Cryptography In 21st Century A Comparative Approach Information Technology Essay

The word CRYPTOGRAPHY in Greek means Secret Writing, which is the ancient methodological analysis of encoding the messages so that merely the starter and receiving system can understand them. Communication and sharing of information has become outstanding these yearss. With the progresss in engineering many menaces has besides been increased taking to misapply of the information. Thus Cryptography which started as a modern art now has been extended its roots to every major subject of mathematics and scientific discipline. It ensures the unafraid transmittal of informations supplying assorted extra advantageous characteristics such as genuineness. Thus the beginning and prominence of cryptanalysis has been discussed. Assorted menaces involved by aggressors and different algorithms of cryptanalysis used were discussed.


Historically, Cryptography dates back to 1900 BC when an Egyptian folk used an lettering affecting non-standard hieroglyphs, arrived to enable people to keep privateness for their information while each send to one another, even in the presence of menace of unauthorized entree to the information. Some people argue that cryptanalysis came into being mediate some clip instantly after composing came into being.Later on it non merely provided security but besides provided many characteristics such as unity, genuineness and has been rooted deep and played critical function in communicating systems. Earlier it has been merely specified for military but now Cryptography is in widespread usage, and you we might hold used it without cognizing it. We might hold bought books online in different sites where we need to give our bank inside informations. We might hold been used online banking system where we need to give our inside informations on web P ages. If proper security techniques were non used such as cryptanalysis, our private informations may be accessed by 3rd party and may be misused. There is ever a great menace of hackers online so we are acquiring privateness by agencies of these techniques that is with cognizing we are utilizing these techniques in our day-to-day lives.

Since authorship was invented Cryptography has been used in assorted ways.

It remained an art a game of concealing the information twine against different crushing out techniques for the greater portion of history. From the past 25 old ages at that place has been great revolution in communicating systems which has brought about a great alteration in every sphere where scientific discipline is applied to every portion of life. Thus the Cryptography art has besides been supplemented and flavoured by scientific discipline. Thus Modern cryptanalysis became a singular subject which is a portion of scientific discipline. Now it plays a critical function in communications system and computing machine sphere in existent clip universe where sharing of informations has became outstanding

. It is non merely restricted to science but its roots besides flourished to other subjects such as mathematics and brings together different Fieldss like figure theory, computational-complexity theory affecting computing machine algorithms and chance and stochastic theory. Now even in informations and telecommunications it became really necessary while informations is being transmitted over untrusted channel including any web

What is Cryptography?

Cryptology which regards the analysis of cryptosystems can be divided into two subjects. Cryptography is confined to of cryptosystems, and cryptanalytics analyses the breakage of cryptosystems. These two dramas a critical function where puting up a cryptosystem the apparatus of its security plays an of import function. Why the system was introduced, why some organic structure would be utilizing cryptanalytic techniques.

There are several grounds which were discussed below:

Confidentiality: Now a twenty-four hours the web universe is holding a menace of unauthorized entree called hackers. So the information sent should be set up confidentially which means that no 1 should entree the information either it is reassigning or stored informations. Data should be protected without being hacked while reassigning from web lines.

Authentication: The transmitter in general wants to cognize that his information is sent safely to its destined finish and no 1 interrupts and portions this. In the same manner the receiving system wants that the standard message is from authenticated transmitter.

Integrity: This is the construct of ensurance that if a individual receives some information he has cogent evidence that no 3rd individual has changed the information.

Non-repudiation: This is a technique which proves that the transmitter itself sent the message non any one else..

Figure: Cryptanalysis

In the earlier yearss the military and diplomatic services used cryptosystems in order to direct secret messages and salvage their information during wars. As nowadays communicating systems controlled by computing machine has been flourished in every industry and even civil and military forces, particular techniques of protecting the information has been are much more of import therefore doing cryptanalytic techniques play a critical function in protecting informations. The protection is non merely against transmitted informations but besides for the stored informations.

Major Goals of Cryptanalysis:

Though a broad scope of jobs are addressed by Modern cryptanalysis the common job remains every bit usual the classical one which should guarantee security of communicated information within an untrusted channel. Lets describe this instance, by presenting two members let us state transmitter, S, and receiving system, R.

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Let us say that both the transmitter S and receiver R want to portion information keeping privateness without acquiring involved by 3rd party.

The ideal channel is a instance where merely the transmitter and receiving system remains in the universe and portion the information from any finite distance without intercession. But unluckily Ideal channels are non possible in the universe. In such instances in general people should portion information over some public web for suppose Lashkar-e-Taiba ‘s state Internet.

Provide security to such parties by supplying different ways to portion their informations with security belongingss similar to those enabled in an ideal channel is the most common and of import end of cryptanalysis.

Let us present the 3rd member let us state A, who wants to portion the information transferred illicitly. Beginning of all possible menaces are modelled by our 3rd party. Let us conceive of the 3rd party A wants to interrupt the security of the two parties sharing informations in some manner and had an entree to the channel means of which information is being shared.

Therefore we need to hold secure channels. Therefore few ends are set up. All facets of an ideal channel can non be retrieved to protect the shared informations and therefore cryptanalysts set up a few security ends which are most basic 1s and seek to accomplish them.

The first and the most basic end is privateness which is by all means the chief purpose of cryptanalyst. Hiding the content of shared informations from the 3rd party is referred to as supplying privateness

The 2nd end is genuineness or unity which are discussed above

The 3rd end is puting up Protocols. The transmitter and receiver both are supplied by a specially designed protocol to accomplish privateness or genuineness which are major security ends

Collection or group of plans are regarded as protocols. It is merely a algorithm or package equivalent provided one for each party involved. In general instance, the transmitter would be equipped with a plan to run, and another for the receiving system to run which are different and does opposite work to each other. Packaging and encapsulating the information being sent for transmittal are involved in the transmitter ‘s plan. The receiving system ‘s plan involves how to decapsulate the encapsulated informations and how to retrieve the information from the standard bundle

perchance together with associated information giving the user the information sing genuineness

The 4th end is to plan Trust theoretical accounts. From the above treatment we can happen that the transmitter and receiving system should be acquipped with the theoretical accounts which are merely known to those and the 3rd party has no cognition of it. Therefore trust theoretical accounts play a critical function in keeping the security of information. In general there are two cardinal trust theoretical accounts:

The symmetric ( or shared-key ) trust theoretical account

The asymmetric ( or public-key ) trust theoretical account

Assorted menaces to Cryptographical techniques:

Let us discourse some of the techniques which acts as menace to encoding techniques.

Brute force method

Weakness in algorithm

Weakness in milieus.

Failing of the algorithm refers to failing in altering field text to code text which the aggressors are interested in. Therefore one time the failing is found and attacked he may acquire the cognition the key.

Brute force method:

This is a method which involves utilizing up a immense sum of different keys that are destined to change over cypher text to kick text. In general the strength of the strategy depends on the figure of tests made to interrupt the cardinal utilizing bogus keys. The figure of keys to be used depends on length of the key to be broken up.Longer the cardinal length more is the length of tests. It is a cost effectual method.

Weakness in algorithm:

It refers to failing in altering field text to code text which the aggressors are interested in. Therefore one time the failing is found and attacked he may acquire the cognition the key.

Weakness in Milieus:

If aggressor finds utilizing beastly force and failing in algorithm a spot hard in happening the key so he uses this method. For this the milieus are observed and attacked. Let us see an illustration where the individual keeps the encrypted informations in a file or booklet which is protected by a watchword. At this clip foremost the aggressor attacks the milieus that is foremost he tries to interrupt the watchword of file to acquire encrypted informations and so moves on decoding the data/


Cryptanalytic algorithms can be classified in several ways. Let us categorise based on the figure of keys that are used for coding the information and decoding the information. The three types of algorithms are discussed below

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Secret/private Key Cryptography ( SKC ) : For both encoding and decoding a individual key is used.

Public Key Cryptography ( PKC ) : It uses different keys one for encoding of informations and other for decoding of informations.

Hash Functions: These are introduced freshly touching the sphere of mathematics. These use mathematical equations to change over encrypted informations into original signifier.

Figure: Encoding and Decoding

Public-Key Cryptanalysis

Public-key cryptanalysis is the outstanding new development in cryptanalysis in the past few decennaries. Stanford University professor Mr.Martin Hellman and graduate pupil Mr. Whitfield Diffie foremost described PKC in a modernized signifier publically in 1976. Their work includes two Stationss affecting sharing of informations in an untrusted environment without sharing a key.

In general PKC uses two keys which are mathematically related. Even if person has information of one key it non assist person to find the other. In order to code the plaintext one key is used and the different key is used to decode the cypher text inorder to acquire apparent text. The most absorbing factor is that it is non of import which key is applied foremost but one thing is must that both keys are to be used. This process is besides regarded as asymmetric cryptanalysis as brace of keys is used up.

Public-key cryptanalysis algorithms that are in usage today for cardinal exchange or digital signatures include:

RSA: This is the first of PKC execution and is still largely used maintaining up its prominence. This is named after the three MIT mathematicians Ronald Rivest, Adi Shamir, and Leonard Adleman who introduced it. RSA now a yearss has its many of applications in 1000s of package merchandises and can be utilized for exchange of cardinal, digital signatures, or in coding informations in little blocks. The different construct set up in RSA is that cardinal holding variable size even the block size being encrypted is being varied. The brace of the key is determined from N which is a really big figure. Two premier Numberss are chosen by using particular regulations and their merchandise determines the value of n. The premier Numberss considered may be 100 or more Numberss in length each, giving out an N with about twice as many Numberss as the premier factors. The information of N is included in public key and even the derived function of any one of the factors of n. The cardinal construct is that an aggressor can non follow out the premier factors of N which figures out his inability to follow out the private key from this individual piece of information and therefore we can guarantee that by utilizing RSA algorithm the information is secured.

Draw back with RSA: But now a yearss as the progresss in scientific discipline have improved and it is non much hard to happen out premier factors of Numberss with more than 300 figures. Of class one can increase the size of the key so that the scope of Numberss additions beyond computing machines computational ability but as the new updates come in it is found non an effectual algorithm. Therefore algorithms such as DES became outstanding.

Subsequently on assorted algorithms such as D-H algorithm ( Diffie, Hellman ) used merely for secret cardinal exchange, Digital Signature Algorithm ( DSA ) used merely for Digital Signature capableness for hallmark of messages, Elgamal algorithm used for cardinal exchange and Elliptic curve Cryptography were introduced.

Secret/Private Key Cryptography

A individual key is used for both coding the information and decoding the informations while utilizing secret key cryptanalysis. The transmitter uses the key besides regarded as some set of regulations to code the information which is given in the field text format and sends the cypher text ( it is regarded as field text encapsulated by agencies of some algorithm ) to the receiving system. The receiving system applies the same key or set of regulations to decode the covered field text regarded as cypher text and retrieve the plaintext. It is besides regarded as symmetric encoding as a individual key is used for both maps.

We can see that if we are utilizing this sort of cryptanalysis they must be certain that the key must be known to both parties the transmitter and the receiving system and should be kept off from 3rd party. Thus the distribution of the key is the biggest trouble with this attack.

Secret key cryptanalysis strategies are farther classified into two types.

They are stream cyphers or block cyphers which are discussed below.

Stream cyphers implements some signifier of feedback mechanism runing on a individual spot or byte of a computing machine word at a individual clip and is implemented such that the key is altering constantly.The 2nd procedure encrypts one block of informations at a individual clip utilizing the same key on each block at a clip and therefore regarded as block cypher. In general, the same plaintext block will ever code to the same ciphertext when utilizing the same key in a block cypher whereas the same plaintext will code to different ciphertext in a watercourse cypher.

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As said earlier different algorithms involved for procuring the information Stream cyphers come in different algorithms out of which two are worthy to cognize. They are

Self-synchronizing watercourse cyphers: As a map of the old n spots each spot in the watercourse are calculated in the cardinal watercourse. As the decoding process ever remain synchronized with the encoding procedure about by gauging how far from the n-bit key watercourse it is present it is regarded as “ self-synchronizing ” . Error extension is one of the major job in this procedure. It goes on in such a manner that a faulted spot in transmittal will give out in n faulty spots at the having terminal and in this manner the mistake acquire spreads quickly.

Non-Synchronous watercourse cyphers: In this procedure cardinal watercourse is generated in a manner which does non depend on the message watercourse. It uses the similar key watercourse coevals map at both terminals of transmitter station and receiving system station. These are, by their basic behavior, periodic and will non distribute out transmittal mistakes, so that there will be eventual repeat cardinal watercourse.

In the similar manner Block cyphers can besides run in many different manners. Let us discourse the outstanding classical manners which are been used.

Electronic Codebook ( ECB ) manner: This is the simplest of all manners. It is the most normally used strategy. In order to encapsulate the message the plaintext is encrypted and to organize a ciphertext block the secret key is used. In this strategy two similar plaintext signifiers, will ever together produce the similar ciphertext block. It is found to be susceptible to a assorted types of brutal onslaughts and therefore been most common and outstanding manner of block cyphers which is cost effectual.

Cipher Block Chaining ( CBC ) manner: This strategy implements a feedback system to the encoding of informations process.This uses a logical Boolean maps. In this procedure, the message in original signifier is applied with the exclusive-or map with the earlier encapsulated text block before it is to encrypted. In this procedure, two similar blocks of plaintext ne’er encrypt to the same ciphertext.

Cipher Feedback ( CFB ) manner: This strategy involves a block cypher execution similar to that of self-synchronizing procedure. This procedure classifies the information into smaller parts than the block size and allows encoding. In the coding synergistic terminal input these sort of atomization is used and is used in farther more similar applications such as. In the CFB manner let 1-byte of informations is being used, for illustration, each character coming as input is placed into a displacement registry. The displacement registry used has the same size as the block. Subsequently on the information is encrypted and so the whole block is transmitted. The ciphertext is decrypted into original signifier and the spots in the block which are excess i.e. , every information which is more than one byte are discarded at the having side, .

Output Feedback ( OFB ) manner: This procedure is a block cypher execution concept similar to that of a synchronal watercourse. This strategy avoids the same plaintext block from bring forthing the similar ciphertext block. This besides involves itself an internal feedback system which lies independent of both the field and ciphertext datastreams.

Secret key cryptanalysis algorithms that are in usage today include:

Data Encryption Standard ( DES ) : It is the most normally used SKC strategy conspicuously under usage these yearss. IBM in the seventiess designed DES and was subsequently adopted by the National Bureau of Standards ( NBS ) which is now regarded as the National Institute for Standards and Technology ( NIST ) in 1977 for authorities intents affecting applications both unclassified and commercial. It involves a block-cipher operating on 64-bit blocks which employs a 58-bit key.

Fig Data Encryption Standard

The major invention that complicated DES is:

Triple-DES ( 3DES ) : A little alteration of DES that uses three 56-bit keys and makes three times encryption/decryption while go throughing across the blocks.

Figure: Triple DES

Hash Functions:

Hash maps besides regarded as message digests and one-way encoding. This algorithm does n’t utilize a key. Despite a key it uses a fixed-length hash value which is determined depending upon the plaintext. These algorithms give out a digital fingerprint of a file ‘s or booklet ‘s contents. This besides traces out whether file has been altered by an interloper or virus. These are besides in general employed by many runing systems to code watchwords for the systems.Some of the conspicuously used Hash map algorithms are Message didest algorithms ( MD2, MD4, MD5 ) , Secure hash algorithms, RIPEMD, HAVAL ( Hash of variable length ) , TIGER and so on.


Therefore the prominence of Cryptography in the 21 century is discussed. Assorted algorithms used in the past and latest engineerings such as RSA and TDES were discussed.