Critique of the Study by Sohn and Colleagues, “Simulation-based smoking cessation intervention education for undergraduate nursing students” Essay Sample

Review of the Study by Sohn and Colleagues. “Simulation-based smoke surcease intercession instruction for undergraduate nursing students” In this paper. Sohn and co-workers ( 2011 ) analyze Simulation-based smoke surcease intercession instruction for undergraduate nursing pupils will be critiqued with the aid of Loiselle and Profetto-McGrath’s ( 2011 ) book Canadian Necessities of Nursing Research.

The rubric of the article is clear and concise. It is merely 10 words long and clearly states the nature of the survey. The population under survey is identified. and the issue being considered is included in the rubric every bit good. All of these factors contribute in doing the rubric of the article effectual. Abstract

The chief characteristics of this paper are summarized in the abstract of the article. The writers province the research job. the design of the survey. the population. and the consequences of the survey. The abstract in this research study is 243 words. which is somewhat lengthier than an abstract should be. It may hold been more effectual to form the information under headers such as. “Background. Aims. Method. Results. Conclusions. and Key Words” ( Loiselle & A ; Profetto-McGrath. 2011. p. 58 ) . alternatively of cloping the information into one dense paragraph that is hard to read. Introduction

Statement Problem
The job statement is obviously specified in the debut of the research article when the writers write. “despite the educational importance of smoking surcease intercession. the preparation provided to nursing pupils is unequal for the day-to-day world of patient attention. Many nursing schools provide instruction about wellness effects of smoke. yet few learn how to assist tobacco users to quit” ( Sohn. Ahn. Park & A ; Lee. 2011. p. 868 ) . This job is important in nursing as better instruction can assist nurses better the quality of wellness attention provided to the populace. The writers province. “More than half of the pupils indicated that they encountered patients who were tobacco users every week” ( Sohn. et Al. . p. 870 ) . Smoking can do many inauspicious effects to one’s wellness. and if nurses are able to heighten smoking surcease intercessions to their clients. one’s general wellness can be improved. The writers describe the issue at manus and how to near repairing said issue by offering simulation-based acquisition as a instruction method. Research Purpose

The writers province in the debut that the population under survey is nursing pupils and that the “study aims were to depict nursing students’ experience. attitude and perceived barriers of smoking surcease intercession and to measure its effectivity on nursing students’ self-efficacy in executing smoking surcease intervention” ( Sohn. et Al. . p. 868 ) . No formal hypotheses were clearly stated in the debut of the article ; nevertheless. the purpose of the survey is evidently identified. as were the aims of the survey. Later in the consequences and treatment subdivisions of the research study. statistical information was used to analyse and construe the consequences. despite the absence of declared hypotheses. Conceptual Underpinnings

The writers of this survey used Bandura’s societal cognitive larning theory. Although this is a borrowed theory. its usage is justifiable in the field of nursing research and is normally used by nurse research workers to explanation human behaviour in relation the impression of self-efficacy and outcome outlooks. The research workers describe Bandura’s theory and associate it to their survey by saying. “‘Mastery of public presentation is obtained by executing a undertaking and sing success’ ( Bandura. 1997a ) . Simulation can supply a really safe environment for pupils. compared to the existent clinical environment” ( Sohn. et Al. . p. 869 ) . The writers continue to explicate in what ways simulation can heighten acquisition and relate to Bandura’s theory. The writers make it easy for readers to understand the major characteristics of the theory and how it conveys the conceptual footing of the survey. Literature Review

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The writers used many resources to assist supplement their survey. The bulk of the mentions are primary resources within five old ages of the research article being written ; nevertheless. some of the mentions are outdated. being over 10 old ages old. Several articles were used to explicate the implicit in motivation of the instruments being put in topographic point. such as questionnaires including inquiries on beliefs about the wellness benefits of smoking surcease. experience and attitude of smoking surcease intercession. experience of smoking surcease intercession. sensed barriers of smoking surcease intercession. and self-efficacy of smoking surcease intercession. The research workers discovered that the consequences of this survey were found to be consistent with another study on smoking surcease. The literature in this article summarized bing cognition on the subject of smoking surcease to complement the consequences of the survey. The writers mention several similar surveies. including a study of 344 Korean nurses and deans or chairs of 44 Korean nursing schools on smoking surcease. and compare the consequences of old surveies to the consequences of the survey at manus. However. the writers stated that they “were non able to happen any old survey researching the effectivity of simulation instruction on smoking surcease intervention” ( Sohn. et Al. . p. 872 ) . With this survey being one of the first of its sort to concentrate specifically on simulation preparation and smoke surcease. it can assist put a solid footing for a new survey.


Research Design
The research design utilized in this study was a one group quasi-experimental survey. The writers used an appropriate design. as the pupils were questioned before and after the intercession was put in topographic point. A true random experimental survey with a control group would non hold been more effectual than the design that was used. As antecedently stated. the writers compare the consequences of earlier studies to the consequences of the survey at manus to heighten the interpretability of the findings.

The design of the survey minimized menaces to internal cogency by holding pupils blindly pick up a card to randomly topographic point themselves in a group. With the pupils merely holding to take part for five hours entire. interrupt up into a two- and a three-hour session over one hebdomad. the ripening menace is comparatively low as this is a short sum of clip. The mortality rate was moderately low. with merely four pupils dropping out of the survey ; nevertheless. because of the little sample size. this could be viewed as a menace to internal cogency.

The participants were recruited based on their registration in one class from one university. Due to this weak sampling method. the consequences are non really generalizable which decreases the study’s external cogency. The Hawthorne consequence may hold altered the participants’ true reactions. as they were cognizant of being watched and videotaped by the research workers and fellow participants. This farther decreases the external cogency of the survey.

This survey used a longitudinal follow-up design. as information was collected twice over a one-week period. Merely holding two informations aggregation points may hold been appropriate given the research job ; nevertheless. the consequences could hold been made stronger if a simulation and a debriefing session had been done prior to the talk to better see how the intercession improved students’ self-efficacy in respects to smoking surcease instruction. Population and Sample

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The population was identified and described as undergraduate nursing pupils several times throughout the survey. The writers described the sample in sufficient item. observing what twelvemonth of the nursing plan the participants were in. the average age of pupils. the gender of participants. and besides how many of the participants were current tobacco users.

The sample size was rather little for this type of a survey. and it would hold been more effectual for the research workers to enroll participants in different classs from different universities and different civilizations. There is no grounds of a power analysis being conducted to gauge how big the sample size should hold been or how important group differences may be on the result of the survey. Using a larger sample size would hold improved the representativeness and generalizability of the findings. every bit good as decreased possible trying mistake. Data Collection and Measurement

The operational definition and the conceptual definitions are congruous. as they both mention the importance of self-efficacy as a learning tool. Interviews and questionnaires were a suited method for operationalizing the cardinal variables. as self-efficacy is a subjective experience and can non easy be measured utilizing observation or other techniques.

The writers described the questionnaires in item. saying specific inquiries used to roll up informations. Each participant was capable to the same intercession and questionnaires. The lone difference in the methods was that some groups contained four pupils and some contained five. The writers identify this as a restriction. and besides place that the sketch used. a 5-point graduated table. is non every bit strong as utilizing a 100-point graduated table to see differences in students’ perceived self-efficacy.

The research workers attempted to do the scene every bit natural as possible while still holding control over the state of affairs. A mannikin was used alternatively of a real-life patient ; nevertheless. the research workers were able to move as the patient utilizing a mike to reply inquiries that the pupils had. Talking to a mannikin may hold affected the naturalness of the students’ behaviour. changing how they would move or react in an existent clinical scene. The research workers videotaped the simulations. which besides may hold altered the students’ reactions. A checklist or utilizing field-notes in a existent clinical scene may hold been more appropriate to give more echt consequences.


The intercession that the research workers conducted on the participants was described as “a 2 hr didactic session and a 3 hr simulation session” ( Sohn. et Al. . p. 870 ) . The writers continued to explicate what each didactic. simulation. and debriefing session contained. Each pupil was capable to the same intercession. and information was collected in a mode that minimized researcher prejudice. By holding the pupils complete their ain questionnaires. the research workers could non hold instituted any prejudice on informations aggregation. Ethical Considerations

No research moralss board was used. but the writers explained. “the informations aggregation procedure did non repay any blessing procedure based on school policy” ( Sohn. et Al. . p. 869 ) . Although participants were non capable to any physical injury or uncomfortableness. coercion may hold been used. The pupils were told that engagement in the survey was required for their class. although the informations collected would non impact their class and they would stay anon. by being identified utilizing the initials of a former school. This coercion influenced the enlisting of participants because the right to decline to take part or retreat without punishment was revoked. Verbal consent was used. which was a valid signifier of consent for this survey. and “the research workers followed rules in the Declaration of Helsinki during the whole procedure of this study” ( Sohn. et Al. . p. 869 ) . Participants were non deceived and they were to the full cognizant that they were take parting in a survey. No vulnerable individuals were identified ; besides. no groups were omitted from the enquiry without a justifiable principle.

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Datas Analysis
The writers province that. “Explorative descriptive analysis was performed to formalize informations entry and to depict beliefs about wellness benefits of smoking surcease. and experiences. attitude and perceived barriers of smoking surcease intervention” ( Sohn. et Al. . p. 870 ) . The consequences found from the questionnaires were reasonably consistent and significant. Findingss

The research workers make usage of multiple tabular arraies to help in sum uping the findings of the survey in an organized mode. “Paired t-test was used to research the average differences of self-efficacy of the smoke surcease intercession between pre- and post-simulation session in two-tails with 0. 05 of type 1 error” ( Sohn. et Al. . p. 870 ) . This p-value of 0. 05 agencies that the writers would accept that 95 % of informations collected were genuinely due to the intercession and non due to trying mistake. Of the informations collected. the entire p-value in this survey was 0. 03. holding the findings statistically important. Discussion

Interpretation of the Findings. The informations collected from the survey is consistent with the conceptual model the writers used. The writers interpret the consequences of the survey and associate them to Bandura’s societal cognitive theory. The writers expected that simulation-based preparation would increase undergraduate nursing students’ self-efficacy of smoking surcease intercessions. The findings in the survey correlative with that proposition. The writers discuss possible restrictions to the survey in a productive mode. It is besides noted that the findings in this survey echo the findings in another survey of similar involvement. Deductions and Recommendations

The significance of smoke and smoke surcease are clearly stated in the research study. The writers explain that. “Smoking is a individual most of import hazard factor for malignant neoplastic disease. cardiovascular diseases and chronic respiratory diseases” ( Sohn. et Al. . p. 871 ) . The research workers discussed sensed barriers to smoking surcease intercessions. such as deficiency of cognition and rawness of smoking surcease intercessions. Suggestions to better smoking surcease intercession instruction are made by the writers. Recommendations include supplying nursing pupils with. “early exposure. communicating. physical appraisal and smoke surcease interventions” ( Sohn. et Al. . p. 872 ) . Global issues

The research study was really organized. good written. and contained sufficient item for a critical analysis to be completed. The survey was laid out in a mode that made it easy to read and understand. There were no key inside informations losing from the study that should hold been included. nor were open research worker prejudices discerned. The study was presented objectively and did non convey any probationary consequences and avoided words such as demonstrated and proven. The study was comparatively easy for novice research workers to grok. Drumhead appraisal

Although there were some identified restrictions to the survey. the findings appear to be valid and statistically sound. The research job outlined in this survey is important to nursing. and the grounds was provided in a meaningful manner so that it can be used in nursing preparation to better the efficaciousness of smoking surcease intercessions. The nursing deductions and instruction recommendations can assist put a footing for future surveies.