The survey is implemented to hold a deeper apprehension of the impact of import duties and peculiarly in the instance of Vietnam ‘s car industry through measuring the function of import duty in car industries of the four developing states viz. Mexico, Brazil, Thailand and Malaysia.
Specifically, the aims of this research are to:
1, Identify the significance, motivations for using import duty and the forces driving opportunities to the import duty.
2, Examine the effects of using import duty on completed imported autos and domestic auto volume in Vietnam ‘s car industry.
3, Evaluate the challenges faced as the duty come down to 0 % in 2018.
4, Compare the recommendations and positions of some economic sciences.
In footings of the first research aim, the significance, motivations for using import duty and the causes taking to alterations import duties. Through the four instances Mexico, Brazil, Thailand and Malaysia in the literature reappraisal portion, the ground taking to enforce import duty is to protect car industry in the early phase. In a specific instance of Vietnam, import duties were used with the purpose protecting the automotive industry in the constitution phase. The authorities assesses automotive industry that is an of import industry for the development procedure, so it needs to back up from the authorities in the early period. Thus import duty responsibility on autos in Vietnam is rather high. Before 2005, the import responsibilities on autos were 100 % and now it remains at 83 % . In the period of clip from 2005 to 2008, there was a fluctuation on import duty. The import duty decreased 40 % from 2005 to 2007 and the ground for these determinations was to cut down the monetary value of auto that was ever higher two to three times in comparing with other states. They were besides pressures to domestic companies improve their capablenesss in fabricating operations. However, after that, the authorities increased the import duty from 60 % in 2007 to 70 % and 80 % in 2008. The purpose of this addition was to cut down import autos into market that is a solution for cut downing force per unit area on transit.
As respects the 2nd aim, the effects of the volume import duties on imported CBUs vehicles and domestic autos as import duties change. Duties affect on monetary value of trade good and lead to impact on its measure harmonizing the demand and supply model. Although the rate of import duties on autos changed often in the five old ages from 2005 to 2009, the volume of both imported autos and domestic autos went up. Evenly as an addition of 20 % import duty in 2008 did non diminish the volume of imported auto but it rose to about 37 % . The grounds to explicate for this unnatural the demand of this trade good is much higher than the supply and lifting income of Vietnamese people afford to have a auto.
The following research aim is measuring the challenges faced as the duty come down to 0 % in 2018. Based on placing the current of Vietnam ‘s automotive industry, it can be said that the industry exist many failing and issues. After more than 20 old ages, the car industry is frozen at merely piecing phase and the supporting industries are still little and developing. Those are challenges for Vietnamese automotive industry when a revenue enhancement freedom with ASEAN states implemented in 2018. No protection combined with a high production cost is grounds coercing the car endeavors in Vietnam choose import alternatively of fabrication.
An in-deep apprehension of effects of import duty is necessary to be able to measure the function and importance of this trade limitation in the development of the Vietnamese automotive industry. Besides, it is able to measure its impact on the industry as it comes down to 0 per centum in the following short clip and so to give sensible solutions for the industry in the hereafter. As seen from analysis from the past figures and the study, enforcing import duty in the car industry is non truly effectual and it did non accomplish its initial marks. After two decennaries establishment and development, accomplishments that the industry reaches are merely a merely piecing industry, underdeveloped back uping industries, a low local content ratio ( under 10 per centum ) . All these factors are ground why monetary value of domestically produced and assembled autos in Vietnam still maintain much higher than other states that affects strongly to competitory ability with imported autos when importing of autos from ASEAN states will be exempted from revenue enhancement in 2018 and a decrease of duties and revenue enhancements harmonizing to WTO committednesss in the 2017.
Based on the literature reappraisal portion, it can be realized that the four states: Mexico, Brazil, Thailand, and Malaysia ab initio protected their car industries in the early phases, and now are basking the benefits of thriving, export oriented automobile sectors. However, merely protecting an industry when it is non yet extremely developed does non vouch it will maturate and go competitory, or export oriented. In the instance of Vietnam, because other factors such as little market, imported primary inputs, inefficaciously supportive policies from the authorities to do industry development and proper orientation were non present, the impact of duties is that the industry has become and remained dependant on them. Because they have the duties protecting them, they have ne’er become competitory from an international position.
Furthermore, the authorities is extremely dependent on the grosss from both duties and revenue enhancements. Therefore when the duties come down to zero per centum in 2018, as a consequence, the gross of State will be decrease significantly. In response, the merely ways are to increase the rates of the foreign auto luxury revenue enhancement, and foreign auto enrollment fees. These increases non merely do up for the gross deficit but besides are non-tariff barriers for imported autos.
There are some solutions to turn to those hindrances and thereby stimulus Vietnam ‘s automotive industry to develop further.
First, it is necessary to make a relationship, a constructive channel between manufacturers and authorities. Policy plays an of import function for development waies of the economic system in general and of the car industry in peculiar. Policy need to be designed, implemented and adapted pragmatically to response efficaciously with altering of concern environment. In fact, there are some channels in Vietnam for investors showing their ideas through Business forum or authorities -investor duologue, but it is non truly effectual due to its formal and infrequent ( Ohno 2006 ) . One of groundss of the weak connexion between authorities and manufacturer is the failure of the Master Plan in October 2004. The past experience of Thailand is a typical illustration. All undertakings of the Thai authorities were designed in audience with all involved parties in undertakings. For illustration, to put up a suited mark in footings of the local content demand for “ Thai Vehicle ” in 1983, the authorities based on thoughts of both local portion industries and car manufacturers. It can non deny that, one of the factors to do the success of the Thai car industry is effectual connexion between authorities and manufacturers. Therefore, this relationship is indispensable and Vietnam needs to use to hold realistic and effectual policies to promote the industry.
Second, Vietnam needs to place a placement scheme in the ASEAN car production web and in the planetary market. As the initial purposes of the CEPT/AFTA committednesss, in order to better competitory ability of the part in which each members plays a specific function in the common market. Identifying strategic program and strategic merchandises are important for Vietnam. Vietnam can non able to vie with other states in the Fieldss in which they good at. For illustration, Thailand is the largest one ton truck manufacturer in the universe, and Indonesia achieve success in multipurpose vehicles, certainly Vietnam can non vie with Thailand and Indonesia in these two classs. Therefore, alternatively of bring forthing to vie with autos from ASEAN states, Vietnam should happen out the space or weak phase of this industry in the part and thereby heighten regional production. With the current status of Vietnam ‘s car industry, it is trouble for Vietnam to hold a strategic completed merchandise. Because, to make that, it needs a immense capital and developed back uping industries and both of them are non executable in Vietnam. Thus Vietnam should specialise in some selected automotive parts and constituents to export. In add-on to, Vietnam should take a figure of certain auto theoretical accounts to concentrate on piecing to forestall the same theoretical accounts from other states in the ASEAN part. Choosing comparative advantages in the part allows the automotive industry in Vietnam to hold a place non merely in the part but besides in the universe market.
Third, it needs to better substructure system and the quality of human resource. A deficiency and hapless substructure will halter the development of the automotive industry. An appropriate investing on this class assist the authorities header with traffic issues that was a ground Vietnam had to specific policy to restrict the volume of autos in the market in the past. Therefore, in order to back up for the industry, it is necessary to hold a modern and sufficient substructure. Besides infrastructure issue, human resource is an of import factor that affect straight on quality and productiveness of merchandises. Vietnam is good known with inexpensive cost labour in comparing with other states but the degree of
Vietnamese labour is rather low. It is a challenge for the industry requires skilled labour as the automotive industry. Therefore, in order to better quality of workers, it is necessary to hold a articulation of authorities, preparation establishments and the car companies.
The survey is an in deep penetration on the effects of import duty on the automotive industry in Vietnam and the current status of the industry. However, as a limited entree to information and figures of the industry, the research does non supply sufficiency of the secondary informations to clear up the consequence grade of import duties on the automotive industry. Because the deficit of informations, the research merely concentrate on analysing the effects of import duties on CBUs and the research did non cipher right some footings such as consumer cost, manufacturer addition, deadweight cost, duty gross. Therefore, it is recommended that look intoing effects of import duty on CKDs demands to be implemented in the following research. Besides, all the of import footings need to clear up by sufficiency of figures in the research on this subject.