Employee reding can be elucidated as supplying aid and support to the employees to face and canvas through the difficult times in life. Gerard Egan ( 1993 ) suggests that reding is an activity that has value ‘only to the grade that it leads to valued results in the client ‘s twenty-four hours to twenty-four hours life. He adds that if a assistant and client engage in the guidance procedure efficaciously, something valued will be in topographic point that was non in topographic point before the assisting Sessionss. ‘
One more definition is utile for the consideration of reding in the workplace. Bro Hasni & A ; Bro Hamdan ( 2010 ) states that reding is helping persons to follow and accommodate the environment utilizing the cardinal rules ( cosmic law/law of nature/ sunahtullah ) by change overing job to challenges ( non to handle job as obstructions ) to move suitably to their personal growing whenever and wherever this may be managed towards accomplishing optimal development ( balanced life ) of their personal resources: intellectually, emotionally, spiritually and physically, volitionally and gleefully for the interest of Allah swt/god.
Statisticss bombard us daily on how nerve-racking the workplace has become. Not merely have learned diaries published their research surveies, but emphasis has become such a changeless characteristic in the popular imperativeness and calendered magazines. There are assorted grounds why employers are turning to reding as one method, among others, of caring for their work force. Employer ‘s duty for the public assistance of their employees is one ground. Employers are turning to reding as one manner of assisting to pull off the mammoth alterations taking topographic point in organisations. Counseling is one manner of back uping employees as they cope with organisational alteration.
Reding services within the workplace are being viewed non merely as ‘crisis ‘ points or for badly disturbed persons, but besides as a preventative service. Counselors ‘ are in alone place within the organisational scene to offer the sort of preparation and instruction that prevents mental unwellness. From their work with clients, they can derive an overview of the ailments within the organisation and can make preparation bundles to prevent farther hurt to employees. In the long tally, preventative steps are most cost- effectual.
Guidance can travel a long manner in assisting the employees to hold better control over their lives, take their determinations sagely and better charge of their duties ; cut down the degree of emphasis and anxiousness. Counseling has specific advantages.
It provides effectual aid with personal jobs. When a subsidiary has a personal job he is looking for person who can assist him research what is disturbing him and finally assist him do up his ain head what he should make. Unresolved jobs non merely do sadness but besides cut down efficiency, and guidance is an effectual manner to cover with this.
It consequences in determinations that ‘stick ‘ . A individual at work will merely be committed to doing a alteration in his attitude or behaviour if he has personally thought the job through and reached his ain determination. Good guidance enables this procedure of internalisation to take topographic point, ensuing in the subsidiary being determined to transport out the alterations he himself has decided upon.
It consequences in growing and development. Counseling helps and encourages people to believe for themselves. Through being involved in the problem-solving procedure, the client learns more about him, develops his ain resources and abilities, and becomes better equipped to pull off future jobs.
It is in melody with current societal attitudes. In an age when authorization is questioned and where the instruction system encourages a ‘make-up-your-own-mind ‘ attitude, there is still a existent demand for leading. Counseling is one manner in which a director can exert his authorization efficaciously but in a non-authoritarian mode.
Reding facilitates the employee to portion and expression at his jobs from a new position, aid himself and to face and trade with the jobs in a better manner. Reding at workplace is a manner of the organisation to care about its employees.
.0 Principles of Counseling
In the field of guidance, rules should be adopted in order to accomplish the intent of reding. The basic rules of reding include confidentiality and regard, genuineness, nonjudgmental, unconditioned credence and empathy.
2.1 Respect and Confidentiality
A counsellor should handle a client with respect no affair how eldritch, unusual, disturbed, or absolutely different the client is. Without this basic component successful guidance is impossible. In this affair, counsellor ‘s personal feelings towards the client should be out aside. Harmonizing Hamdan ( 2009 ) , the counsellor and client must reciprocally esteem each other in order to make a closer relationship and besides to experience apprehended. He besides added that with the outgrowth of this attitude, the counsellor and client will be able to hold a composure, comfy and effectual guidance session.
In add-on to that, the counsellor should besides esteem the rights of persons to privateness and confidentiality. Confidentiality is the cardinal footing of reding procedure. The counsellor has duty to screen the privateness of those who seek professional service. This will include looking after the personal inside informations of the clients every bit good as the records of the guidance Sessionss. Clients need to experience that the information they portion with the counsellor will remain with the professional and non to be released without their permission. Without this confidence, clients are less likely to show their ideas and feelings freely. In other footings, it means that if the client does non hold the trust on the counsellor that his or her information will be kept confidential, they will non portion certain information which may falsify the intervention procedure.
However, there are figure of restrictions to confidentiality which clients should be cognizant of. Hamdan ( 2009 ) explains that the information given during the reding procedure should be kept confidential and can non be revealed to third party unless it can convey injury to the client themselves or others. Harmonizing to the British Association for Counseling and Psychotherapy ( BACP ) Ethical Framework for Good Practice, there are few exceeding fortunes which could do a interruption in confidentiality. Listed below are the exceeding fortunes.[ 1 ]
1. Ã‚ In exceeding fortunes, where counsellors believe that there is a hazard of serious injury to client or others the counsellor may unwrap information, but the counsellor would foremost discourse the state of affairs with the client if possible, and seek and carry the client to do the revelation themselves or to hold that the counsellor should acquire in touch with person else who could assist the client.
2.Ã‚ In really utmost state of affairss, for illustration where counsellors believe that a client is non able to do rational determinations sing his or her ain or another ‘s safety, or when an person has disappeared in worrying fortunes the counsellors will unwrap information without first discoursing it with the client.
3.Ã‚ All counsellors are lawfully bound by the Prevention of Terrorism Act, compeling breach of confidentiality where there is ground to say Acts of the Apostless of terrorist act are likely.
4.Ã‚ Counselors may besides be forced to unwrap sensitive personal informations where refusal would do them apt to civil or condemnable tribunal proceedings. These state of affairss are highly rare, and wherever possible the counsellor will discourse such fortunes with the client and derive the client ‘s consent prior to revelation.
The guidance relationship must ever be an honorable 1. The counsellor needs to be existent and true in the relationship. Harmonizing Jon Weil ( 2000 ) , being echt involves the counsellor ‘s openness to her or his ain emotional experiences in the interaction with the counselee, and a modulated but honest look of this in her or his interactions with the counselee. These are qualities or attributes that brings away the facilitative function of the counsellor. Genuineness is communicated by the manner the counsellor responds verbally and non-verbally to the client. The client must experience the counsellor is a existent individual, non merely person in professional function. Below are some of the properties of genuineness that should be employed by counsellors.[ 2 ]
Sincerity – without leaks, will keep up under heat
Availability – ready to give full attending and focal point
Credibility – consistence, dependability between what you say and do and experience
Bing yourself – non playing a function non utilizing slang
Demonstrate Real Concern – non handling them as a instance or job but a individual
Spontaneity and Flexibility – non packaged, stiff, or planned. Using truth specifically to demands
Unshockability – wickedness is in everyone, do n’t categorise it
Honesty – talking the truth in love
Sharing Yourself – involvements, feelings, ideas, failings
Not Being Defensive
Admiting your restrictions – being able to mention
2.3 Being non-judgmental
Nonjudgmental is about being open-minded plenty to understand that other people have different points of position, and that in their worldview, they may be right. For many issues, there is no absolute truth. However, it still leads us unfastened to saying our sentiments, and moving in ways that some might name “ judgmental ” . However, a good counsellor should non be judgmental towards his or her client. Although counsellors have their ain values, these should non be imposed on the client. The counsellor must retain the ability to listen to and accept the positions of clients with other criterions.
2.4 Unconditional Credence
This rule is about keeping and showing an attitude of unconditioned credence and positive respect for the individual while valuing and believing in the individual and their possible. Many of our relationships are conditional. For case, we merely like others every bit long as they like us and we get on with people who treat us in a respectful and sensible kind of manner.
Hamdan ( 2009 ) says that counsellor ‘s positive feelings for the client must non be conditional. In simple footings, it means that the counsellor should experience heartily disposed towards the other individual whatever the client feels or says to the counsellor. He adds on by stating that merely through this affection, client will be more unfastened and would show his or her true feelings to the counsellor. Counselors should demo concern and appreciate the client ‘s strengths, uniqueness and growing. In add-on to that, counsellors should accept the client as a alone human being and the client should be given due attending in turn toing their job ( Hamdan, 2009 ) . The clients will so experience personally accepted and will be willing to portion their existent jobs.
On the other manus, counsellor should besides non label their clients based on his or her old life style[ 3 ]. It could be something that has happened in their life which was mortifying and abashing. This is because clients will be more close and confidential and will non show the existent state of affairs. Due to this, the guidance procedure will be affected and the counsellors will non be able to happen the right solution to the client ‘s job.
Empathy is the ability to stand in the other individual ‘s places and the ability to place the client ‘s feelings and the strength. It is a continual active attempt to understand and see another individual ‘s universe from their position while pass oning that understanding with an attitude of lovingness and love. The client requires the counsellor to listen and understand the feelings of client. However, it is hard to sympathize wholly. The counsellor should drop his ain impressions and truly listen to the other individual in order to seek to come in their frame of mention. Empathy involves a certain ‘forgetting of ego ‘ in order to give ourselves up to the other individual ; if non as human being one would invariably compare the other individual ‘s state of affairs with his ain.
Harmonizing to Hitlner ( 1951 ) , the counsellor needs some echt heat of personality, the ability to convert his parishioner ( client in this instance ) that he is truly interested in him and to hold this true in fact, the capacity to put aside temporarily his ain jobs and, to concentrate understandingly on so individual and jobs of the parishioner, and the ability to retain his sensitiveness to the niceties of communicating. In simple footings, all these attitudes are comprised in the word “ empathy ” .
There are two types of empathy which includes primary empathy and advanced empathy. Primary empathy is the ability to react in such a manner that it is evident to both client and counsellor that the counsellor has understood the client ‘s major subjects. Whereas, advanced empathy is a procedure of assisting a client explore subjects, issues and emotions new to his or her consciousness.[ 4 ]When the counsellor senses deeper feelings and reflects those back by rephrasing, repeating, or sum uping the fortunes of the state of affairs based on the client ‘s statements, the counsellor can assist the client reframe how he or she is sing the state of affairs.
For an illustration, a disquieted married woman ( client ) who is kicking about her hubby who has been sitting around making nil since he lost his occupation. The counsellor should response sympathetically “ I guess I hear you ‘re defeated and disquieted at your hubby for non taking charge of his life ” . This is demoing that the counsellor has understood the client ‘s feelings and the significance of what the client has said. Thus, the client will experience more comfy in showing herself as she knows that the counsellor understands precisely her job and this would construct a closer guidance relationship.
By being empathy towards the client, the counsellors really communicates credence and caring puting the foundation for alteration, communicates understanding of the state of affairs and the individual and besides promotes Self-awareness that leads people to speak through their ain issues. Therefore, it can be seen that empathy is an indispensable quality in reding as it helps to set up the guidance relationship, gather informations and clear up jobs ( Gladding 2004 ) .
3.0 Counseling Procedure
Guidance is a turning procedure and it changes from one degree to another degree. In guidance, there must be a beginning, progress to another degree and must hold an terminal. Harmonizing to some bookmans and theoretician, there are no fixed phases in the guidance procedure. For case, Gerald Egan ( 1975 ) province that there are three phases to explicate the guidance procedure, whereby Mizan Adiliah et Al. ( 1995 ) explains the guidance procedure in seven phases. However, they have similar sentiment among them from the facet that reding moves towards a way in a proper order at each degree. They besides agreed that ‘building relationship phase ‘ is present throughout the guidance procedure at all degrees.
Sometimes when counsellors are at a degree and managing a subject for the treatment, some elements from the other degrees besides present at the same degree. As said above, constructing relationship happens at all degrees. Therefore, it is clearly seen that each degree of reding procedure does n’t go on independently but it is uninterrupted and sometimes elements from other degree besides overlaps. The continuance to finish each degree depends on the counsellor himself.
As each degree in the guidance should be developed from the beginning to the terminal, the subject of treatment at every degree must be completed satisfactorily earlier traveling to the following degree of reding procedure. If the treatment in the early phase of guidance is non satisfactory or uncomplete, it will perplex the guidance procedure and the other degrees wo n’t travel on swimmingly. In agencies that if the treatment at each phase is more streamlined and complete, the more successful the result of reding procedure will be. Another thing that should be borne in head by the counsellor when discoursing the subjects at specific phases is that the counsellor can alter or direct the focal point of treatment to any other phases to assist excite the on-going treatment. In add-on to that, the counsellors could besides reexamine the ideas and feelings of the client, whether the client is consistent or non.
3.1 Prepare for Pre-session
In order to carry on an effectual guidance session, physical scene is besides indispensable. A guidance room should non be noisy or deflecting. Erdman and Lampe ( 1996 ) believe that certain characteristics of a guidance office will better its general visual aspect and likely facilitate guidance by non deflecting the client. These characteristics include soft lighting, quiet colors, and an absence of jumble, harmonious, comfy furniture and diverse cultural artefacts.
Harmonizing to Hamdan ( 2009 ) , the counsellor should take enterprise to cognize some information about the client when the client comes to do assignment for a guidance session. He adds on by stating this is in order to construct the initial relationship with the client. Therefore, it is of import that the background information of the client to be gathered. Through this conversation, the counsellor can measure if they are capable of managing and pull offing the client ‘s jobs and the client could besides make up one’s mind if they are comfy with and swear the counsellor before they can come in the relationship wholeheartedly. The counsellor should utilize stopping point ended inquiry during the initial this phase as it is an effectual manner to garner information in such a short period. Furthermore, the counsellor must convey the client to a comfort by demoing that the counsellor is echt ready to supply aid to the client and besides expose a non-threatening characteristic. During the pre-session, the counsellors must clear up certain issues with the client ( Burnard, 1996 ) . Below are the of import issues that should be discussed.
The frequence with which they will run into
The times they will run into
When it is anticipated that the relationship will stop
Whether or non the two can speak confidentially
3.2 Building Relationship
Before get downing the guidance session, a counsellor must construct a strong guidance relationship with the client. In this degree, the counsellor must make a contributing and curative environment ; find the initial end of guidance and structuring the guidance relationship. The counsellor should put a foundation for trust. At the beginning of the guidance procedure, clients are non confident with themselves, the counsellors and the impact of reding procedure. Apart from that, there are clients who ca n’t place the exact job they are confronting. Due to these factors, the client is unable to pass on with the counsellor openly. Therefore, it is the duty of the counsellor to make an environment that builds trust, regard ; honest and besides an environment that makes the client feels secured.
Clients must acquire the comfortableness to pass on with the counsellor, feels accepted and that the client is understood in the right manner. So, the counsellors should pass on with the client with involvement, understanding and esteem the client ‘s attitude, feelings and jobs. He should give full attending to the client and see the client as a respected and valued human being. Harmonizing to Hamdan ( 2009 ) , in this phase, counsellor should besides listen actively, see how the client feels and thinks about the job and give response to the client. This involves demoing facial looks that displays the involvement of the counsellor to portion the job with the client, understand their feelings and to associate to the client ‘s job. Counselor should besides be cognizant of his or her organic structure position and motion accomplishment. For case, the counsellor needs to demo a unagitated face position, sit in the right place when reding client, demoing finding in reacting to the clients and modulation that is soft and non endangering.
A client comes to run into a counsellor in order to work out struggles, jobs or to seek for aid to go a more effectual individual. Some clients are clear about the jobs that there are confronting and some will be in a fuzz state of affairs non cognizing the job faced by themselves or the intent of run intoing a counsellor. A client will show his or her job to the counsellor, nevertheless it is non necessary that this is the major job faced by the client and the inclination to work out the job may be weak, intermediate or high. Despite all these, the first thing that should be discussed is the ends to be achieved at the terminal of the guidance session. Nevertheless, the exact ends could merely be determined after listening to the jobs and doing the client understand the existent job he is confronting.
A guidance relationship must be structured so that the client can clearly see the way he or she taking to and understanding the guidance procedure. In the beginning, client will experience a spot hard in understanding how the guidance procedure would assist him or her ( Burnard, 1996 ) . He adds on by stating that the counsellor and client should hold on few issues before get downing a guidance procedure. Below are the issues that should be agreed beforehand.
Understanding of reding procedure – Making the client understand the phases involved in reding procedure and how guidance can assist the client in work outing the job. Furthermore, the counsellor should besides explicate the function of a counsellor and guidance. A counsellor must acquire as much information as needed, reexamine it by taking into history the background of the client and values of counsellor.
Clarification of affairs that are involved in the guidance procedure – The counsellor must explicate to the client on the assignment day of the month and timing, the continuance of the session, how frequent the meeting would be and in conclusion the continuance for the whole procedure of reding to stop.
Confidentiality – The counsellor should besides province that the issues discussed in the guidance session will stay confidential.
A counsellor must demo high ethical behaviour during the guidance Sessionss. In the initial phases of guidance, the counsellor should do clear of the confidentiality of the guidance Sessionss and the competences of the counsellor. This would put a foundation for trust.
3.3 Exploring and analysing job
At this phase, the counsellors should help clients by paying attending on researching, understanding, analyzing self perceptual experience and client ‘s perceptual experience about the job. To understand the client and his or her ideas, counsellor must first explore widely the range of the client ‘s job in the existent universe. Besides that, the counsellor should besides understand how the clients think, the manner he changes and besides understand the extent to which it is hard for him to do alterations. The counsellor must understand the interior strength of the client and how can the client acquire external power.
In this degree, the counsellors can help client to alter his or her consciousness of the job to a deeper consciousness that shows the importance of reding in work outing the client ‘s jobs. The major map of a counsellor at this phase is to understand the grounds the client seeking for reding. To ease the procedure of researching, the client must place if the job expressed by the client is the existent job that he or she is confronting. In add-on to that, the counsellor besides must place the context and environment at the clip and topographic point the job occurred. Counselor should besides analyze if the job is critical or non, how long has it been since the job happened, assess the extent of the job have involved other people, particularly the closest individual to the client and the impact of this job on the closest people in the client ‘s life, if it has made any alterations.
This geographic expedition procedure will be more effectual and successful if the counsellors listen actively, gives account to the issues raised, support and promote the clients and besides handle them as a valued individual. The counsellors should inquire unfastened ended inquiries during this procedure in order to derive more information and besides the counsellor must be cognizant that the client is non demoing excessively much of dependence on the counsellor. A counsellor could really examine information from the client by inquiring how the client solved old jobs that were similar to the job that the client is confronting soon. For an illustration, the counsellor can obtain information such as the attacks the client effort when seeking to work out the old job, has the client discussed antecedently sing his job with person that is close to happen solution, altering his or her environment, seeking new attack and etc.
This geographic expedition procedure can do the client ‘s refusal in turn toing the job, or troubles that the client experienced through the procedure of work outing the job. In this geographic expedition phase, counsellor finds ways or impermanent solutions or probationary programs or schemes to assist clients at the following degree.
3.4 Identifying the roots or beginning of the jobs
Many times the lone manner to work out a job is to acquire to the root of it.Ã‚ This involves calculating out when it started, how it started and why it still continues to be a problem.Ã‚ The counsellor can help the client in work outing the roots of their jobs which will so extinguish the symptoms attached to them.Ã‚ A good counsellor can assist alter your personal jobs from the roots on up.[ 5 ]This requires clip and forbearance on the portion of the individual seeking aid.
Harmonizing to Hamdan ( 2009 ) , it is hard to happen the chief evidences of complex jobs. He besides said that this may be due to three chief factors which includes fate, the cause of the job could be a different single but involves the client every bit good and in conclusion would be the client ‘s ain failings.
3.5 Discoursing options
Once the feelings have been expressed, the following phase involves helping the client to place ways to cover with or get by with the jobs. Not all jobs can be sorted out and has a solution. However, the counsellor has assisted the client to place a state of affairs that was ill-defined. The following thing is to pull out a program to do the state of affairs more lively and clear. The counsellor helps to recognize the ability and resources and so discourse the options if the job could be solved.
Harmonizing to Burnard ( 1996 ) , most guidance theoreticians agree that it is the client who should place solutions to jobs and this procedure can be encouraged by a ‘brainstorming ‘ session. He says that in brainstorming, the client is encouraged to believe variously about possible ways of deciding his or her present state of affairs and nil demand to be excluded at this phase. The counsellor must actuate and promote the client to be originative and self-generated every bit good as thoughtful, logical and reasonable. The thought is to bring forth as many solutions as possible. Out of this normally comes an apparent solution. There are few issues that should be given importance in this procedure. As suggested by Hamdan ( 2009 ) , this procedure involves:
Client is given the chance to do picks
Set aside inauspicious and inappropriate options
The options must be discussed and decided by both client and counsellor
Study the advantages and disadvantages of each option
Out of the procedure of making an thought about how things might be resolved comes the demand to place a practical program of action. A program of action identifies a method and tract for accomplishing a coveted consequence. It specifies what the subsidiary must make to make agreed-upon ends set during the guidance session. The program of action must be specific, demoing the subsidiary how to modify or keep his or her behaviour. It is helpful if this program is committed to paper. However, some people prefer a more relaxed attack to such planning. The point is that the program should be both sensible and accomplishable.
3.6 Taking action or implementing the program
The counsellor should inquire if the client understands and agrees with the proposed program of action. This phase of guidance is carried out by the client about independently of the counsellor ( Burnard, 1996 ) . In this phase, the action which was planned earlier will be implemented. The chief undertaking at this phase is to assist clients work out jobs and steer the client in order to work efficaciously. Clients need emotional support, encouragement and support of what they have freshly learned. Harmonizing to Burnard ( 1996 ) , alteration is really hard for most people ; it frequently brings with it a grade of anxiousness and it is the counsellor ‘s map to assist the client to cover with that anxiousness.
In this phase, appropriate guidance attack must be used. The attack to be used must be based on a specific scheme that focuses on increasing the degree of client ‘s mental, public assistance, the emotions, or even increase the degree of client ‘s possible to move with more appropriate behaviour. If the counsellor feels that his client needs aid to acquire factual information, or clients need aid to do a determination, or the client shows the thought procedure that is non sensible, so the accent in reding should be given to the cognitive accent ( Carroll, 1996 ) .
The continuance of the execution of the actions should besides be determined at this phase. In add-on to that, a leader ever benefits from documenting the chief points of a guidance session, even the informal 1s. Documentation serves as a ready mention for the agreed-upon program of action and helps the leader path the subsidiary ‘s achievements, betterments, personal penchants, or jobs. A good record of reding enables the leader to do proper recommendations for professional development, publicities, and rating studies.
Furthermore, with the client ‘s presence, set up any follow-up steps necessary to back up the successful execution of the program of action. Follow-up steps may include supplying the subsidiary with specific resources and clip, periodic appraisals of the program, and extra referrals. If possible, schedule future meetings before disregarding the subsidiary.
After implementing the first option, the client will discourse with the counsellor if the end has been achieved and the job has been solved. If the job has still non been solved, the counsellor must propose to the client to seek to implement the other options which was discussed in the old phase. However, should the job been solved after implementing the options, the counsellor can so go on to the following phase which is the expiration of reding session.
3.7 Termination of the session
Once the jobs have been solved, therefore, the guidance session can be terminated. Many fail to understand the importance of ending the guidance relationship and ignore this phase in a guidance procedure. It is stated by Gladdings ( 2004 ) that expiration should be planned because if the relationship is ended excessively shortly, clients may lose the land they gained in guidance and reasoning backward to earlier behaviours. He besides added on that if expiration is ne’er addressed, clients can go dependent on counsellor and neglect to decide troubles and turn as individuals. The three chief facets that should be completed at this phase are stated below.
The development of the client throughout the guidance Sessionss must be formulated and the effects must be evaluated.
Other issues that must be resolved at this clip must be presented.
Wayss to keep the growing of the client must be analysed after the expiration of the guidance Sessionss.
Both the clients and counsellors must be prepared for these terminations. One manner to ease this readying is through the usage if construction, such as clip frames, and both verbal and gestural signals ( Gladdings, 2004 ) . The clients must larn how to work out the job by themselves so that they do n’t depend on their counsellors when they face hard life state of affairss in future. However, non all issues can be solved by clients but if the ends which were agreed-upon at the beginning of the guidance session have been achieved, so the guidance session can be terminated. However, the client can be given permission to reach the counsellor once more if needed. Once the expiration is completed, it is helpful to carry on some type of followup within a twelvemonth ( Gladdings, 2004 ) . The counsellors can reach their clients to measure the client ‘s public presentation and besides to look into if the job has been solved wholly.