This paper focuses on the relationship between instruction and society. It acknowledges a strong relationship between the two constructs. Education is sees as a agency of cultural transmittal from one coevals to another in any given society. Society is defined as the whole scope of societal relationships of people populating in a certain geographic district and holding a sense of belonging to the same group. The relationships between the two constructs are so strong that it is non possible to divide them because what happens to one affects the other.
Educational establishments are micro-societies. which reflect the full society. The instruction system in any given society prepares the kid for future life and instills in his those accomplishments that will enable him to populate a utile life and contribute to the development of the society. Education as a societal phenomenon does non take topographic point in a vacuity or isolation ; it takes topographic point in the society and this usually begins from the household. which is one of the societal establishments responsible for the instruction of the kid. Introduction
Many sociologists have observed that there is a strong relationship between instruction and society. This observation is borne out of the fact that it is non possible to divide or pull any line of limit between the two constructs. This is because of the fact that what happens to the educational system undoubtedly affects the society. and whatever occurs in the society influences or shapes the educational system in all its branchings. old treatment has extensively discussed the construct of instruction every bit good as the informal ( traditional ) and formal instruction. Here. the term society shall be briefly looked into and the relationship between instruction and society. The term society is coined from Latin. which is ‘socius’ . Every person is born into a peculiarly society which bring about acquaintance and interaction of rational existences. Adedipe ( 1985 ) described society as a group of people consciously populating together in their ain features manner ; that is a manner of deliberate life peculiar or a peculiar group.
Ezewu. Fasokun. Akpe and Oluduro ( 1981 ) competently described society as a whole scope of relationships within the set-up. That is. society consists of human existences their activities. and relationship to one another and in relation to their natural and societal environment. It can be deduced that instruction and society could be regarded as an act of leaving the social norms. values. beliefs. and cognition to an person so as to enable him/her non merely to work efficaciously good in the society but to lend to its development. In other words. instruction is the entirety of the procedure to do an persons utile members of the society. Emile Durkheim ( 1939 ) a Gallic sociologist maintains that the major maps of instruction is the transmittal of social norms and values. He argued that ‘society can last merely if their exists among its members a sufficient grade of homogeneousness ; instruction perpetuates and reinforces the homogeneousness by repairing in the kid from the get downing the indispensable similarities which collective life demands. “
To Durkheim. to go affiliated to society. the kid must experience in it something that is existent. alive and powerful. which dominates the individual and to which he besides owes the best portion of himself ( Haralambos and Herald 1980 ) . However. it has become pertinent and imperative to educate every member in the society. irrespective of category. or place every bit good as the function one occupies in society. The job in society today is glowering that everybody needs to be re-socialised and educated so as to hold less struggle. In Nigeria. there are changeless work stoppages among the civil retainer. In Nigeria. there are changeless work stoppages among the civil retainer. political jobs. misdirection of public financess. kid abused. hooky. undiscipline. cultism on the portion of pupils. subjugation. unfairness. poorness. development to one societal group by another.
Workers wages non on a regular basis paid. and clip is no longer the psyche of concern among civil retainers. The ‘haves’ continue to be rich while ‘have not’ are going hapless. equalitarianism is eroded. fixed deposit’ is the order of the twenty-four hours among the opinion elites. representatives of different wards are stand foring their pockets. Interestingly. democracy in some parts of the universe has become the period of ‘Naira rain’ among the minority category. Even the electorate who were beaten and smitten by rain and Sun could non acquire ‘furniture allowance nor auto loan. some people gain at the disbursal of others whereas we all belong to the same society. To crest it all. there is demand for equal intervention in the society. It is hence necessary and from ‘up-to-down’ we need to be re-socialized in order to maintain the society traveling. Durkheim ( 1956 ) was one of the first sociologists to appreciate the relationship between equation and society. He saw instruction as a societal phenomenon through which a society assumes its ain continuity by socialising the immature in its ain image.
The constituents of the educational system that constitute absolutely defined facts and which have the same world as another societal fact are inter-related. They are inter-related internally. so that a given instruction system has integrity and consistence. and besides externally so that the instruction system reflects a society’s moral and rational values. Ottaway ( 1980 ) defined society as the whole scope of societal relationships of people populating in a certain geographical district and holding a feeling of belonging to the same sort of group. In every society. whether developing or developed. complex or crude. there is ever an instruction system. Education systems are non the same. as no two societies are indistinguishable. Therefore. instruction systems differ from society to society and their purposes. contents and techniques besides differ from one society to another.
From the foregoing. one might contend that instruction establishments are micro-societies. which mirror the full society. This is one of the grounds why societies try to germinate instruction systems and policies that would run into the demands. beliefs. attitudes and the aspirations of their people. Havighurst ( 1968 ) observed that the manner to understand a society’s instruction system is to understand how it is related to the other basic establishments of that society. in peculiar the household. the church. mosque. the province. the civil order and the economic system.
FUNCTIONS OF EDUCATION IN THE SOCIETY
The sociological inquiries that bother an person in the society is: What are the maps of instruction to any given society? Possibly. if we answer this inquiry. much attending and focal point would be given to our educational system. Broom and Seiznick ( 1995 ) outlined some of the maps of instruction. These are: Cultural transmittal
Choice and allotment
The transmittal of cultural beliefs and understanding as the map of formal and informal instruction besides relied to a great extent on the society. that is culturally self-aware. Education as societal system creates consciousness of a cultural heritage. traditional values every bit good as cultural transmittal. which tends to put accent on regard or tradition. Cultural transmittal calls for humanist scholarship. instruction. saving and scrutiny of society. history. linguistic communication. faith every bit good as doctrine in the society.
The basic and cardinal map of instruction is the formation of a common linguistic communication and a sense of common individuality. For illustration. in Europe. schools teach in an official linguistic communication and this helps to standardise and foster integrity. In the same vena. in Nigeria. the official linguistic communication is English Language but in the primary and post primary schools. accent is typically laid on the linguistic communication of the three cultural groups. The kernel of this is to further societal integrating of common identify in the society. Invention
Early adult male discovered how to do fire. Today’s instruction has performed miracle in the history of world. Every society is witting of inventions that lead to growing and development. New thoughts and attacks come up everyday in order to work out human jobs. However. knowledge abounds mundane as a consequence of invention particularly in the field of engineering. Innovation is a dominant factor and an instrument for development in the society. Choice and Allotment
In the early old ages. when few were educated. the school merely played a smaller function than the household in finding allotment of occupation and position. With the addition in schools. the school system has taken over the occupation of testing and apportioning. Therefore. single public presentation in school and the class of survey he/she chooses determined his future calling. The school is hence a mechanism for function allotment in the society. Education as an instrument respectably performs a alone map in human life. It is of import to observe that instruction gives accomplishments and positions that formal can non be achieved through other socialising bureaus.
For illustration. wonts are learned ( such as promptness that may be necessary in a clip witting society ) . However. it is a truism to stress that functional relationship between instruction and other societal systems leads to development in the society. Education is a mechanical tool. a spinster that loosens every knot that refuses to free. That is. instruction plays a outstanding function in the life of an person and the society at big. which must be given to every organic structure in the society. Relationship between Education and Society
We have seen instruction in peculiar as a agency of cultural transmittal from one coevals to another. The parents are the first instructors of the kid and they still maintain an educative map throughout the early and formative old ages of the kid. In most of the developing states of the universe. including Nigeria. parents are responsible for directing their kids or wards to school. Since these states are undergoing rapid socioeconomic and political alterations. they witness particular jobs in germinating the appropriate instruction system. which will be able to bring forth the equal work force demands in all the sections of the society. Schools are established in many societies of the universe so as to transfuse in the students those skill’s which will afford them the chance of taking their rightful places in the society ; but this map can non be adequately accomplished without the aid of the place because both the place and the school perform complimentary maps in the moral and rational development of the kid. This means that the kid can non be educated in a vacuity or in isolation. Therefore. for a kid to be educated there must be interaction between him and his physical and societal environment. By this we mean that instruction is the development of personality. It is something which goes on
both inside and outside the place and in the school. In other words. instruction is an activity of the whole community. This means that instruction is used in the transmittal of the cultural values. One of import deduction of looking at instruction as the sender of cultural values is the fact that instruction can be influenced by the civilization of the society in which it takes topographic point. For this ground. one may deduce that for a kid to be educated. he must be influenced by his environment and. in bend. be capable of act uponing it. and it is merely by the construct of the uninterrupted interaction of the person and his society that the development of personality can be decently understood. We have noted above that instruction is a agencies through which the cultural values of a peculiar society are transmitted from one coevals to another. Through this procedure. the society is able to accomplish basic societal conformance and guarantee that its traditional values. beliefs. attitudes and aspirations are maintained and preserved. Clark ( 1948 ) observed that a general cognition and credence of the ideals and purposes of our society is indispensable for all its citizens. and it must be achieved through instruction but in a signifier. which makes it compatible with freedom. So he reconciles the dual intent by stating that true. the intent of the educative society may be to do work forces conformable. But overpowering that must be the intent to do work forces free. A society needs a stable and dynamic set of values and a incorporate intent. It is when this is ascertained that meaningful economic. political and societal programmes can be embarked upon for the overall benefits of the citizens. To be a to the full developed individual in such a society. implies full and originative rank of it with powers to alter it. Ottaway ( 1980 ) contended that the transmittal of civilization still remains a critical map. and is non to be dismissed as simply conservative in the sense of being antique. He farther observed that our kids are potentially the society of the hereafter. which still belongs to the non-social community. and instruction in this regard can be regarded as a socialisation of the immature. Education depends on the entire manner of life of a people in a society. This suggests that the type of instruction provided will differ from society to society. Besides. each society has her ain norms. values and her ain ideal individuals who stand our clearly for the younger coevalss to emulate. Since all these societies are non the same. so it means that a adult male regarded as a
hero in one society because of his parts to educational development of the society may non be regarded as such in another society where instruction is non given precedence in the strategy of their day-to-day activities. It. hence. implies that kids had different people to emulate in different societies. Agent of Change
It is logical to anticipate that the type of instruction given in each society will alter from clip to clip as the society alterations. Many authors have argued that instruction is one of the causes of societal alteration in the society. but another school of idea is of the sentiment. that educational alteration tends to follow other societal alterations. instead than originate them. Ottaway ( 1980 ) observed that thoughts of alteration originate in the heads of work forces ; frequently in the head of a individual adult male. Exceeding persons invent new techniques and propound new values for their society. These thoughts arise from the impact of work forces on his civilization. but do non alter the civilization until they are shared and transmitted by a societal group. In his ain entry. Boocock ( 1972 ) noted that societies undergoing rapid societal alteration or modernisation have particular jobs in accommodating the educational system to the work force demands of the universe. They frequently suffer deficits of individuals with particular sorts of larning in technology and other proficient Fieldss and may hold trouble in maintaining individuals with valuable accomplishments one time they have completed their instruction. Hierarchical Order
Another country of the relationship between instruction and society is through the agreement of the full society into a hierarchal order that is. through the societal construction in which instruction plays a outstanding and important function in repairing educated persons into societal categories. Ottaway ( 1980 ) observed that instruction is the procedure of fixing people to suit into this complex societal construction and to play peculiar societal functions as members of more than one institutional group. Persons have to larn to be male parents or female parents. school instructors or civil retainers. tradesmans or priests. They have to larn to maintain the jurisprudence. to understand how they are governed and to be prepared to seek and alter the societal moves when they see that they can be improved. Preparation for future
Education as a societal phenomenon is besides concerned with the readying of the kid for his hereafter business in life. This is one of the chief economic maps of instruction and this is in the involvement of both the state and the person. Through instruction an single knows the construction of the society and the different types of relationships that exit among those constructions in the society. The kid is taught how to execute different functions within the societal construction in the society. These functions are inter-related. For illustration. the function of a male parent is a relational function ; a male parent could be a boy to another individual. So. instruction allows the kid to execute his function adequately within the societal construction in the society. The kid is taught how to execute different functions within the societal construction in the society. These functions are inter-related. For illustration. the function of a male parent is a relational function ; a male parent could be a boy to another individual. So education allows the kid to execute his function adequately within the societal construction in the society. In add-on. the kid is able to understand the web of inter-relationships among the different societal establishments that make up the society. Besides of importance are the different maps that are performed by each societal establishment in the society. Like an person. each establishment has definite maps to execute in the society and the maps of each establishment differ from one to another even though they are complimentary. Social Interaction
Another facet of the relationship between instruction and society is in the country of societal interaction. Social interaction may be defined as any relation between people and groups. which changes the behavior of the people in the group. There is a demand for societal interaction by the kid before he could get the civilization of his society. This interaction in the society is therefore portion of the child’s instruction. provided that. that type of interaction brings about positive alterations in the child’s behavior in a right way as required by the educational system. One of import point here is that the kid has been taking portion in group interaction long before he starts to go to school and the most common among these group interactions are within the household and the peer-group. These groups in which the kid interacts give him the chance to larn from the wider circles in the society. From his societal contacts. he learns his functions in
different groups and this influences his personality development. Sociological Theories
This subdivision provides an debut to the theoretical togss that weave through the field of the sociology of instruction today- structural functionalist. struggle and interaction theories. Structural functionalist theory originated with the parts of Emile Durkheim. who emphasized the demand for persons to portion similar values to keep cohesive society. Conflict theory. which grew out of the work of Karl Marx and Max Weber focuses on the battle of societal categories to keep laterality and power in societal systems. The interaction theory efforts to understand the deeper significances persons give to their engagement in and relationships with schools. The interactionist theory has its beginning in the work of George Mead and Charles Cooley. One of the most influential interactionist theoreticians was sociologist Erving Goffman. There are besides several recent theories that. although grounded in these earlier models. supply of import accounts that bridge the spread between macro- and micro degree theories ; Berstein’ codification theory. Bourdieu’s description of cultural capital and Collin’s work on position competition. Education is a societal establishment that sociologists are really interested in analyzing. This includes learning formal cognition such as reading. authorship. and arithmetic. every bit good as learning other things such as ethical motives. values. and moralss. Education prepares immature people for entry into society and is therefore a signifier of socialisation. Sociologists want to cognize how this signifier of socialisation affects and is affected by other societal constructions. experiences. and outcomes. Sociology of instruction is a field that focuses on two separate degrees of analysis. At a macro-level. sociologists work to place how assorted societal forces. such as political relations. economic sciences. civilization. etc. . creates fluctuation in schools. In other words. what effects do other societal establishments have on the educational system? At a micro-level. sociologists look to place how fluctuation in school patterns lead to differences in individual-level pupil results. That is. when schools have different learning methods or have different patterns. how does that impact the single pupils and what are the single results?
Example of Sociological Studies on Education
A authoritative survey by sociologist James Coleman done in 1966. known as the “Coleman Report” looked at the public presentation of over 150. 000 pupils and found that pupil background and socioeconomic position were much more of import in finding educational results than were differences in school resources. such as per student disbursement. He besides found that socially disadvantaged black pupils benefited and did better in school when they were in racially assorted schoolrooms instead than black merely classrooms. This enkindled contention that still continues today. Major Sociological Theories of Education
Like any other subject in sociology. the three major theoretical positions ( functionalism. struggle theory. and symbolic interaction theory ) each have different positions on instruction. The functionalist position argues that instruction serves many of import maps in society. First. it socializes kids and prepares them for life in society. This is non merely done by learning “book cognition. ” but besides learning the society’s civilization. including moral values. moralss. political relations. spiritual beliefs. wonts. and norms. Second. instruction provides occupational preparation. particularly in industrialised societies such as the United States. Unlike in less complex societies or in the United States prior to 1900 when most occupations and preparation were passed on from male parent to boy. most occupations in the United States today require at least a high school instruction. and many professions require a college or post-graduate grade. The 3rd map that instruction serves. harmonizing to functionalist theoreticians. is societal control. or the ordinance of aberrant behaviour. By necessitating immature people to go to school. this keeps them off the streets and out of problem. The symbolic interaction position of instruction focal points on interactions during the schooling procedure and the results of those interactions. For case. interactions between pupils and instructors can make outlooks on both parts. The instructor begins to anticipate certain behaviours from pupils. which in bend can really make that really behavior. This is called the “teacher anticipation consequence. ” For illustration. if a White instructor expects a black pupil to execute below norm on a math trial when compared to White pupils. over clip the instructor may move in ways that encourage the black pupils to acquire below mean math
tonss. Conflict theory looks at the disintegrative and riotous facets of instruction. These theoreticians argue that instruction is unevenly distributed through society and is used to divide groups ( based on category. gender. or race ) . Educational degree is hence a mechanism for bring forthing and reproducing inequality in our society. Educational degree. harmonizing to struggle theoreticians. can besides be used as a tool for favoritism. such as when possible employers require certain educational certificates that may or may non be of import for the occupation. It discriminates against minorities. working-class people. and adult females – those who are frequently less educated and least likely to hold certificates because of prejudiced patterns within the educational system.
Many sociologists have appreciated the relationship between instruction and society and have concluded that the two are so interconnected. That one can non pull any line of limit between them. It has been observed that the educational system of any state must be based on the demands and demands of the society. and that any educational system that fails to run into the demands. aspirations and aspirations of the society is non relevant and is bound to neglect. The educational system of any state is concerned with. the transmission of the cultural values of today to those who will populate in the universe of tomorrow. and contents of instruction must somehow strike a balance. Dubey et. Al. ( 1984 ) observed that a good educational system. in all its full substance and branchings. is related to the degree of civilization. industrial development. rate of urbanisation. political organisation. spiritual clime. household construction. stratification and other establishments of the entire societal system. Finally. instruction has to carry through both the individual’s demands and those of the society and must maintain gait with other sub-systems in the society. as both variables are inter-related. Reference
Blakemore. K. and Cooksey. B. ( 1981 ) . A Sociology of Education for Africa. London: George Allen & A ; Unwin. Boocock. S. ( 1972 ) . An Introduction to the Sociology of Learning. New York: Houghton Mifflin. Clarke. F. ( 1948 ) . Freedom in the Educative Society. London: University Press. Dubey. D. L. et. Al. ( 1984 ) . An Introduction to the Sociology of Nigerian Education.
London: Macmillan. Durkheim. E. ( 1961 ) . Moral Education. English Translation. London: Free Press. Havighurst. R. J. ( 1960 ) . Education. Social Mobility and Social Change in four Societies. Homewood. Three: Dorsey Press. Haralambos. M. and Heald. Sociology: Subjects and Perspective. London: Bell and Hyman. Omokhroodion. J. O. and Pemede O. ( 2002 ) . Education and Society ( A Functional Approach ) . Olu-A in Publishers. Ibadan. Ottaway. A. K. C. ( 1980 ) . Education and Society An Introduction to the Sociology of Education. New York: The Humanities Press. Uche. U. ( 1980 ) . A Sociology of Education of NCE Students. London: George & A ; Unwin.