require 30 respondents per group as lower limit.


( discuss here the instrument/questionnaire to be used )

Data Gathering Procedure

( discuss here the methods to be used in informations aggregation )

Data Collection

The end of every research worker is to roll up meaningful informations harmonizing to his intent in his survey. The quality of the informations collected would mostly depend on the measurement instrument used in the procedure. Many a research paper were wasted because of faulty instruments. Criteria for judging the quality of research instrument are the undermentioned ( Sevilla. 1992 ) :

1. Dependability. It is defined as the grade of consistence and preciseness or truth that a measuring instrument demonstrates. Other footings used interchangeably with dependability are dependableness. stableness and predictability. A good manner to find the dependability of an instrument is its variableness. The wider the variableness attributed to mistakes of measuring. the less dependable is the instrument.

2. Cogency. The grade to which a trial measures what is truly intents to step is called cogency. Validity deals with the relationship of the informations obtained to the nature of the variables being studied. In a research survey. proof of an instrument is normally done through pretesting or pilot testing.

Statistical Treatment of Data

Statistical intervention of informations is determined by the nature of the job and the nature of the information gathered. Statistical calculation of informations used to be a most boring procedure in a research study. normally enduring for yearss and hebdomads. With the coming of computing machines nevertheless. calculations could be had in the shortest clip possible.

Most common statistical intervention employed include:

1. frequence and per centums
2. mean and standard divergence
3. analysis of discrepancy ( F-test )
4. t-Test
5. Pearson product-moment Correlation ( Pearson R )
6. Chi-Square Trial

1. A inquiry raised to be considered. discussed or solved.
2. A spread in or divergence from a public presentation criterion to existent public presentation
3. An issue consistently researched on and which followed scientific method in making a decision

1. What can be used as easy standards for choosing a PROBLEM?
1. Where lies your involvement?
2. Size – magnitude
3. Economy
4. Your research capableness in the field
5. Singularity


Researchable Problems may be developed from/to any of the followers:

2. Type of Research
1. Evaluation Surveies
o Quality Assessment
o Review of Educational Management Innovations/Reforms o Leader’s Priorities in Bettering the Educational Systems in All Levels o Graduate Careers in Educational Management
O Global Education and Challenges ( International Education Trends ) o Educational Issues with Industrial Partners ( OJT. Research. etc. ) o Traditional and Non-Traditional Surveies
o Modalities in Educational Management
o Relevance and Responsiveness of Curricula
o Women Leaders Potential
O Project Evaluation
o Cost-Benefit Educational Analysis
o Utilization Research in Education
o Program Monitoring
o Curricular Review
o Human Resources ( developing. career way )
o Developments in Basic Education
o Impacts of Faculty Development
O Models for Development
• Research Science and Technology Cooperation
• University-Industry Affiliation
• Community –Academic Learning Process
• Educational Production Function and Resource Allocation

2. Impact Surveies
o The Impact of Learning Education
O Cost Benefit Analysis of Training in Education
o Impact of Qualifications on Careers in the Educational Management o Evaluating Social Impacts of Institution
o Economic Impacts of Educational Institution
o Factors Affecting