Autonomy And Independence In Social Care Social Policy Essay

This study will critically research how far societal attention statute law and policies have contributed to the liberty and independency of people with larning disablement jobs.

The study is divided in four chief inquiries that will take to an advanced apprehension of the subject. It begins by specifying the word larning disablement in societal attention, followed by an account of what the attention needs of people with disablement jobs are. A treatment on why it is necessary to advance the liberty and independency of handicapped people will be followed by a description of related statute laws such as disablement favoritism act. In analyzing the statute law, it will be shown how far it has contributed to the liberty and independency of people with disablement.


A definition of larning disablement is included in the “Valuing People” and provinces that larning disablement includes the presence of: “A significantly reduced ability to understand new or complex information, to larn new accomplishments ( impaired intelligence ) , with a decreased ability to get by independently ( impaired societal operation ) ; which started before maturity, with a permanent consequence on development” ( DoH 2001 ) .

The impact of disablement motion on concerns and service proviso are major, as accommodating to the handicapped demands by physical alterations, such as inclines, lowered light switches and lowered response desks and payphones. The impact of the Social Policy of Britain has been impacted really profoundly, and has been able to do important betterment non merely to the persons who have disablement but to the general populace. ( Borsay, 2005 )

The country of wellness entree is going a major concern. This is due to a figure of other factors, which include. The increased length of service for people with larning disablements with the manifestation of different wellness concerns linked to age. The endurance of kids with multiple disablements into grownups with complex demands. The acknowledgment of certain conditions linked to specific disablements such as Alzheimer ‘s and Down ‘s syndrome. The advancement of deinstitutionalisation is about complete and the staying big institutions/hospitals are shuting and the developments of services in the community are faced with challenges. ( Swain et al, 2003 )

Some of these factors were antecedently identified within the papers “Signpost for Success” DoH ( 1998 ) and are once more mentioned partially in “Valuing People” DoH ( 2001 ) . Besides within the White Paper “Valuing People” is the acknowledgment that people with larning disablements holding higher wellness demands than the general population ( DoH 2001 p6 ) . These wellness demands are as a consequence of increased incidence of epilepsy ; intellectual paralysis prevalence for both of these conditions is thought to be three times higher than the general population ( Drake,2002 ) , ocular jobs, hearing troubles and increased alveolar consonant demands.

It is recognised that persons with acquisition disablements are sometimes deprived of the best criterion of wellness attention service expected by people who do non hold larning disablements ( Drake, 2002 ) . In fact despite their higher wellness demands people with larning disablements entree primary wellness attention less than the general population ( Shakespeare, 2003 ) . It is indispensable that this inequality of attention be addressed and unless this is done with the support of the specializer services, and community larning disablement nurses in peculiar, the health-related demands of people with larning disablements will go on to be overlooked ( Oliver et al,1996 ) .


Autonomy refers to the recognition that a patient is an person who is besides allowed to be given basic rights like the right to information, the right to have attention and intervention and the right to confidentiality ( Dalley, 1991 ) . When a patient understands clearly the effects of following or declining his intervention which is called the rule of informed consent, should be the chief thought in the attentions mind when suggesting any signifier of intervention ( Dalley, 1991 ) .

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The cardinal quandary is that of equilibrating the person ‘s liberty and civil autonomy with the demand to protect both the person and the populace from perceived hazard. In add-on, how far should larn disablement go in keeping a map of societal control? Swain ( 2003 ) believes that when a nurse does non admit their function as an agent of societal control, that fuel the populace ‘s misconceptions that environment larning disablement.

The word ‘care ‘ is every bit misdirecting its application of caring for ; ( protect ion/supervision ) and caring for ; ( worry or show concern ) . From the position of people with disablements, protected or supervised can sound patronising and disempowering. The demand for supervisory attention undermines the populaces ‘ ability to see people with damage as independent people. To most people the term ‘care ‘ high spots a dependence as do most of the charities set up to back up the demands of people with disablements. ( Borsay,2005 )

Medical services entirely are unable to authorise a individual with a disablement to populate independently in the community. The proviso of the right equipment and comfortss would authorise the individual to exert more control over their life. This can merely be achieved by the individual with the damage make up one’s minding on the degree of attention that is provided and the equipment required for them to accomplish ego fulfillment. The Care Standards Act 2000 gives independency but non autonomy and once more restricted by fiscal restraints. We frequently see fund raising strategies to raise money to buy wheelchairs for kids with multiple induration and spasticity as the specializer equipment gives them the freedom of mobility with out high dependence. This equipment is non available through the public assistance system ; nevertheless we do pay £3,800+ per hebdomad for people to go to drug rehabilitation units to assist them recover control of their lives. Swain and Cameron define liberty as the ability to do knowing penchants sing attention program and execution, ( Swain et al, 2003 ) .


Peoples with disablements face favoritism from a defect or loophole in the very statute law that is set up to protect them from favoritism ; by allowing the rights of owners and concerns to do merely ‘reasonable accommodations ‘ to undertake disenabling barriers. Due to the land of fundss, preservation and practicality, handicapped people are non treated reasonably due to impairment ( Disability Discrimination Act, 1995 ) . These barriers can be reflecting in the statistics published by the Disability Rights Commission in 2005, proposing merely half of handicapped grownups at working age are in employment, compared with four out of five non-disabled people in employment. The DDA 1995 was introduced to forestall people with disablements from being discriminated on their rights to employment, lodging and entree to installations or services. The stipulates accommodations required by employers but merely for employers who employ 15 people or more and sensible accommodations made by lodging associations to supply entree to lodging. The word reasonable can be understood or explained in assorted ways which lives an unfastened door to some private landlords whom can know apart on the evidences that they can afford to do the accommodations required. Structures of the edifices do non necessitate to be changed and an alternate entree can be made. This is already handling handicapped people otherwise on evidences of damage and seting a monetary value ticket on their equality and disempowering people with damages. ( Barnes, 2002 )

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Merely in 1995 it became illegal in Britain to know apart against handicapped people ‘in connexion with employment, the commissariats of goods, installations and services and instruction ‘ . The ‘weak and toothless ‘ jurisprudence of 1995, was amended after the Particular Educational Needs and Disability Act was implemented in 2001, which made it improper for instruction suppliers to know apart against handicapped students, pupils and grownup scholars. The disablement Rights committee in add-on to other disablement bureaus are pressing the authorities to adhere to new programs to turn to the low expected institutes and systems to be able to supply premium, service for all particular demands people. ( Oliver, 1996 )

Before the Disability Discrimination Act, handicapped people could lawfully be refused employment by employers. The handicapped people will unreasonably match to occupations of lower position and lower wage occupations, as a consequence of hapless foundation schooling and the deficiency of chances that was made available for the handicapped, as mentioned earlier. The stigmatism occurred when the disabled were deemed as ‘unemployable ‘ and those who were in employment were openly discriminated against, due to the bulk sentiment. Employers had a stereotyped mentality to the ability and degree of productiveness of handicapped people.

The authorization of the handicapped people is an country of reference. The rise of the disablement motion has been based on authorization of themselves, as it has been chiefly led by the handicapped themselves. This encourages the handicapped users of service to denote integrity, and to supply the people of the society a position of ‘ability ‘ as opposed to ‘disability ‘ .

The Community Care Act 1996 is a clear illustration of efforts of increasing the employment for handicapped people. This has had many benefits as the authorities allows local governments to let go of financess straight to service users, who purchase their ain services and allocate the services to which they assess as being eligible. It empowers the users to measure their ain demands and decide which services cater for their specific demands.

The amendments to the jurisprudence suggest that the society every bit good as the authorities were neglecting in supplying handicapped people with what they required as worlds. British society by doing necessary versions to Torahs and services automatically give in to the statement that disabled people were non treated every bit, were non provided for every bit and were non perceived as equal to those without disablement.

The significance of the credence of the handicapped people may be more satisfying to them as opposed to the statute laws that were amended to supply for demands, although I do non minimize the benefit that came out of the amendments. The manner in which they were addressed has besides been impacted as they were called “crippled” which may hold been violative, to the more recognized “people with disability” . With respects to the societal theoretical account the authorities has failed to carry through their full intent of supplying for all, hence has impacted them by coercing them into doing alterations. ( Cameron, 2003 )

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The impact of disablement motion on concerns and service proviso are besides major, as accommodating to the handicapped demands by physical alterations, such as inclines, lowered light switches and lowered response desks and payphones. The impact of the Social Policy of Britain has been impacted really profoundly, and has been able to do important betterment non merely to the persons who have disablement but to the general populace.

However, Borsay ( 2005 ) argues that there are many countries in the act ( DDA ) that have loop holes such as instruction and conveyance, and this makes it far from comprehensive. The Act negotiations about the conveyance demands but yet it merely talks about how the new conveyance have to run into minimal entree criterions for handicapped people, but it merely applies to set down base conveyance. Even countries such as employment are limited, for illustration, the act does non use to the armed services and before 2004, and it merely covered employers who employ 15 or more people. The act is really weak for illustration the definition of disablement stated in the act is defined narrowly In footings of damage and is guided by the badness of the damage instead than by the experience of favoritism. Some damages and medical conditions have non been covered such as HIV and Aids, despite the fact that they are another beginning of favoritism. ( Drake, 2002 )

Although there are many schemes to take or cut down bias in society, for handicapped people favoritism remains a important job at all degrees, as favoritism will ever happen because of the people ‘s attitudes and positions against a individual with a disablement in our society. Therefore no affair how many Acts of the Apostless statute laws are in force, favoritism is an on-going job in society, as we can non pass for peoples attitudes in society. The society should work on educating people about a individual with a disablement and do them more cognizant that a handicapped individual is no inferior to any other individual hence no favoritism should be made due to a individual ‘s disablement. Therefore the societal theoretical account of disablement should be in practise, although it is easier said than done to educate all nescient attitudes in society environing disablement. It may be argued that merely a handicapped individual is able to grok what it is like to be discriminated on the evidences of employment, instruction and conveyance.



Borsay, A. ( 2005 ) Disability and Social Policy in Britain since 1750. Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan.

Dalley, G. ( 1991 ) Disability & A ; Social Policy. London: Policy Studies Institute.

Oliver, M. ( 1996 ) Understanding disablement – from theory to pattern. Hampshire: Macmillan Press Ltd.

Pierson, J. , Thomas, M. ( 2002 ) Dictionary of Social Work. Glasgow: Harper Collins

Shakespeare, T. ( 2003 ) The Disability Reader – Social Science Perspectives. London: Contiuum.

Boyfriend, J. , Finkelstein, V, Oliver, M. ( 1993 ) Disabling Barriers – Enabling Environments. London: Sage Publications.

Boyfriend, J. , French, S. , Cameron, C. ( 2003 ) Controversial Issues in a Disabling Society. Buckingham: Open University Press.


Barnes, C. ( 2002 ) Disability, Politics and Policy in Policy and Politics. Vol 30 No 3.

Drake, R.F. ( 2002 ) Disabled people, Voluntary Administrations and engagement in Policy Making in Policy and Politics. Vol 30 No 3

Web sites

General Social Care Council. [ Online ] , Available: hypertext transfer protocol: // [ 10th Nov 2006 ]

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