Cotton production in Ghana

Sustainable Local Economic Development in North-Western Ghana:An Appraisal of the Contribution of Cotton Production inSissala East and West Districts

Introduction

Local Economic Development ( LED ) have for some clip now remained an frequently cited sustainable development scheme or attack among development organisations and within national and local authoritiess in both the developed and developing states ( Nel, 2001 ; Rodriguez-Pose and Tijmstra, 2007 ; Meyer-Stamer, 2006 ; Patterson 2008 ; Rodriguez-Pose and Tijmstra, 2009 ; Rogerson and Rogerson, 2010 ; Rogerson, 2010 ; Hampwaye and Rogerson, 2011 as in Akudugu, 2013.pp. 8. )

Harmonizing to Bartik ( 2003: 1 ) , local economic development refers to the capacity of a local economic system to make wealth for local occupants. LED can besides be defined as a procedure in which several histrions function in synergism to plan and implement enterprises frequently geared towards exciting and/or revamping the local economic system with the object of bring forthing wealth for the local people. In the position of Blakely ( 1989: 58 ) , LED represents a procedure where local authoritiess or community-based groups or both manage their local resources either independently or in some signifiers of partnership battles with the private sector to excite economic growing and better supports.

The function of the cotton sub-sector as a possible accelerator to economic development in Ghana can non be overemphasized. Cotton is an of import hard currency harvest to about 15 developing states most of which are found in bomber Saharan Africa. It accounts for about 40 per centum of export net incomes and contribute between 5 to 10 per centum to GDP in most of these developing states.

In a survey, Goreux ( 2003 ) contends that, cotton has a strong poorness decrease impact because it is cultivated in little household farms in countries where chance for turning other harvests are really limited and per capita income is really low. Although cotton production in Africa is non important on a planetary graduated table, a big figure of African states remained to a great extent dependent on cotton. For case, cotton histories for 60 % of foreign exchange gaining in Benin.

In Ghana, cotton production is upheld as holding the possible to advancing employment and diversifying the export capacity of the state. This is good recognized in the Ghana Shared Growth and Development Agenda ( GSGDA ) policy model which aimed at “encouraging the variegation of agricultural production for the ternary intents of achieving nutrient security, increasing exports grosss and procuring the natural stuff base to back up industry” ( NDPC, 2010, pp. 38 ) .

Acknowledging the polar function of the cotton sub-sector in the development of Ghana, aCottonSectorRevivalStrategy was necessary to turn to the debt crisis that bedeviled the industry in the late ninetiess. The GSGDA recognizes cotton production when it states ;

… .resurgence of the cotton industry to make occupations and heighten the economic system of the three northern parts. Consideration will be given to the possibility of utilizing portion of the oil gross to develop oil thenar in the South, best fibre in the transitional zone, and cotton and shea nuts in the North.( NDPC, 2010, pp. 39 ) .

Similarly, cotton is the focal point of one of the trade good initiatives that have been developed in consonant rhyme with the Program countries of the Medium Term Agricultural Sector Investment Plan ( METASIP ) for the old ages 2009-2015.

This notwithstanding, Salifu ( 1999 ) observed that the possible country for Ghana’s cotton production is about 500,000 hectares of which more than 80 % lies in the

Northern portion of Ghana and is capable of bring forthing 200,000 metric metric tons of lint cotton with market value of about US $ 200 million. The cultivation of cotton has the potency of going a major hard currency harvest in northern Ghana as some put it, “the chocolate of the north” given the needed encouragement. Developing cotton as a major hard currency harvest in northern Ghana offers increasing economic wagess and has a better potency of cut downing poorness as it provides a beginning of employment every bit good as income security. Ghana’s cotton production had a twosome of good old ages in the early and late 1990‟s, with a record crop of 45,000 metric tons of seed cotton, but for the last 10 old ages, the

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production appears to be stable around 20,000 metric tons per twelvemonth. ( FAOSTAT, 2010 ) .

Even though its portion in universe trade is little, cotton is of import to developing states.

Cotton histories for about 40 per centum of export net incomes in Benin and Burkina Faso, and 30 per centum in Chad, Mali, and Uzbekistan. Its part to GDP in these and other developing states ranges from 5 and 10 per centum ( table 1 ) .Cotton and Developing States: Case Study in Policy Incoherence

To detect the chances inherent in the cotton bomber sector in the part, there is a demand for forward-thinking policies and schemes at the national and local degree to ease and steer the procedure of resuscitating the cotton industry.

PROBLEM STATEMENT

The Sissala West and East territories hold a greater possible and a competitory border in the production of cotton in the Upper West Region and Ghana in general. The concern of this survey stems from the guerrilla, frequently sporadic and worsening production degree of cotton in the hitherto cotton- rich territories and part.

Given the fact that the savannah conditions in these territories are good suited for the production of cotton, the subsector held a greater potency in the poorness decrease attempts of authoritiess over the old ages. Harmonizing to Philippe et. Al ( 2011, pp. 4 ) , the resurgence of the cotton industry is cardinal to the decrease of poorness in the poorer, northern parts of the state.

The survey communities and the Upper West Region in general ; being the poorest in the state makes it more important to oppugn why much investing is non made to tap into the chances of cotton. It is nevertheless ill-defined what the causes of the dwindling cotton production degrees in the survey territories, the Upper West Region and the state in general could be but there are guesss that, unfavorable footings and conditions of the cotton bring forthing companies, unequal recognition to cotton husbandmans, unfavorable authorities districting policies, hapless coordination and regulative model for the cotton sector, infrastructural shortages among others are the major hindrances to effectual cotton production in the survey communities.

This research attempts an appraisal of the part of cotton production towards sustainable Local Economic Development in North-Western Ghana ; placing and analyzing the extent of synergism among stakeholders in the full cotton- production -value concatenation.

Research Questions

In order to turn to the aims of this survey, the undermentioned research inquiries are formulated to steer the survey ;

The chief research inquiry this survey seeks to turn to is:What is the function of Cotton Production Local Economic Development in North-West Ghana?

Specific inquiries will include:

What is the function of the cotton industry in Economic Development of Sissala East and West Districts?

What is the function of NGOs in the development of the Cotton Subsector in the Sissala East and West Districts?

What are government’s LED policy options that could excite Cotton production the Sissala East and West Districts?

What are the effects of Cotton production on dirt quality and nutrient production in the Sissala East and West Districts?

Research Aims

In order to reply the inquiries raised in this survey, the undermentioned research aims are put frontward to steer the survey ;

The chief aim of this survey is toInvestigate and analyzethe part of Cotton Production to Local Economic Development in North-West Ghana.

The survey seeks to accomplish the following specific aims:

Analyse the function of Cotton production in Economic Development of Sissala East and West Districts ;

Analyze the function of NGOs in the development of the Cotton Subsector in the Sissala East and West Districts ;

Explores government’s LED policy options that could excite Cotton production the Sissala East and West Districts ;

Analyze the effects of Cotton production on dirt quality and nutrient harvest production in the survey communities

Proposition

This research is seeking to propose that, Cotton production has the possible to breed local economic development in the Upper West Region in general and the Sissala country in peculiar. This is premised against the handiness of big piece of lands of idle cultivable land and the suitableness of the savannah conditions for cotton production given the successes of neighboring Burkina Faso in cotton production under similar conditions.

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Delimitation/Scope of the Study

This research undertaking will be limited to two cotton bring forthing territories ; (Sissala East and Sissala West Districts) in the Upper West Region ( UW/R ) of Ghana. The survey will besides concentrate on NGOs function in cotton production ; the activities of MOFA Development Units in the two territories ; cotton purchasing and treating units ; Cotton husbandmans Associations ; fiscal Institution in the cotton production value concatenation. Some best patterns in footings of LED schemes and cotton production will be referred to where necessary to impel an disposed appraisal of the constructs.

Why the Study Areas Were Selected

It is worthwhile adverting that, the rightness of this survey in the Upper West Region and its territories is justified by the fact that, whiles the part is the major manufacturer of cotton (the chief push of this survey )in the state and besides accommodates the biggest cotton ginnery in West Africa which is situated in the Sissala East District, the selected territories are more associated to cotton production than the other territories in the part ( RCC, 2001 ) . Therefore the part and the selected territories hold a high potency to back up an grasp of cotton production and Local Economic Development.

Top 10 communities in the Sissala East District

Top 10 communities in the Sissala East District

Tumu, taffiasi, tutuo, banu -bassisian

Dimajan

Kong, kulfo tarsaw, vamboi, wuni

Sakai

Wellembelle

Nmanduanu

Nabulo

Nabugbelle

Bugubelle

Kulfuo

Sakalo

Bujan

DUWIE, GYAWIA

Research Methodology

Study Design

This survey utilizes both qualitative and quantitative research designs. This assorted method design is deemed appropriate for this survey due to its built-in ability to explicate complexnesss in societal scientific discipline research through concurrent triangulation which allow for verification, disconfirmation, proof and documentation ( Green, Caracelli, and Graham, 1989, Morgan, 1998, Steckler, McLeroy, Goodman, Bird and McCcormick, 1992 as in Creswell, 2009 ) of research findings. For case, some informations collected from pupils and institutional Hall executives will be crosschecked with the Hall coachs, the Dean of pupils and the Assistant registrars for proof intents. Whereas the qualitative design will supply an avenue for depicting the lived experiences of the non-residential pupils over the old ages the Quantitative information will besides supply an drift for analyzing relationships between the family installation shortages, safety and general life conditions of non- residential pupils in Wa.

Data beginnings and Types

The information on which this survey is based are those derived from In this survey, both primary and secondary beginnings of informations will be utilized to obtain the primary and secondary types of informations. A combination of the two beginnings of information nowadayss an chance to corroborate some findings discovered in the literature reappraisal and other information used in the survey.

Primary informations will be collected though Focus group Discussions with non-residential pupils, Household Questionnaire disposal with pupils and landlords, Interviews with institutional caputs in charge of pupil adjustment and Observation.

Secondary informations will besides be collected from journal articles, authorities documents, institutional admittance statistical offices and national policy models associating to lodging and physical development in Ghana

SamplingSampling process and informations aggregation

Cross-sectional information was collected from 91 husbandmans during the 2011/12 cropping

season through questionnaire disposal. Purposive sampling was employed in

choosing eight communities in the Municipality based on their popularity in the

By and large, Resource restraints, excessively big populations, Partially accessible populations and clip frequently make it hard if non impossible to analyze everybody making everything everyplace ( Miles and Huberman, 1994 ) . This frequently introduces the procedure of trying into societal scientific discipline research. In the sampling procedure, a proportion of the entire sampling frame is moderately and carefully selected for survey based on which intelligent and careful illations are made from the sample parametric quantities to explicate fluctuations in population parametric quantities against certain tolerable mistakes borders.

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Sampling Unit of measurement

In this survey, informations will be collected from non-residential third pupil, Landlord/landladies, rent control, town and state planning section, third institutional offices in charge of students’ safety and adjustment and the Students Representative Councils. This classification is deemed necessary to ease an disposed apprehension and account of the postponing positions of non-residential adjustment.

Sample Size.

The sample size for this survey will be 315. This will be selected utilizing the tabular array of random Numberss after the differing institutional trying frames ( non-residential third pupils list ) have been obtained.

Sample Unit

Entire Non-Residential Population sample frame

Selected Sample

Individual Questionnaires

University for Development Studies

97

Wa Polytechnic

89

Health Assistant Training School

68

Landlords/landladies

52

Institutional Military officers

Rent control

1

Town and Country Planning Department

1

University for Development Studies ( VDoS & A ; AR )

2

Wa Polytechnic

1

Health Assistant Training School

1

Students Representative Council presidents

3

Entire Sample

315

Authors’ building, 2014

Sampling process

For the institutional interviews, purposive sampling technique will be used since the informations needed from them for this survey are non heterogeneously distributed.

For the general questionnaire and interviews, simple random sampling will be used. The tabular array of random Numberss will be used to assist cut down prejudices that frequently characterize sample choice.

husbandmans having inputs from one company but presenting produce to a company that did non patronize them ; husbandmans doingmultiple enrollments with more than one company ; recreation of cotton inputs for nutrient harvests and even selling them on the unfastened market by husbandmans and some unscrupulous field staff.

Data Analysis and PresentationData analysis is really of import. In its absence, all we could make is to construe our informations

in an wholly subjective manner. Data analysis has the great advantage that it allows us to

be every bit precise as possible in our readings of the findings we have obtained. Datas

analysis sometimes seems hard, but it is a important ingredient in psychological research.

Qualitative informations collected through recordings and FGDs will be transcribed and supported by some direct commendations from respondents. On the other manus, quantitative informations will be analyzed utilizing statistical package ( SPSS and Excel ) to set up crosstabs and other descriptive statistics.

The chi-square goodness of fit trial will be used to prove the propositions made in this survey about family installation shortages from the sample on the population at 5 % degree of significance.

Restriction

A major restriction is that, much accent is placed on analysis of the effects of family installation shortages on third pupils keeping all other act uponing factors changeless.

Mentions

Addai, I. :Problems of Non-Residential Students in Tertiary Educational Institutions in Ghana: A Micro-Level Statistical Evidence,Journal of Emerging Trends in Educational Research and Policy Studies ( JETERAPS ) 4 ( 4 ) :582-58, Scholarlink Research Institute Journals, 2013.

Cresswell, J.W. ( 2009 ) .Research Design: Qualitative, Quantitative and Assorted Methods Approachs( Third Edition ) . Sage Publications, London.

Daily Guide intelligence: AMA Bares Fangs @ Landlords …Public Toilets Are For Pedestrians, hypertext transfer protocol: //www.thenewcrusadingguideonline.com/index.php, Wednesday, 20 November 2013 08:20

Ghana Statistical Service ( GSS ) , ( 2012 ) .2010 Population and Housing Census. Summary Report of Final Results.GSS, Sakoa Press Limited, Accra, Ghana.

Ghana Statistical Service ( GSS ) , 2006 Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey ( MICS ) , Round 1-ID: DDI-GH-GSS-MICS-2006-v1.0, hypertext transfer protocol ; // www.statsghana.gov.gh/nada/index.php/catalogue/15

Masahudu Ankiilu Kunateh – Ghanese Chronicle “2.5 bn people worldwide lack basic sanitation”, Modernghana General News,25 November 2008.

Miles, M. B. , and Huberman, A. M. ( 1994 ) .Qualitative informations analysis: A sourcebook of new methods. Thousand Oaks, CA,Sage Publications, London

World Toilet Organization Rolling Rains Report: “We Deserve Better” , http/ www.rollingrains.com/world-toilet-day.html, November 4, 2008 12:24

Upper West Regional Coordinating Council, ( 2001 ) , the Socio-Economic Potentials and Development Concerns of the Upper West Region, www.ghana-help.ch/UWR.htm

Goreux, L. ( 2003 ) Prej udice Caused by Industrialized Countries Subsidies to Cotton Sectors in

Western and Central Africa: Background Document to the Submission Made by Benin, Burkina

Faso, Chad and Mali to the WTO.” TN/AG/GEN/4, Geneva: World Trade Organization

John Baffes,2003Cotton and Developing States: Case Study in Policy Incoherence:Trade Note 10.The World Bank, Washington, D.C. hypertext transfer protocol: //www.worldbank.org/trade