“Locked in Growth Patterns: Rethinking Land, Water and Disasters for the post-2015 Development Agenda for the Asia Pacific.”
Introduction:The GDP growing is an index of a country’s economic wellbeing. Bangladesh has been blessed with a immature population that has been transformed into an economic power house bring forthing over US $ 50 billion in inward remittals by pay earners working abroad and garments exports that is ranked 2nd to China. The CNN reported on October 3oth that Bangladesh is most at hazard on history of clime alteration that poses a menace to its economic growing. Bangladesh with impressive GDP growing rates of over 6 % for over a decennary is besides one of the most dumbly populated state in the universe where land direction on history of fragmentationand sub-division makes it hard to obtain economic systems of graduated table in agribusiness. Agricultural lands are fast vanishing to back up rapid industrialisation and existent estate development. Bangladesh needs to germinate to construct up concerted development mechanism. The state is faced with the challenges of cyclones, fresh H2O supply, nutrient and natural catastrophe direction. Floods, cyclones and temblors are a regular phenomenon that has a monolithic impact on the population, land direction and economic wellbeing of the people. The station 2015 will be a period of great challenge were concerted attempts are needed for the country’s development where the authorities, givers and civil society organisations are involved for the timely intercession and execution of Bangladesh Climate Change Strategy and Action Plan and National Capacity Development Action Plan.
Land Management: The entire forest country in Bangladesh is 2.53 million hectares that is 17.49 per centum of the entire land country of the state. Uncluttering forest land for pine-apple gardens, banana plantations, homestead and agricultural intents has depleted to less than 10 % the forest resources that is required to be brought to 20 % of the entire land mass with tree denseness of 70 % by the terminal of the mark twelvemonth 2015. The authorities has involved the hapless with attractive inducements to engagement under the Social Forestry Program that has helped all the 64 territories to be covered under this Program as against 28 in the yesteryear.
Urban Inhabitants:One-half of universe humanity now lives in metropoliss, and within two decennaries, about 60 per cent of the universe ‘s people will be urban inhabitants. Urban growing is most rapid in the underdeveloped universe, where metropoliss gain an norm of 5 million occupants every month. The detonating urban population growing creates unprecedented challenges, among which proviso for H2O and sanitation have been the most urgent and distressingly felt when missing. Dhaka the mega capital metropolis of Bangladesh has over 150 million people is a major challenge for the metropolis contrivers to supply safe imbibing H2O, sanitation and a net work of communicating substructure.
Water Challenges:The deficiency of equal H2O and sanitation installations leads to wellness issues such as diarrhea, malaria and cholera eruption. Though H2O supply and sanitation coverage increased between 1990 and 2008, the growing of the urban populations jeopardizes those consequences. The urban hapless suffer the most of these water-related challenges, frequently populating in slum countries or informal colonies following rapid urban growing, in state of affairss missing many of life ‘s basic necessities: safe imbibing H2O, equal sanitation services and entree to wellness services, lasting lodging and unafraid term of office. About 20 million people are exposed to imbibing arsenic contaminated H2O with 90 % life in rural countries in Bangladesh. It may be possible to make the H2O mark by 2015 if present advancement is maintained under arsenic-safe H2O supply systems. Open H2O ecosystems have been earnestly degraded because of pollution, land usage alterations, impacts of clime alteration such as drawn-out drouths and salt invasion. Trans-boundary issue is upstream backdown of H2O that has greatly affected downstream H2O systems. Water quality and H2O measure with sedate scarceness during dry season and extra H2O during moisture season has become a major life endangering issue for Bangladesh.
Economic Damage:After normalising for population size and land country, Bangladesh, Philippines, India, the PRC, and Maldives have been the top five states affected since 2002. Floods are by far the most often happening catastrophes in Bangladesh and claim the highest Numberss of victims. As human impact variableness every bit good as frequence of happening is really high in Bangladesh, analyzing the information by impact per event can bespeak whether badness and frequence are increasing over clip. Badness of events can be defined by the physical features of an event ( e.g. , Richter graduated table of temblors or Beaufort graduated table for tropical cyclones ) , but besides by the graduated table of human impact. The impact badness ratios ( i.e. , figure of victims per event ) by jeopardy type presents a heterogenous image where inundations show the most of import addition in the Numberss of victims per event compared to all other catastrophes. Economic losingss from natural jeopardies differ widely between states, even when accounting for strength. In contrast, for every individual in affluent states who died in a catastrophe in the last 50 old ages, about 30 persons died in hapless states.
Climate Change:Bangladesh is already sing alterations in clime such as higher temperatures, altering rainfall forms, changing frequences of natural jeopardy events, and low-lying rise. It is of import to incorporate clime alteration considerations within bing catastrophe hazard decrease ( DRR ) tools, as DRR based merely on past and current experiences is likely to neglect in constructing resiliency to future hazards. Climate alteration can besides farther increase the exposure of communities even to the bing degrees of jeopardies through ecosystem debasement, impacts on H2O supply and nutrient security, and alterations to supports.
Integrated Risk Management:In 2011, the Pacific Disaster Risk Management ( DRM ) and climate alteration communities agreed to unite attempts to develop an incorporate regional DRM and clime alteration scheme by 2015. Any scheme must enable and back up national action. Ownership and inclusion is indispensable. Good administration must underpin any scheme and work in the part must inform international attempts on DRR and clime alteration.
Bangladesh Most Vulnerable & A ; Resilient: Bangla desh tends to patronize terrible tropical cyclones associated with tidal rush, peculiarly in pre-monsoon months of April-May and post-monsoon months of October-November. The low-lying coastal countries are peculiarly vulnerable, therefore puting these population, substructure, agribusiness, farm animal and economic development in a bad state of affairs. Cyclone catastrophe extenuation is a major concern in Bangladesh. Flooding is an one-year event in Bangladesh. Upstream deforestation contributes to increased floods.Deforestation within Bangladesh contributes to the dirt eroding. The sum of forest screen in Bangladesh was reduced from 15.6 % in 1973 to 14.6 % in 1985-86, and finally to13.4 % in 1987. A lower limit of 25 % wood screen is suggested for a healthy ecosystem. The sum of forest screen in Bangladesh at the present clip believed to be less than 10 % . Land remission is a job as the overpopulated state becomes more urbanised. Rapid population growing creates excess force per unit area on the land of already overcrowded Bangladesh. Agricultural lands give manner to lodging developments and roads. Urban population has increased from 1.81 million ( 4.33 % of entire population ) in 1951 to 25.2 million in 1990. The current urban population is more than 30 million ( 25 % of entire population ) , and is projected to transcend 58 million ( 36 % of entire population ) , by the twelvemonth 2010. The groundwater tabular array in Dhaka City has had a considerable lowering by every bit much as 9 to 12 metres over the last 3 decennaries. Experiences in other states indicate that at least 9 metres of lasting lowering of groundwater table causes 30 centimeter of land remission. Therefore, it is likely thatland lifts in many parts of Dhaka City have been lowered by up to 30 centimeter, lending to increased inundation deepness. Sea degree rise may present the most permeant challenge for Bangladesh. About the full state is a huge, level delta, where even a modest ascent in the tallness of the Bay of Bengal could force H2O deep inland if it were n’t for the protective barriers along the seashore. Sing lift entirely, even a one-meter rise would get down approximately 15 to 20 per cent of Bangladesh ‘s land country, where about 20 million people live today. Losses as a proportion of GDP are more important in developing states. Advancement in one state like Bangladesh can inform other least developed states ( LDCs ) in developing possible tracts for apprehension and addressing loss and harm. Managing loss and harm will necessitate enhanced version and extenuation attempts in order to cut down jeopardy, exposure, and exposure. Bangladesh has shown singular resiliency in cut downing the impact of natural catastrophes on the hapless and marginalized population.
( The author is the Chairman, Policy Research Centre ( PRC.bd ) , a civil society think armored combat vehicle and Vice Chancellor, Darul Ihsan University )