Compare and contrast the concepts of ‘alienation’ and ‘anomie’ Essay

Karl Marx foremost outlined his theory of disaffection in The Economic and Philosophic Manuscripts ( 1844 ) and refers to a define set of societal relationships that were foremost formed in feudal societies which so became disrupted by modern industrial society. Marx himself said when discoursing the subject of disaffection “The worker becomes poorer the more wealth he produces and the more his production additions in power and extent. The worker becomes an of all time cheaper trade good the more goods he creates. The devaluation of the human universe additions in direct relation to the addition in value of the universe of things. Labour does non merely create goods ; it besides produces itself and the worker as a trade good. and so in the same proportion as it produces goods” . Anomie nevertheless. is defined by Emile Durkheim as a alteration in “normalness” and a dislocation of societal ordinances.

Durkheim became interested in the societal status characterised by a dislocation of ‘norms’ regulating societal interactions. “The province of anomy is impossible wheresoever organs solidly linked to one another are in sufficient contact. and in sufficiently drawn-out contact. Indeed. being next to one another. they are easy alerted in every state of affairs to the demand for one another and accordingly they experience a keen. uninterrupted feeling of their common dependance. ” ( Durkheim. Tocopherol: 1893 ) . Durkheim went on to develop his involvement of anomy farther when he began his research into ‘Suicide’ . where he suggested that when a person’s ‘norms’ and regulations that regulate their lifestyle become hebdomad. this can take to a signifier of self-destruction which he called ‘Anomic Suicide’ .

Marx believed that there were four grades of disaffection that break down the cardinal nexus that human existences have to their ego specifying qualities. First there is ‘product alienation’ which Marx believed was estranging to the worker because the merchandises that they produce do non reflect their originative energies and are simply objects produced by the bid of the employer ( Ransome. Phosphorus: 2010 ) . Which he argues was present in industrialized society but non in feudal societies as a consequence of capitalist economy and its economic addition fuelled society. ( Morrison. K: 2006 ) . Second. Marx said that disaffection could come from ‘act of production’ .

This. harmonizing to Marx is linked to ‘product alienation’ as the merchandise of labor is estranging so so is the act of production. So in capitalist societies people have no pick but to work and experience alienated to run into their basic demands. Marx’s work stated that “The worker feels himself merely when he is non working ; when he is working he does non experience himself… his labor is hence non voluntary but forced” ( Marx. K: 1844 ) . Third. Marx suggested that there was disaffection due to ‘common purpose’ . He outlined that this happened when a worker’s societal relationships become debased and they are taken from a concerted societal dimension. for illustration on mill lines and in unfastened offices. Finally the 4th disaffection type that Marx wrote about was ‘alienation from humanity’ . Marx believed that this happened when a individual worked long hr yearss -as Marx wrote in the Victorian society this was highly common- and together with the three other signifiers of disaffection ; a individual lost their sense of humanity and became alienated from their ain inner ego ( Ransome. Phosphorus: 2010 ) .

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That influenced self-destruction ( Giddens. A: 2009 ) . He argued that there were four types of self-destruction: Altruistic. Anomic. Egoistic and Fatalistic ( Pope. Tungsten: 1976 ) . Altruistic self-destruction being excessively much societal integrating. for illustration self-destruction bombers give up their life for the demands of their societal group ( Giddens. A: 2009 ) . Egoistic self-destruction. in Durkheim’s footings was due to deficient ordinance. This can be seen in societies such as spiritual groups ; Durkheim found that self-destruction was higher in the Protestant faith than it was in Catholic spiritual groups. He believed that this was due to the Catholic faith holding a more rigorous ordinances. so hence people believed that it was ‘against god’ to perpetrate self-destruction and besides with the Catholic society being greater regulated. he believed that this closer connected society made the people have a greater sense of community and moral values so did non experience the demand to perpetrate self-destruction ( Ransome. Phosphorus: 2010 ) .

Durkheim related the low self-destruction rates during World War 1 to this as he believed the face of an external enemy brought about societal integrating ( Giddens. A: 2009 ) . Fatalist self-destruction for Durkheim was due to extra ordinance. This can be seen in modern-day society in prisons as people feel that they have no sense of future or self worth. However Durkheim felt that this type of self-destruction was of small importance in modern society but it was of specific historical involvement. Historically. this is apparent in the slave communities in America during the civil war ( Morrison. K: 2006 ) . Durkheim argued that Anomic self-destruction occurs when regulations and ‘norms’ that govern a person’s lifestyle become unstable and interrupt down. He looked at this topic of self-destruction by researching the suicide rates of industrial society during periods of economic crisis created by fiscal recession and periods of economic alteration.

Between 1845 and 1869 in Europe. Durkheim identified that there was a rapid rise in suicide rates. which he linked to the economic province at the clip as there was repeated economic crisis. which resulted in a dramatic diminution in the concern rhythm and terrible bankruptcies. He besides acknowledged that there was a specific form of the suicide rates during this clip across Europe ; he found that there was a rise in the rates of self-destruction as the province of the economic system decreased. and when the crisis deteriorated the rates fell. However as the economic system worsened once more. the self-destructions increased ( Morrison. K: 2006 ) .

When taking into history Durkheim’s theory of ‘Anomic Suicide’ and Marx’s four types of disaffection. it could be argued that there are several similarities between the two societal theories. ‘Alienation’ in basic footings defines the relationship that a worker -mainly- has with their productive function and their ego being within society. ‘Anomie’ can be suggested to associate to this likewise as it seems that it defines a person’s ego being within society and themselves. However. reviews have suggested that the theory of anomy for Durkheim was non in fact in relation to a individual but it refers to society. although there are definite deductions of a person’s province of head in his plants ( Robinson. J ; Shaver P and Wrightsman. Liter: 1991 ) .

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When mentioning to the topic of anomy. societal ideas of other sociologists must be taken into history. Robert Mereton extended Durkheim’s ideas on anomy and emphasised that an single intensifies their anomies when they chose to fling their ‘norms’ to get to their intricate desires and therefore anomy and deviant behaviour draw from a disjuncture between a culturally prescribed aspiration of a society and socially constructed avenues for making those aspirations ( Giddens. A: 2009 ) . Durkheim’s theory of anomy can be seen as similar to both Mereton’s reading of anomy and Marx’s theory of disaffection in footings of isolation and freak out.

However clearly it can be seen that there is a important difference in retrospect to money being the beginning of the proletarian’s life style and the theory that it keeps the governing category on top and the remainder of the population down in footings of Marx’s idea of disaffection. where as Durkheim dealt with the subjects of attitudes and outlooks of the society within his theory of anomy and people defying and holding the pick of their life style instead than being forced into life styles likewise in disaffection ( Perry. Roentgen: 2007 ) .

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Although Marx and Durkheim’s definitions are clearly the classical constructs of these theories. it has been suggested that modern-day society has obscured these definitions. It can be said that ‘Alienation for Marx and Anomie for Durkheim were metaphors for a extremist onslaught on the dominant establishments and values of industrial society’ . From this they take on similar issues. but in different positions ; Marx took on the construct of the relationship between adult male and society and the ‘value of freedom from constraint’ through the involvement of power and alteration. Durkheim nevertheless. was interested in the ‘transcendental value and moral constraint’ through jobs with care of order. When taking into history Marx and Durkheim’s research nevertheless there are reviews that need to be considered.

Many people argued that Durkheim’s research on anomy and self-destruction could non be one hundred per centum accurate ; this was because it was evident that Durkheim used other people’s research and did non carry on his ain. Durkheim used suicide statistics in Germany. nevertheless these statistics were taken by Durkheim at face value and non critiqued. Besides it could be argued that Durkheim’s mutuality theory may non hold been wholly free from his ain background premises and loaded opinion. The chief article that needs to be considered when analyzing self-destruction is “How make some deceases get categorised as self-destructions? ” harmonizing to Atkinson. J ( 1978 ) . When taking into history this inquiry it makes one consider whether the initial research and besides Durkheim’s premises were one hundred per centum because the research was conducted across Germany. with statistics from many different medical examiners. who each would arguably hold had their ain loaded opinion as to what constitutes as self-destruction.

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So it is argued that Durkheim was taking what the medical examiner constituted as self-destruction so hence the self-destruction classs are non nonsubjective facts but readings and significances given to a peculiar event. Therefore to hold done his research more accurately and to let no unfavorable judgments Durkheim should hold conducted his ain research. He could hold arguably done this by speaking to people that have themselves attempted to perpetrate and households of those who have. to happen the different grounds behind the attempted or existent self-destruction ( Atkinson. Joule: 1978 ) .

One could ab initio reason that Capitalism is the chief cause of both disaffection and anomy. In anomy. Durkheim saw a figure of indicants associating to anomie in the late 19th century such as industrial struggle and matrimonial dissolution ; which he believed was related to the industrial society and the growing of capitalist economy ( Durkheim. Tocopherol: 1893 ) . However. Marx believed that disaffection was aided by capitalist economy. He believed this as there was a ferociously competitory nature of capitalist economy that forced industries such as mills to step up their agencies of production and productiveness. to derive economic position and power ( Marx. K: 1844 ) .

In decision. Alienation in retrospect agencies people going isolated from society as a consequence from industry and Anomie in retrospect is a alteration in normalness of their societal position. It is clear from this that 1 could reason that disaffection and anomy could both average isolation to a individual but nevertheless in different signifiers. So therefore it could be argued that disaffection is isolation of a individual from their economic position quo. and anomy is isolation of a human being from their societal position quo and personal norms.

However from the information throughout the essay it can besides be suggested that the differences between disaffection an anomy comes from the position of the constructs. as disaffection is said to be relate and go around to a individual singularly. where as anomy is said to depict a societal group instead than one individual entirely. To reason. it can be argued that there disaffection and anomy have both similar and alone constructs. This is apparent from the beginnings used throughout the essay. nevertheless it can non be regarded wholly as research or information that is