Each person has a perceived image of himself or herself with certain traits. wonts. ownerships. relationships and behaviour. They are alone and basses on 1s background and past experiences. Consumers buy merchandises they perceive to be congruous with their self-image. Self image can be ideal ( how they would wish to be perceive themselves ) existent ( how they would wish to comprehend themselves ) and expected self-concept ( how they expect to see themselves at some future day of the month ) . As self-concept alterations over clip. so does merchandise and trade name penchant besides alteration.
Self-image has scheme deduction for markets e. g. they can section their markets on the footing of relevant consumer ego images and place their merchandises suitably e. g. different KBL beer trade names.
( two ) Merchandise placement.
The manner a merchandise is perceived or positioned by a consumers is likely more of import than what it really is.
Merchandise placement is the kernel of the selling mix. It converges what the significance of the merchandise is and how it can carry through the consumer demands. It compliments the company’s cleavage scheme and choice of mark markets. Successful placement is based on consumer’s world and acquaintance. Sellers use the following to place their merchandises.
Brand image: Consumers carry certain perceptual experiences of peculiar trade name e. g. Firestone. the Sur made for Kenya roads. Young executive to BMW and senior executive to Mercedes.
Perceptual planning: Where sellers find merely how their merchandises appear to consumers in relation to competitory trade names. Besides to make full the spread where consumer demands are non being met.
( three ) Merchandise Shifting: It is usually necessary due to events such as rival cutting into trade names market portion e. g. Omo with powerfoam which competes with Ariel detergent. It may besides be necessary due to consumer penchants altering e. g. KBL repackaging their beer in tins. or Nescafe introducing Decaffeinated java.
( four ) Evoked set.
This is the specific trade name a consumer will see in doing a purchase pick in a peculiar merchandise class. The evokes set is distinguished from the consumers input set ( trade names excluded from any consideration ) and inert set ( brands consumer is apathetic to ) the size of the evoke set additions are the purchase nears.
( V ) Perceived Quality.
Consumers judge merchandise quality based on certain intrinsic facets of a merchandise e. g. comfort of a auto or extrinsic factors such as the monetary value and trade name of that auto e. g. some sellers overstate monetary value of their goods so that they appear to be of better quality. Hence they use the price/quality relationship to place inheritor merchandises particularly for higher-class mark markets e. g. Abdulla Fazal. Little Red.
Manufacturers image is besides another extrinsic facet that affects consumer’s perceptual experiences. E. g. IBM and Compaq are perceived to be good quality trade names of computing machines.
PERCEIVED RISK This is the uncertainness that consumers face when they can non anticipate the effects of their purchase determinations. Hence the consumer will be influenced by a perceived hazard whether or non it exists.
Different type of hazards include: Functional hazard: if the merchandise will execute as expected e. g. T. V Physical hazard: Any possible danger the merchandise may do e. g. Viagra. preventives.
Fiscal Hazard: Possibly that merchandise is non deserving its cost e. g. Gold ring.
Social Hazard: Possibility of societal embarrassment e. g. Car Psychological Risk e. g. an outfit.
A perceptual experience of hazard differs with each person. Generally sellers use self studies to mensurate perceived hazard e. g. to mensurate public presentation hazard they could inquire a inquiry like “in your sentiment what are the opportunities that this merchandise will non work? ” The responses are scaled from really high to really low. Consumers try to minimise sensed hazard through.
Seeking information from bing users. mass media like newspapers or diaries.
Renaming trade name loyal to minimise hazard of new trade names e. g. Toyota Selecting by trade name image – Consumers tend to swear a well-known and favorite trade name e. g. SONY.
Choosing by shop image e. g. Uchumi because it is reputable Choosing by monetary value “” some people buy higher priced goods because they think it is better quality.
Marketer should acknowledge the deductions of perceived hazard particularly when presenting new merchandises. They can accommodate schemes such as distribution through reputable mercantile establishments. enlightening advertisement and promotion on media