Harmonizing to Wirth ( 1945 ) a minority group is any group of people who because of their physical or cultural features, are singled out from others in the society in which they live for differential and unequal intervention and who hence regard themselves as objects of corporate favoritism. National Statistics ( 2003 ) suggest that in 2001, black Caribbean ‘s established 1 % while black Africans accounted for 0.8 % of the entire 59 million population of the UK. The being of a possible glass ceiling for Afro-Caribbean minorities in the UK and further its impact on them would be discussed.
David and Woodward ( 1998 ) suggest that a glass ceiling is the impression of being of a crystalline barrier that kept persons from lifting above a certain degree in corporations. These barriers exist at assorted degrees in organisations. Coyne, Coyne and Lee ( 2002 ) add that it is an upper bound to professional promotion, non readily perceived or openly acknowledged. It would be interesting to analyze the consequence of such a glass ceiling that might be on both male and females of Afro-Caribbean minorities in the UK. Britain ( 2006 ) indicates that black Caribbean adult females in 2001/2 had economic activity rates comparable to white adult females at 72 % . Conversely, African work forces and Caribbean ‘s had really high unemployment rates that ranged between 25-31 % . Dol ( 2010 ) illustrates that glass ceiling research reveals three degrees of unreal barriers to the promotion of minorities and adult females in the private sector which are:
Social barriers which may be outside direct control of concern
Internal structural barriers within direct control of the concern
Childs and Storry ( 2006 ) suggest that Afro-Caribbean ‘s are seen as backward, barbarian and inherently inferior to Europeans, devouring unusual nutrient and carrying diseases. Further, the common belief is that most Afro-Caribbean ‘s are nescient, illiterate and lacked proper instruction. Mwakikagile ( 2007 ) states that the perceptual experience of West Africans being dishonest and their monolithic engagement in deceitful offenses does in it self lead to greater favoritism when it comes to employment, proviso of services and publicities at occupation.
Internal Structural Barriers:
National Statistics ( 2006 ) point out that in 2004, Caribbean group were less likely to hold a grade as their highest making than white British people. Merely 11 % black Caribbean ‘s had a grade compared to 17 % white British people so. This comparing shows that it was less likely of both groups being eligible for a good occupation and on acquiring one progressing due to hapless makings would be hard. Ginn ( 2003 ) argues that the few Afro-Caribbean work forces and adult females employed earn low norm rewards compared to other minority groups in the UK. Baxter and Wright ( 2000 ) argue that the image suggests that although it may now be the instance that African and Caribbean adult females are able to acquire through the front door of managerial hierarchies, at some point they hit an unseeable barrier that blocks any farther upward motion. Potter, Conway and Phillips ( 2005 ) supply support saying that there exists a race thing/barriers in the UK towards Afro-Caribbean people, being overlooked for publicity at work.
However, Blanpain, Bisom-Rapp, Corbett, Josephs and Zimmer ( 2007 ) argue that UK has stringent Torahs and ordinances formulated that prohibit such favoritism at workplace. Some of the Torahs stated are Equal Pay Act 2003, Employment Equality Regulations 2003 and Race Relations Act 1976. Yet, facts and figures as stated above suggest that these ordinances and Torahs are weak in preparation, lack vigorous and consistent monitoring and enforcement. Therefore, grounds suggests that there exists a glass ceiling and favoritism towards Afro-Caribbean minorities at the workplace in the UK.
As a consequence of the being of a glass ceiling the Afro-Caribbean minority has reacted in varied ways. Potter, Conway and Phillips ( 2005 ) suggest that because of unemployment, low rewards and non being promoted at their work topographic point some Afro-Caribbean ‘s return back to their place state. Further David and Woodward ( 1998 ) suggest that many adult females on the other manus who break the glass ceiling frequently find that they are walked out of more senior direction place. As a consequence Simpson ( 2006 ) points out that 1000s of Afro-Caribbean adult females have turned to self-employment as a manner to gain their ends, gain fiscal and employment independency or to interrupt or get the better of the glass ceiling. Further Simpson states that a new survey from the 1990 Trust showed that black people had the most success running their ain concerns in a society where many adult females from black and cultural minority ( BME ) were non being promoted or were overqualified for the functions assigned to them. Simpson indicates that the part of the black concern sector is about Â£4.5 billion and provides over 70,000 occupations in London ‘s economic system entirely which is important. However, males of this minority might besides turn to offense because of unemployment or favoritism at work topographic point or due to low mean wage. The job here is the deficit of literature that perchance argues such a effect related to Afro-Caribbean males.
Finally, the large trade names and large companies need to take an enterprise on the issue of glass ceiling for specific minorities in the UK and help in altering the state of affairs. Pollitt ( 2006 ) points out that no adult females in the UK of all time headed a big company leave entirely one from any minority. However, Cigna invested $ 2mn yearly in preparing and retaining female leaders. As a consequence female director turnover reduced from 50 % in 1998 to 24 % in 2006. Further, due to this 44 % females get promoted to senior direction places as compared to 12 % in 1999. Law and ordinance enforcement requires attending but more so it is the society that needs to alter its attitude towards Afro-Caribbean minorities if any important alteration is expected.
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Baxter J and Wright E ( 2000 ) ‘The glass ceiling hypothesis a comparative survey of the United States, Sweden and Australia ‘ , GENDER & A ; SOCIETY, 14 ( 2 ) : 275-294
Blanpain R, Bisom-Rapp S, Corbett W, Josephs H and Zimmer M ( 2007 ) . The planetary workplace: international and comparative employment jurisprudence: instances and stuffs, New York: Cambridge University Press
Britain ( 2001 ) . Demography, available at hypertext transfer protocol: //www.britain.tv/community_afro_demographics.shtml visited on 6th August 2010
Childs P and Storry M ( erectile dysfunction ) ( 1999 ) . Encyclopedia of modern-day British civilization, New York: Taylor and Francis
Coyne B, Coyne E and Lee M ( 2004 ) . Human resources, care-giving, calling patterned advance and gender, Oxon: Routledge
David M and Woodward D ( erectile dysfunction ) ( 1998 ) . Negociating the glass ceiling: callings of senior adult females in academic universe, London: Falmer Press
Dol ( 2010 ) . Executive drumhead: Fact happening study of the Federal Glass Ceiling Commission available at hypertext transfer protocol: //www.dol.gov/oasam/programs/history/reich/reports/ceiling1.pdf visited on 9th August 2010
Ginn J ( 2003 ) . Gender, pensions and the life class: how pensions need to accommodate to altering household signifiers, Bristol: Policy Imperativeness
Mwakikagile G ( 2007 ) . Relations between Africans, African Americans and Afro-Caribbean ‘s: tensenesss, indifference and harmoniousness 1st edn, Dar es Salaam: New Africa Press
National Statistics ( 2003 ) . Population Size, available at hypertext transfer protocol: //www.statistics.gov.uk/cci/nugget.asp? id=273 visited on 7th August 2010
National Statistics ( 2006 ) . Education, available at hypertext transfer protocol: //www.statistics.gov.uk/cci/nugget.asp? id=461 visited on 6th August 2010
Pollitt D ( 2006 ) . ‘Diversity in the work force ‘ , Human Resource Management International Digest, Vol.14, No.3, pp 19-21
Potter R, Conway D, Phillips J ( 2005 ) . The experience of return migration: Caribbean position, Aldershot: Ashgate
Simpson T ( 2006 ) . ‘Black businesswomen blaze a test to success ‘ , Voice Online available at hypertext transfer protocol: //www.voice-online.co.uk/content.php? show=10100 visited on 6th August 2010
Wahhab I ( 2009 ) . ‘Why will no 1 help the unemployed minorities? ‘ , Guardian, 6th September, available at hypertext transfer protocol: //www.guardian.co.uk/commentisfree/2009/sep/06/race-gender-ethnic-minorities visited on 7th August 2009.
Wirth L ( 1945 ) . ‘The job of minority groups ‘ in Linton R The Science of adult male in the universe crisis, New York: Colombia University Press
Being OF GLASS CEILING FOR GAY AND LESBIAN MINORITIES IN THE UK
Similar to the Afro Caribbean minority in the UK another type of minority in the UK are the homosexual and sapphic. Gates and Ost ( 2004 ) illustrate that homosexuals and tribades include even those who admit to a sexual attractive force to others of the same sex, irrespective of their sexual behaviour. They engage in sexual activity with others of the same sex. Campbell ( 2005 ) and Govan ( 2005 ) province that 6 % of the population or about 3.6 million Britishers are either homosexual or tribades which is a important per centum compared to the Afro-Caribbean minorities. Yet, Grew ( 2008 ) suggests that homosexuals and tribades have been already identified as ‘minority ‘ group in the UK.
Campbell ( 2005 ) and Govan ( 2005 ) province that of the 30 million work force in the UK, 1.5 million to 2 million are cheery and lesbians harmonizing to section of trade and industry. Their combined one-year income was an estimated GBP 60 billion. Further, a survey revealed that the mean male income in the UK was GBP 24,236 as compared to GBP 34,168 of a homosexual. Similarly, the income of an mean female was GBP 18,531 as compared to a tribade who earned GBP 24,783. Therefore, this survey suggests that even though homosexual and tribades are a minority, they earn much higher rewards at workplace as compared to average public. Another of import point noted by Campbell and Govan is the figure of homosexuals and tribades working in the UK at assorted appellations. A survey revealed that there were approximately 40 % homosexual and 25 % tribade ‘s professionals working in the UK. Further, 11 % tribades and 13 % homosexual were keeping managerial places and besides 5 % tribades and 6 % homosexual were senior directors. Therefore, these figures suggest that even if there is a glass ceiling for minorities in the UK, it might non hold had much of an impact on the homosexual and sapphic minority.
However, Cownie ( 2004 ) indicates that a survey found grounds of a glass ceiling runing against the publicity of cheery work forces and tribades. Further, lesbians faced highest sensed degrees of favoritism and torment. Kirton and Greene ( 2010 ) argue that gender and race can be regarded as the major forming rules of the labour market with disablement, age and sexual orientation being factors that influence employment forms and results. Therefore, these five dimensions of diverseness are chief beginnings of employment favoritism against homosexuals and tribades. Badgett and Franks ( 2007 ) note that heterosexual male foremans have a negative attitude towards gays more than tribades. Further, employers might utilize the sexual orientation of a adult male as a placeholder for the chance that he has or will contract HIV. Conversely, since tribades are less likely to unwrap their sexual orientation in the workplace, opportunity of direct favoritism is reduced. Apart from these stated grounds, Avert ( 2010 ) states that people might hold a negative attitude towards homosexual and sapphic people because of strong spiritual beliefs that disapprove of sex or homosexualism and deficiency of cognition about gay sexual behavior. The job here is that really small literature sing this subject has been published and therefore comparing any tendency related to homosexuals and tribades that might be to a theory or theoretical account is hard.
The UK authorities has formulated some Torahs, regulations and ordinances to avoid favoritism against homosexuals and tribades. Some of the Torahs listed by Cic ( 2010 ) are Employment Equality ( sexual orientation ) Regulations 2003 which intended to take favoritism on the evidences of sexual orientation and Equality Act ( Sexual orientation ) Regulation which extends statute law to forestall favoritism because of sexual orientation in the bringing of goods, installations, services, and instruction. However, there is once more really small literature sing how effectual are the Torahs against favoritism of homosexual and sapphic minorities. Therefore, the rating of their impact might be a mere guess non the existent image.
Though literature suggests the being of a glass ceiling for homosexual and sapphic minority in the UK, there are few of this minority who dared to interrupt the so called ‘pink glass ceiling ‘ . Some illustrations of such people are Sir Terence Etherton who Verkaik ( 2008 ) provinces was the first openly gay justice to be sworn in as Lord Justice of Appeal or Sir Michael Bishop, president of BMI air hoses helped BMI air hoses become a major force in the short draw air hose sector and Dawn Airey ( female ) Managing Director Sky webs who because of her work is one of the top earners on Television ( The Independent, 2006 ) . Therefore, holding a will to accomplish a end and taking the enterprise to present consequences are of import to interrupt the ‘pink glass ceiling ‘ . Besides if these people have set the illustration, it might non be really hard for others to follow them. However, an statement here is whether organisations are taking up the enterprise to alter the bing environment for homosexuals and tribades at the work topographic point.
Literature does propose that some organisations have so taken up enterprises towards such issues. For illustration, Metropolitan Police UK ‘Operation Athena ‘ is an inaugural to advance anti-racism, racial equality and anti-homophobia in athleticss ( Parliamentary Assembly, 2004 ) . Yet, once more there is a deficiency of literature specific to enterprises taken up by UK organisations to assist homosexual and tribades at work topographic point.
Finally, it can be concluded that there is some grounds of a glass ceiling for homosexual and sapphic minorities in the UK. However, grounds besides suggests that those homosexuals and tribades employed earn more than mean British male or female. Thus they are supposed to be financially unafraid, the argument is whether the homosexual and sapphic minority is satisfied with what they have achieved so far or they expect a better societal and work topographic point environment to execute better.
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